Vernadsky, Vladimir Ivanovich( Russia naturalist, philosopher and lexicographer, a humanist, a specialist in the field of Earth Sciences)
Comments for Vernadsky, Vladimir Ivanovich
Biography Vernadsky, Vladimir Ivanovich
(February 28, 1863, St. Petersburg, - January 6, 1945). Father - a professor at Kiev and Moscow University, editor of the journal "Economic Index"; mother - daughter of General. Graduated from the Department of the natural physical and mathematical faculty of St. Petersburg University (1886).
In 1886 - 90 - in a foreign trip in Germany, France, Austria, Italy. Among friends Vernadskogo - I.I. Petrunkevich AA. Kornilov, SF. Oldenburg; was acquainted during his studies at the University of AI. Ulyanov, corresponded with LN. Tolstoy. From 1897 Professor. Conducted active research work in the field of mineralogy, geochemistry and related sciences. Engaged Zemstvo activities in 1892 - 1907 and 1910 - 13 in the Tambov province. The summer of 1903 Vernadsky took part in a meeting held in Switzerland, Russian liberals who formed an illegal "Union of Liberation". In 1905, members of the constituent congress of the Constitutional Democratic Party, which elected a member of the Central Committee and later worked in its various committees - agriculture, editorial and other. In 1906 the newly elected Central Committee (he was in it until the end of 1917). In March 1906 elected a member of the State Council on the academic curia (Academy of Sciences and universities), but in July, resigned in protest against the dissolution of the State Duma. In 1908, newly elected to the State Council. In 1909 an extraordinary academician in 1912 ordinary academician. In 1911, resigned from the Moscow University in protest against the reactionary policies of the Minister of Education, LA. Cash and moved to St. Petersburg; expelled from the State Council.
In 1914, together with academicians A.P. Karpinsky, B.B. Golitsyn, NS. Kurnakov N.D. Zelinsky, AE. Fersman, YA.V. Samoilov established a Commission for the Study of Natural Productive Forces. In 1916 he was elected to the Commission on the draft of a new university statute.
Since March 1917 ordinary professor at Moscow University. After the February Revolution of Chairman of the Academic Committee of the Ministry of Agriculture. Opposed the withdrawal of the Cadets from the Provisional Government. July 8, wrote to his son from Kiev: Kyiv Committee of the Constitutional Democrats. protested against the release of Ministers of the Constitutional Democrats. Now the error of this decision is clear to all, it is everywhere condemned ... people of different groups and parties and do not understand ... "(Dumova NG, Kadet party during the First World War and the February Revolution, Moscow, 1988., with. 175). Since August, Comrade (Deputy) Minister of Education, retained the leadership of both committees and headed the department of higher education and public research organizations (up to the dissolution of the Provisional Government of the underground 17 November),
. Nominated by the Constituent Assembly from Petrograd and the Altai (not elected). Raised the question of the creation of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Georgia.
Political positions Verdnadskogo characterize the records from his diary for October - November: October 9 - Sergey Sergeyevich (Salazkin. - Author) raised the question of peace. It is considered that a refusal would encourage the masses to take another war. I tell him that there should be a gap Socialist statesmen with the Bolsheviks ... Do not be afraid to clash with the Bolsheviks, and should go for it ", October 10 -" We have to keep Kerensky faute de mieux "[for want of a better - France.] Oct. 12 -" Always afraid, . that socialism will provide the discipline of the barracks "," Meeting of deputy ministers,
. Discussion of rights of Polish (and other) schools with the Polish language. In general, we all look the same: equal rights with Russian <schools> "; October 15 - a conversation with a Finnish geologist YA.I. Sedergolmom about Finland: "I told him about the difficulties for people in Russia to find a stable position in the independence of Finland due to its proximity to the border of the capital. For me out - or independent Finland without the Vyborg province, or one piece Finland, coupled with Russia "; <Land Committees are composed of" Socialist-Revolutionaries "suspicious elements, is profit, seizing land for themselves and their. Undoubtedly, the earth will go into other hands, but not socialization or nationalization, and in the strong hands of Democratic Kolupaeva>, Oct. 18 - Impotence will have sotsialistovN Other tribes, than the People, "" Now is the time people will. They crave "20 October -" In Bolshevism is an ideological party, but it is so alien to consciously active forces that in the end they just felt like a wild destructive force ". November 3 - "The impossible becomes possible - and the unfolding catastrophe unprecedented in history, or, perhaps, a new global phenomenon. And it feels impotent blade of grass "," hard, because we in fact happening - among the intellectuals - the same. Is <awaits us> hatred of intellectuals and demosaN Or for the stability of the state, we could not <enter> the forms of life, . to what we wanted all vremyaN "" In essence, . mass of the Bolsheviks ";" Today on the case of the People "astonishing cynicism of the decision of the Bolsheviks on the freedom of the press,
. This is something unbelievable>; November 6 - "It's very vague and anxious for the future. However, very clearly feel the force of the Russian nation, despite its anti-government movement. Now clearly manifested anarchism of the Russian masses and Jewish leaders, who play such a role in this movement. Very clear ideological decline of socialism and populism. Very interesting will be to change the Russian intelligentsia. Whatever happened to the state forms, a great nation will live "; November 8 -" It was decided to seek a meeting. Using the old ties with Ulyanov Sergey Oldenburg (and mine), send him [VI. Lenin] is not a deputation from the party for the release of Ministers (Serge, Kutler, Chess, Vasiliev - I took myself as an assistant minister, replaced Manuilov). Status <arrested> Ministers in Petropavlovsk-threatening, dangerous; November 10 - "a tragic situation: got value in addressing the country's life force and sections of the people who are not able to understand their interests. It is clear that unbridled democracy, the desire for which was the purpose of my life, should be amended "(Vernadsky, VI, will have to go through a crisis, Ogonyok, 1990, б╘ 49,. 12 - 14). November 22 Academy of Sciences approved the request of Vernadsky's trip to the southern parts of the country due to health and to continue work on the living substance; drove to Poltava, where lived his wife's relatives
. In June 1918 elected as Chairman of the Commission on the establishment of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, October 27, President Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
. After the closure of the Denikin government of all Ukrainian research institute founded after the October Revolution, including the Academy of Sciences, Vernadsky was forced to leave in the Crimea, became the rector of the University of Tauride in Simferopol. In 1919 Vernadsky wrote: "There is a danger that ... some of the centers of scientific creativity can be killed in a whirlwind of events ... Revived bad habits of the old Russian government to donate the cost of Russian cultural values ... Now the main force that unites the new Russian state ... will be a great world value - Russian culture in all its manifestations "(Dumova NG, Cadet counter-revolution and its defeat (October 1917 - 1920.), Moscow, 1982., with. 76).
In 1921 Vernadsky returned to Petrograd, organizer and director of the Radium Institute of the Academy of Sciences (1921). In 1922 - 26 taught courses at the Sorbonne (France), led the scientific work. He returned to the USSR in 1926, although he offered to stay in France. In 1932, in a letter VM. Molotov Vernadsky wrote about "his ideological alienation from the basics of the capitalist system", . however, emphasized, . it also "is not a proponent of socialist or communist system and considers, . that actually it can be shown something new ",