Yitzhak Rabin (Yitzhak RABIN)( commander, DIPLOMAT, PRIME MINISTER)
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Biography Yitzhak Rabin (Yitzhak RABIN)
(March 1, 1922 - November 4, 1995)
Five years after the tragic death of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's public opinion polls conducted in Israel showed that for many had forgotten him. Well, all natural: too many events going on every day to remember for so long a political assassination, which, as it seemed the Israelis will change the recent history of the Jewish state.
. The last time he took over as prime minister in a watershed for Israel and the Middle East the time - in the early 90-ies
. Then a favorable situation to end the Arab-Israeli conflict and achieving peace between Palestinians and Israelis.
To use it, at the head of government was to get people, especially convinced of the need for peaceful settlement. He was able to take bold and not always popular decisions, have sufficient authority to persuade fellow citizens to justify the possibility of compromise.
. Of course, Rabin was not ideal (and whether takieN) politician and statesman
. For some properties it is probably inferior to other Israeli leaders. But it was the main thing - belief in the need for peace with the Arabs, firmness and perseverance in achieving this goal.
Life of Yitzhak Rabin is inseparable from the history of the State of Israel, because it evolved along with its military and political career.
He was born March 1, 1922 in Jerusalem. He - "sabra" as the natives called the "promised land".
His father - Nehimiya Rabin (Robichev) in 1905 went to Ukraine to America. Settled in Chicago where he worked as a tailor. In 1910 he moved to Palestine. Settled down in an electrical technician for the campaign and became active in the union movement.
Mother - Rose Cohen - was born in Mogilev. Against the wishes of the parents received a secular education. Then came the Jewish Socialist Union "Bund", which did not share the ideas of Zionism. After the 1917 revolution led to the Petrograd factory for the production of munitions. Because of disagreements with the Bolsheviks left Russia and settled on the "land of the ancestors". She became one of labor leaders in Tel Aviv.
"Red Rose" as they called her colleagues, died when Yitzhak was fifteen years old. Those who knew the family of rabbis, argued that the future prime minister inherited from the mother firm character, determination, the makings of a leader, willingness to sacrifice personal for public. Mother, not his father, he devoted much of his book "The Father's House.
Isaac grew up with the Arabs, was fluent in their language. He wanted to study chemistry in America. But fate had decided otherwise ...
In 1940 he graduated with honors from the prestigious at the time agricultural school "Kedourie" and he was granted a scholarship to get an engineer in the U.S. Water. The outbreak of World War II intervened in the fate of Rabin. From studies of the ocean had to be abandoned.
Like many of his peers, he joined a volunteer at La Palma - shock troops of the Jewish militia, created to repel a possible invasion of the Germans in Palestine. This step marked the beginning of his military career. The first commanding officer was an ordinary Rabin, Moshe Dayan, later won fame and was remembered by many of the photographs with the black bandage on lost his left eye.
. Then he became a fighter unit that fought against Vichy France
. Happened to him to participate in operations against the British in Mandatory Palestine, and even spend six months in a British prison. However, this did not prevent him subsequently graduate from Staff College in England.
By the time the proclamation of the State of Israel in 1948 and the establishment of a regular army Rabin was the commander of the brigade "Harel, took part in the battle for Jerusalem. He personally developed and led the operation, which resulted in broken Arabic siege of the city.
After the first Arab-Israeli war (in Israel it is called the War of Independence) was trained on various courses to improve. At age 32, became general, and in 1956 he was appointed Commander of the Northern Military District. In the 59-m - head of the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff. A year later - Deputy Chief of Staff, and in January 1964 the first - the head of the Israeli General Staff - the highest military post in Israel. In this capacity, led by Israeli forces during the Six Day War in June 1967.
Rabin is still called "victorious NRC" (Chief of General Staff). After all, he reorganized the Israeli army, has developed plans for military operations, which surprised the world during the Six Day War. It is known, ended with the defeat of Israel's neighboring Arab countries. He also received honorary degree of Doctor of Science in Jerusalem, Chicago and Miami University.
January 1, 1968 Rabin in the rank of lieutenant-general retired. Generally, retired generals in Israel, especially the young, long time do not sit idly. At the suggestion of Golda Meir, who was the companion of "Red Roses", Rabin soon received an appointment at one of the most important diplomatic posts - Ambassador to Washington - and 5 March of that year presented his credentials to President of the United States.
. At first the Jewish community in America was somewhat disappointed by the speeches of the new ambassador, the English were not the best
. But it was soon discovered that the Israeli diplomat has great analytical skills and is able to articulate. Junior Member graduate of an agricultural school was prepared to express their views in clear and simple words, . tell journalists that, . written about in the secret messages (of course, . as is reasonably necessary), . express ideas and criticisms, . that diplomats are usually carefully concealed,
. His frankness, he shall order that the Washington Post gave him a nickname "undiplomatic diplomat."
Nevertheless, for five years that the Rabin in Washington on an unprecedented improvement in relations between Israel and the U.S.. He believed the strengthening and development of US-Israeli relations, one of the most important areas of foreign policy of his country. Rabin was convinced proamerikanets. Europe distrusted. Of course, the policy was not simply pro-American, and Orthodox.
However, there was a continuous deterioration in his personal relations with senior officials of the Israeli Foreign Ministry. The fact that Rabin had a (special!) Look at the essence of the mission, Ambassador. He was convinced that his task - is primarily to develop the political line, and not just a blind response to the guidance of Jerusalem. General believed that it would offer the widest possible field of activity. But this did not happen ...
Returning from the United States, Rabin, however, was on a horse. By linking his political fortunes from the Mapai (forerunner of the Labor Party and the current Labor Party), he received in April 1974, the portfolio of Minister of Labor in the government of Golda Meir. However, long. After her retirement party congress elected him a slim majority leader of the party. In June 1974, 52-year-old Rabin headed (again, at the suggestion of Golda Meir) Cabinet and became the youngest prime minister in the history of the State of Israel.
Lieutenant-General of the stock was on top of the political pyramid. But it is precisely at this time fortune turned its back on this "lucky". The military commander and diplomat, he was ill acquainted with the situation, even in his own party, with the complex intrigues and cruel rules of inter-party struggle. In fairness it should be noted that Rabin summed up not only the lack of political experience. Regardless of the personal qualities of head of the Labor Government, being relieved in power since the creation of a Jewish state, experienced a period of crisis. Corruption, nepotism, complacency - these were just some of the symptoms of malaise afflicting the party
Not surprisingly, his "first premiership" was accompanied by a series of setbacks and was completed ahead of schedule. Three years later, a scandal in which his wife was implicated Rabin - Leia. It is, according to Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz, was on a personal account at a bank in the U.S. and two thousand dollars (according to Israeli law, public officials and their relatives were forbidden to have foreign bank accounts). Premier did not justify or wait for an official investigation. He received a blow on himself, resigned and announced the resignation as chairman of the Labor Party.
Yet Rabin was that the record itself in asset. He has made the conclusion of interim agreements on the disengagement of troops from Egypt and Syria. The country's economy without shocks survived the world energy crisis in 1973-1974, caused by rising oil prices. He led a legendary operation (1976) for the release of an Israeli passenger plane in Entebbe (Uganda), captured by terrorists. Undertaken the modernization of weapons Army. In 1975 he signed an agreement with the United States, which led to the special relationship established between the two states
. In May 1977, the Labor Party, headed by Shimon Peres (in Rabin's cabinet, he served as Minister of Defense), the first time defeated
. Having joined the unit right-wing Likud.
It has been suggested that Perez "tripped" when Rabin, inspired by the publication of his "illegal" bank account. Be that as it may, the fate of the Labor Party has developed against the background of an uncompromising, sometimes violent struggle of these leaders, which journalists call a "sworn friends", the "inseparable enemies."
Rabin and Peres about the same age. But it's hard to imagine two personalities, two outstanding personality, so dissimilar in character, temperament and way of thinking. They were clearly the narrow confines of one party. But the sense of duty has always taken precedence over personal ambition. They stayed in a "bundle" and their political fates intertwined in the most fantastic way.
Election of 1984, when the Likud and Labor "undermined" draw ". In formed a national unity government of Prime Minister held the first two years, Peres, and then, on a rotating basis - the leader of the Likud's Yitzhak Shamir. Permanent Defense Minister Rabin remained. It was he who supported Peres withdrew from Lebanon, ending an unpopular war.
While many observers have noted that the general did not have a sense of proportion. Sometimes he has changed and the political instinct. When, in December 1987 on the Israeli-occupied Arab territories, the Palestinian uprising broke out ( "Intifada"), Rabin not only found it necessary to suspend the tour of the United States but continued to play tennis with his U.S. counterpart, F. Carlucci.
In a reproach to the Minister of Defense put the fact that the "intifada" was a complete surprise to him. But it is doubtful whether this is true - she caught unawares and leadership of the PLO headed by Yasser Arafat. At the beginning of the Palestinian uprising in a moment of irritation Rabin promised to "smash the hands and feet" proponents disorder. These reckless words have led to the fact that Rabin to label the right.
But it was a mistake. In his views and beliefs of Rabin was and remained closer to the "doves" than "hawks". The image of the right was a consequence of the fact that by virtue of their position, he led the fight to the Palestinian "Intifada". His words are not revealed the cruelty of the Minister of Defense, but rather about his intemperance in the statements.
Unless. He quickly appreciated the importance of many of the uprising. Already in February 1988, he said the activists of the Labor Party:
- I learned something over two and a half months. And among other things that can not by force to manage the two million Palestinians.
Rabin was convinced that the accession of the occupied territories would dilute the Jewish character of Israel. But the military regime there, would mean endless war. So in 1989 he invited Israeli government a peace plan for the implementation of which he was able to begin only in 1992.
. The rivalry between Peres and Rabin had entered a crucial stage on the eve of parliamentary elections in 1992
. After three unsuccessful attempts to Peres "occupy" the chair head of government, the Labor Party decided to bet on Rabin as a leader, capable of attracting the votes not only left, but centrist-minded voters.
. He led the campaign as someone who can bring peace to the country and provide security
. But to succeed, he constantly stressed, the Israelis would have to abandon the main part of its national security - the feeling of isolation.
. - For many years, by necessity, because of the threat of war, terror - Rabin explained to voters - we have strengthened the feeling beleaguered country, the whole world against us
. This raised doubts about the possibility of achieving peace.
As Saber, Rabin was devoid of those feelings of exiles, which differed founding fathers of the State. They feared that any concession to the Arabs will be the first step to the destruction. But he was also a special reason for the Palestinians:
- You are a single day did not know the freedom and joy in your life, listen to us even at this time.
Labor won. In June 1992, Rabin was again on top of the political and state power.
. At the head of government, he faced a diplomatic change in the international arena and, . first, . with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, . with the mass repatriation of Soviet Jews to Israel and the peace talks with neighboring Arab countries,
. These factors have created new opportunities for positive change in all spheres of life.
. In his first speech in the Knesset (Israeli Parliament), he stated that "intends to go another way and refused the" siege mentality ".
. - My primary objective - Rabin said in Parliament - to breathe new life into peace talks on the Middle East, which began in October 1991 in Madrid.
. On the way to peace agreements with the Palestinians and Jordan, Rabin had to overcome fierce resistance to extremist groups
. After a series of armed anti-Israeli attacks by Palestinian radical organizations on him once again bombarded the accusations of betraying the interests of Israel.
But the Prime Minister confirmed the reputation of a firm policy that does not make decisions based on opinion and short-term conditions. He became the first leader of the Jewish state, which recognized the PLO in September 1993 it signed an agreement on Palestinian Authority. And in May the following year, he and the leader of the PLO signed the Cairo agreement on the principles of practical implementation of the plan "Gaza-Jericho - at first".
Rabin's colleagues recall that with Arafat after signing the "Declaration on Principles of interim solution", he became softer, more smiling. Although he went on a huge risk for the future of his country, fell to his share of the task begun to bring matters to a conclusion (and the belief that he made the right choice) gave him new strength.
. However, one should not think that Rabin was a hundred percent pacifist
. Far from it. Once again he has demonstrated this in July 1993, when the Israeli army launched an operation in southern Lebanon against the pro-Iranian extremist organization Hezbollah.
. Rabin was convinced that the world must conclude it is now, while the Middle East is not penetrated the full nuclear missiles
. He believed that peace with its neighbors need to counter the impending threat of Islamic fundamentalism. Finally, he took into account the internal situation in Israel and believed that the country can not forever be in a state of war and alert.
. There was only one problem, which had occupied in the priority list Rabin's no less important place than the world - is the country's security
. In this matter he was not prepared to compromise and showed firmness.
- We will fight terror so - he said - as if peace negotiations do not. And we will negotiate as if there is no terror.
This formula Rabin held firm in life, despite heavy criticism of the opposition right -. He had to operate in extremely difficult circumstances, when the Knesset, sometimes only one or two votes to tip the scales in favor of the right.
. Rabin did not have full confidence in the fact that Arafat - his main negotiating partner, will keep the Palestinians under the authority of its authority and be able to fulfill its obligations
. He doubted Arafat, but he understood that among the Palestinians is no alternative.
. In contrast to many Israelis, Rabin managed to reconcile their minds about Arafat as "terrorists and murderers" in the belief that he is a man with whom Israel can deal
. Knowing that Arafat - a stern pragmatist, Rabin urged his opponents:
- He is the owner of. Without it, the agreement would not operate. He was my enemy, but he is the person who fulfills its obligations.
. Reluctantly shook hands with Arafat at the White House lawn in Washington, Rabin said:
. - Of all the hands in the world this was not the hand, which I wanted or even wanted to touch ...
. I am convinced - Rabin realized that Arafat and the gesture was given easy
. Both have their fate hostage to the future world.
One and a half decades have passed since his resignation, were not in vain. He learned a lot, have learned from mistakes, steeled in the political struggle. But, as many opponents did not become fully politician.
People who knew him noted that Rabin did not shine eloquence, but was able to reach out to people, although at times he lacked charisma. He was a stranger to political intrigue, tires, inner work. He could not endure the long meetings and empty talk. The main quality, tightly associated with his name - the reliability. In the eyes of the public he was a man, tell the truth, with the highest sense of responsibility.
Yet Rabin - the contradictory nature. He was confident and shy at the same time. He was the author of the most audacious in the history of the country making. And he also was a man prone to doubts. He believed in the collective creation, but no decision taken on their own.
In his characteristic style of leadership Rabin is sometimes called "lone wolf". Premier has met with an invitation to many people, but always preferred to talk face to face with an expert on the issue, which required solutions.
Analyzing the issue, he always weighed the pros and cons. When all was weighed and a decision, he has not changed him, and walked to the end.
Rabin, as recognized by both friends and enemies, was a "workaholic". In his seventy years he spent every day over a dozen meetings, which usually begins early in the morning and ended late in the evening. After that, he still managed to appear in public. Return home after midnight.
Added to this is that Rabin is also a Minister of Defense. And given that the relations between members of the coalition government have been very difficult, he had to serve another three ministers: Health, Interior and Religious Affairs.
. Family rabbis formed even before the political map of the world appeared the state of Israel.
. The wife of the Prime Minister has long been a byword
. The Israelis considered the first lady of haughty and arrogant. Newspapers constantly harped on the fact that it interferes in the affairs of spouse, and published pictures of her, where she was an evil face.
In addition, all recall how in 1977, when Rabin served as Prime Minister, Leia. We can say tainted his career, keeping dollars to U.S. bank. However, over time the press was replaced by anger at the mercy and even admitted in 1994 that his wife of 66 years, head of the government looks at "fifty-something."
Leah Rabin (nц╘e Schlossberg) was born in Koenigsberg. In 1934 the family moved to Palestine. In school, Leah was considered the most beautiful girl in the class. However, it is always modestly waved from such allegations: "I was only the second ..."
According to her, in her youth Rabin enjoyed success with the girls. However, take care of them could not. Lee had to take the initiative in their hands.
At first she was to appear on Allenby Street, where she reportedly liked to walk with friends, Yitzhak. Then they met while serving in paramilitary units and the youth soon married.
The next morning after the wedding, Isaac went to his unit, Leia - in their. They lived together for almost fifty years. Scandals in this family, if they were, then skillfully concealed from the eyes and ears of the public.
As first lady, he got up at half past six in the morning to cook breakfast husband. Itself at that time (perhaps even now) is constantly struggling with overweight and usually come out victorious in this fight.
. Although the house vodilis predominantly low-fat products, for the husband Leia has always kept a piece of his favorite greasy yellow cheese.
. Dinner is ready, too, she
. In recognition of those who tried to lunch, she was particularly good pancakes with cottage cheese, stuffed fish, meat dishes and cakes. Table Rabin was mixed - Jewish, Oriental and European. Former U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher admitted in one interview that he still remembers the pea soup Lea Rabin and ready once again to come to Israel to try something else.
. On Thursday night of Rabin usually left out of the official Jerusalem residence of the home in Tel Aviv
. They played tennis, communicate with their grandchildren, met with friends. If they wanted to sit together at the TV, they happened previously argued: Rabin loved sports and detectives. Leia could not stand them. But she, of course, always inferior to her husband.
According to Israeli press, many years, rumors of Rabin's indifferent attitude to alcohol, especially whiskey. One television reporter plucked up courage and asked the Prime Minister a question.
. - Ask me serious questions - calmly replied Rabin.
. By the way, he could utter a witty, as he said himself, Georgian toast, and knowingly tell you what and how to drink in Israel.
. On the advice of doctors, he almost gave up a shot of whiskey, and only occasionally drank beer
. He was a heavy smoker - smoked per day for two or three packs of cigarettes and drank more than a dozen cups of coffee. But before the end of life on health is not complaining. Is that toothache.
Once Rabin keen on photography. After becoming prime minister, with this hobby parted. Sometimes on Saturdays struggled on a tennis court.
- I do not like jogging, - he admitted. - It's boring. Looking for something exciting, awakens a sense of competition and confrontation.
The late Prime Minister had been given a fine intuitive sense of history and especially in her own place. As Rabin admitted his close friends, he realized that he never occupied a prominent place in the annals of Israel, which he deserved. As an old soldier, who had seen so much death, he wanted to be remembered peacemaker. He walked some distance to the goal on the lawn of the White House, where he addressed an appeal:
- Enough blood and tears. Enough!
Peace between Israelis and Palestinians has not yet become a fait accompli. Even at the turn. But the late Yitzhak Rabin has taken those steps, after which it is difficult to reverse. And there are all grounds to say that the bullet Yigal Amir (his liN), released November 4, 1995, during a rally in Tel Aviv, where Prime Minister said, "Yes - the world is not - Violence!" Had not reached its goal. Current government of Israel let the slow and difficult, but goes through, blazed the first Israeli leader to officially recognize the Palestine Liberation Organization.