Arnoldson (Arnoldson), Klas( Swedish journalist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1908)
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Biography Arnoldson (Arnoldson), Klas
October 27, 1844, Mr.. - 20 February 1916
Swedish journalist Klas Pontus Arnoldson was born in the port city of Gothenburg in the family musician Olof Arnoldson and Inga Khagba von Seth. His father died when the boy was only sixteen. Claes had to leave school. He entered the railroad and the 21-year rose to the station.
All this time he strenuously to educate ourselves by studying philosophy, history and religion. Inspired by the liberal theology of the XIX century., Particularly the humanistic principles of the unitary, A. rebelled against religious dogmatism. Having established the idea that consciousness of identity and freedom of opinion can improve human life and. 70-ies. XIX century. began to publicize it in newspaper articles.
Belief in the power of the human mind is also visible in the approach of A. to international politics. Shaken by the bloodshed in 1864, when the Prussian and Austrian troops occupied the Danish duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, and the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 ... 1871., A. concluded that the efforts of Bismarck to the reunification of Germany did not justify the destruction that they have. Alarm A. in connection with the growing militarism of the leading European powers, forcing him in 1881. leave work and devote all his time to journalism and the struggle for peace. Despite the lack of a diploma, he quickly achieves success as a writer. Article A. in Swedish newspapers and magazines has always attracted wide interest.
By 1882, Mr.. A famous. as a journalist and a speaker has reached such an extent that he took a seat in the lower house of the Swedish Parliament. All forces A. dedicated to the fight for individual rights and democracy, seeking through legislation to ensure religious tolerance, moderate militarism. Elected to parliament, he tried to persuade his colleagues to adopt a resolution on the neutrality of Sweden (only managed to achieve it in 1914). It was clear that small nations can not compete in military power with countries such as Germany and the UK. A. called the Scandinavian countries to unite on the basis of neutrality, but success is not achieved. A. was among the founders of the Swedish Union of peace and arbitration, established in 1883
Fulfilling parliamentary duties, and. not broken with journalism. In 1883 - 1885 he. he edited the 'Tiden' ( "Tiden"), publication covering issues of peace and progressive ideas. A. was editor of 'Fredsvennen' ( "Fredsvannen") in 1885 ... 1888. and 'Nordsvenskadagbladet' ( "Nordsvenska Dagbiadet") in 1892 ... 1894. He has written several books about the world and religion.
Seeing that much more good journalism, A. withdrew his candidacy for election to Parliament in 1887, Mr.. The ability to express abstract concepts simple, accessible style made him one of the most popular speakers at the dawn of the European peace movement. In 1889 ... 1890. A. traveled to Sweden and Norway, giving lectures on international arbitration as a means of preventing armed conflict. His speech provoked a response in the Norwegian parliament, which in 1890. became the first National Assembly, arguing for arbitration.
From 1815, Mr.. Norway was united with Sweden in a single state, but in 1895. Norway's commitment to self-government was to threaten Union. First, Sweden rejected the claim of Norway. A., who has studied the issue during his visit, found it suitable for testing the possibility of arbitration. Although up to the arbitration case had not gone, A. has done much to convince the Swedish politicians do not interfere with the separation of Norway. In 1905, Mr.. Norwegian Parliament voted for independence.
A. Danish pacifist and Fredrik Bajer were awarded the Nobel Prize 1908. Award infuriated those Swedes who thought a. traitor for his involvement in resolving the conflict Norwegian. However, candidate A. was unanimously supported by the Swedish group of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and 34 members of the Swedish Parliament.
In his Nobel lecture 'World Referendum' A. said: 'Today there is hope that the object of international discord did not lead to war if it is presented to the court experts'. A. resolution referred to the Hague Peace Conference of 1907, again called upon the government 'study' the possibility of reducing military spending (for the first time this appeal was made at the Hague Conference of 1899). 'If humanity is aware of the current burden of the war - said A., - you will need something more decisive than the' study ', in order to throw off this burden and, perhaps, forever done with him. If this is impossible, not because of technical difficulties, but because of lack of commitment '.
A. advanced the idea of an international referendum, . when adult citizens of all countries would be asked, . whether they agree to sign the following declaration: 'In the case, . If all nations would destroy its armed forces and push for a global police, . I, . undersigned, . wish, . that my people did the same thing ',
. According to AA, such a referendum would inspire governments to universal disarmament and the peaceful resolution of all disputes. Pacifism, said A., a necessary condition for the transition from barbarism to civilization.
Despite the constraints in vehicles, A. gave them the money received by various pacifist organizations, in which he participated. Even with the First World War, he continued to defend his plan for referendum and the cause of peace.
A. married in 1869. with Ava Berngardinoy Valgren, with which divorced in 1903, married Edith Victoria Blomskeld. He died in Stockholm of a heart attack at age 71.