BAYER (Bajer), Fredrik( Danish writer, pacifist and political activist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1908)
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Biography BAYER (Bajer), Fredrik
April 21, 1837, Mr.. - 22 January 1922
Fredrik Bajer, Danish writer, pacifist and political activist, was born in Vester Egede-family priest Alfred Beyer (in 1865. B. changed his last name). At age 11 he enrolled in a boarding school (the Academy of Sora). B. wrote in his memoirs that he was rather lazy student, and many suffered from the classical languages. At the same time B. fond of military history and personality of Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1854, Mr.. he joined the National Cadet Corps in Copenhagen two years later he was awarded the rank of lieutenant of cavalry.
From 1856 to 1864. B. served in the Danish army, at that time entered and skills in another military school. Concerned social problems, B. wrote several articles on education, at the same time he learned French, Norwegian and Swedish. During the war of 1864., Which grew into a dispute over the Duchy of Schleswig and Holstein, superior Prussian forces crushed the Danish army. Fighting valiantly B. was promoted to the rank, but personally acquainted with the horrors of war forced him to abandon the romantic view of the military profession, and has aroused interest in pacifism.
. The postwar decline of the armed forces of Denmark and touched B., forcing him to postpone the wedding with Mathilde Schluter, with whom he was engaged
. In search of livelihood B. began teaching and writing articles for newspapers. Develop his pacifist views. In 1867, Mr.. under the influence of works of Frц?dц?ric Passy, he tried to establish in Denmark, a society of peace, but this project was greeted with indignation by the Danes, who could not accept the defeat of Prussia. Then B. carried away by the idea that the replacement of monarchy by a republic would contribute to peace in Scandinavia. In 1870, Mr.. he founded the Association of Scandinavian free states, which seeks to unite the northern peoples in the federation, which could serve as a model for other nations. The following year, B. and his wife, convinced that the political empowerment of women contributes to a healthier society, organized by the Danish association of women who were an important tool to achieve political equality.
The logic of the B. soon led him to politics, and in 1872. He won the elections to the lower house of the Danish Parliament, representing the Liberal Party. National Assembly seat he retained until 1895, contributing a lot of progress in the field of women's rights, reduction of military expenditures and the world.
In 1875, Mr.. B. wrote an article concerning the dangers that could threaten the Scandinavians in future European wars. He pointed out that the proximity of the Nordic countries to the straits connecting the North Sea to the Baltic, will inevitably attract the attention of the warring parties. The risks could be avoided through international treaties guaranteeing the neutrality of the Scandinavian. To achieve this goal, B. 1882 Mr.. founded the Association of neutrality of Denmark (later the Danish Peace Society), which was for B. not just a forum for presenting their views, but also greatly facilitated his desire for world peace.
B. was the only Dane in the inaugural session of the Inter-Parliamentary Union in 1889. Founded by William Kramer and Passy, the union was the cause of peace through meetings and discussions of European Parliamentarians. Colleagues at the Danish Parliament at first laughed at the BA, but in 1891. After lengthy negotiations, he managed to form an inter-parliamentary group. In the elections of 1893. B. was elected to the Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, where he represented Norway, Denmark and Sweden.
In 1890, Mr.. the International Peace Congress in London B. proposed the establishment of international offices to exchange information and seek peaceful solutions to conflicts between states. Gathered in the next year at the 3rd congress in Rome, delegates approved the proposal B. and created the International Peace Bureau in Bern (Switzerland), under the leadership of Elie Ducommun. B. became the first chairman of the board, occupying this post until 1907
At the same time, his pacifist activities of acquiring more and more supporters in Denmark. In 1893, Mr.. Danish society around the world gathered more than 240 thousand. signatures for the anti-war manifesto. Advocacy arbitration met with some success in 1904 ... 1905.: Denmark has signed the relevant treaties with Portugal, Italy and the Netherlands.
Dream B. the establishment of the Nordic Inter-Parliamentary Union to strengthen regional cooperation has come true in 1908, Mr.. In the same year he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Take the prize in person B. unable because of illness, but in May the following year he presented the Norwegian Nobel Committee his Nobel lecture. Stressing the importance of international law to resolve disputes, he said: 'Sometimes we hear that the contracts are losing all meaning from the beginning of the war ... This militaristic look, with a pacifist who can not tolerate. We must do everything we can to the idea of law prevail. "
Many publications B. insisted that Denmark has consistently followed a policy of neutrality. This appeal is undeniably played a role in that, since the First World War, Denmark announced its neutrality. Despite the spread of war throughout Europe, B. remain optimistic. 'In the world is now much more work than it has ever been', - he said. Suffering from a painful disease, B. continued to maintain contacts between the pacifists in various countries during the war and later. After the death of AB, followed on Jan. 22, 1922, his case for many years continued his wife.