Pyotr Stolypin Arkadevich( Russia statesman, prime minister (1906-1911).)
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Biography Pyotr Stolypin Arkadevich
The most notable mark in the history of Russia left the famous Stolypin agrarian reforms. The agrarian crisis of the early XX. and peasant uprisings before and during the first revolution, Russia has clearly stated the urgency of solving the agrarian question. However, the agreement among various political forces in the ways of achieving this goal was not, in fact, their views were often diametrically opposed
Pyotr Stolypin was born April 5, 1862, Mr.. in Dresden, in the family, which belonged to an ancient Russian family, known from the XVI century. The maternal grandfather, Prince Gorchakov, who was chief of the Russian army during the Crimean War. Peter Arkadevich accounted cousin M. YU. Lermontov.
Brilliantly graduated from the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St. Petersburg University, he in 1885. joined the Ministry of State Property. in 1889. transferred to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and soon became the youngest governor in Russia - in Grodno, and then in Saratov. In 1906, Mr.. 44-year-old Stolypin takes the portfolio of the Interior, and from 8 July 1906. He combines this post with the post of chairman of the Council of Ministers, replacing an apathetic Prime Minister and. L. Goremykin, which even in the bureaucratic circles, termed "your indifference."
Stolypin at such a high position has not gone unnoticed. Even the most irreconcilable opponents were forced to admit that this time Russia's government was headed by a gifted, strong, bright man. Her enemies, however, his swift, brilliant career explaining the patronage of the wife's relatives, close to the court. Stolypin was married to O. B. Neidhardt - the former fiancee of his brother, who was killed in a duel. According to contemporaries, despite the complex nature of Olga, Peter Arkadevich was happily married, had five daughters and one son.
The basis of their state of P. A. Stolypin put principle betrayed by the founder of the public school B. N. Chicherin: "The liberal reforms and strong power". It was officially announced on the next course change: freedom of religion, . personal integrity and social equality in the sense of "removal of restrictions and restrictions on certain groups of", . transformation of local courts, . reform of secondary and higher education, . Police reform, . Conversions zemstvos, . income tax, . "exceptional measures of public order.",
. Realizing, . hope that the government only on punitive measures is a sure sign of its weakness, . Stolypin had focused not find the instigators of the revolution, . and the development of reform, . capable, . his opinion, . resolve major issues, . a revolution, . tried to establish a dialogue with representatives of opposition political forces,
. At the same time Stolypin was no stranger to violent, punitive action, which in general to evaluate its policies as a policy of "carrot and stick". Unfortunately, in the Soviet historical literature often considered only a policy of "the stick" and not adequately investigated the policy of "the stick". For Peter Arkadevich reputation as an executioner who filled in Russia, according to Cadet Rodicheva, "Stolypin neckties.
August 12, 1906, Mr.. SRs-maximalists been made an attempt on P. A. Stolypin, which killed 27 people who were in the reception of official summer residence, and the two terrorists. Of the 32 wounded 6 died of his wounds the next day. The explosion struck the wall with a balcony. Stolypin's daughter and son were seriously injured from the debris of stones, he did not suffer.
. Soon after the attempt on his life, . Stolypin has an emergency basis under Article 87 of the Basic State laws issued by decree on the establishment of courts-martial, . according to which the proceedings be completed within 48 hours, . a sentence, . sanctioned by the commander of Military Region, . performed within 24 hours,
. Stolypin believed these measures are justified to preserve public safety, believing that the violence must be met by force. He argued that we should be able to distinguish the blood on the hands of a doctor from the blood on the hands of the executioner, emphasized that the death penalty can be applied only to murderers, adamantly opposed the introduction of the hostages.
. In fact, placed in the way mass lawlessness in much of the country's state of emergency was not rare, were no executions of innocent people
. Judges that made too "soft" sentences, dismissed from their jobs. If, before the fall of 1906. on average, executed by 9 people per year, from August 1906 to April 1907. military courts issued 1,102 death sentences. Such statistics fully confirms the reputation of Stolypin as hard and even cruel policy.
. It should also be noted, . that almost all of its major reform Stolypin was able to hold at a discussion in the Duma, . knowing, . that made them the approval of projects there will, . and under Article 87 of the Basic State laws - on an emergency basis, . during "mezhdumya",
. Although Stolypin tried to prove the feasibility of this practice, . arguing, . that such article is in the laws of many European states, . and the adoption of the law of the State Duma comes with complications, . takes so much time, . it difficult to take urgent decisions, . new Prime Minister is too often resorted to using "emergency legislation".,
. Stolypin justified cases the search deputies of the Duma, was involved in its dissolution and the arrest of some members, the publication of a new electoral law after the dissolution of the Duma II.
. June 1, 1907, Mr.
. Stolypin demanded a closed session of the Duma, . which the St. Petersburg prosecutor of the Chamber Kamyshanskii presented to members of the Social-Democratic group in charge of preparations for the "overthrowing the state system", . demanded the deprivation of their immunity,
. The prosecution was based on the text of the soldier's punishment for false. After the dissolution of the Duma members of the Social Democratic faction were convicted.
Adoption of a new electoral law of June 3, 1907, Mr.. government actually made a coup, because of the main national laws (Article. 86), this law was to be considered by the Duma, and treated without it.
Stolypin and the State Duma - is another matter. To his credit, Stolypin, probably the only one of the ministers of the tsarist government, who is not afraid to speak in the Duma with the answers on a variety of parliamentary interpellation. He was a good speaker on the platform behaved with dignity, correctly. However, sometimes the audience was tuned to him so hostile, that because of the noise in the hall Stolypin could not begin to address within 10 - 15 minutes. When Peter Arkadevich began to speak, the hall looked like the Tauride Palace Theater: MPs 'right' staged tumultuous applause and shouted "bravo", the MPs "left" stamped their feet and make noise. Sometimes, the speaker sounded quite sharply. For example, speaking in the Duma on measures to combat the revolutionary terrorism, Stolypin said: "The Government will welcome any public disclosure of any confusion ... but otherwise the government should treat the attacks, leading to the creation of mood, the atmosphere which must prepare a public statement. These attacks are designed to have lead the government, in power and paralysis of will, and thoughts, they all boil down to two words, turned to the authorities: "Hands up". These two words, ladies and gentlemen, the government with complete peace of mind, conscious of his innocence could only reply with two words: "Do not scare us."
. On the work of the State Duma, on the decisions taken by the Stolypin spoke very condescendingly: "..
. You do not have neither the strength nor the means nor the power to hold it beyond these walls, to make it in life, knowing that it is brilliant, but the public display, "or:" ... a flat road and march on it almost solemn under general approval and applause, but the road, unfortunately, in this case leads nowhere "
The most notable mark in the history of Russia left the famous Stolypin agrarian reforms. The agrarian crisis of the early XX. and peasant uprisings before and during the first revolution, Russia has clearly stated the urgency of solving the agrarian question. However, the agreement among various political forces in the ways of achieving this goal was not, in fact, their views were often diametrically opposed.
Stolypin supported the position designated in the XIX century. Valuev, Baryatinsky, and at the beginning of XX century. Witte granting peasants the right to withdraw from the community. He was convinced that "you can not love someone else along with her and can not cajole, to improve the land, temporary use, along with his land. Artificial in the sense emasculation of our peasantry, destroying it innate sense of ownership leads to many bad things, most importantly, to poverty. But poverty, for me, the worst of slavery. It is ridiculous to say to these people about freedom and liberties. "
Decree of 9 November 1906, adopted on an emergency basis, was the beginning of the exit of peasants from the community. As the law, he began to act, passing through the discussion in III State Duma, only from 14 June 1910. Stolypin was a supporter of the violent break-up of community. He never demanded the unification of the universal forms of land use and land. Explaining the government's position on the agrarian question in the State Duma, 10 May 1907, . He said: "Let this be a general property there, . where the community still has outlived, . let it be the household where, . where the community is no longer vital, . but let it be strong, . Let hereditary ",
. Violent actions foreseen in cases where the community prevented the exit of the peasants, which was very common.
. Out of peasants from the community is implicit in two stages: first, strengthening intermingled plots, and then exit to cut and hamlets
. Was withdrawn, family ownership of land, allotment was not the collective property of the family, and property of the landowner. Abolished indemnity payments for land, the peasants were freed from forced rotation in order to prevent excessive concentration of land in the same hands and land speculation. Were also banned the sale of land to the peasants and did not purchase within the same county for more than 6 allotment determined to reform the 1861. According to various provinces, this plot ranged from 12 to 18 acres. Since July 1912. was. authorize the issuance of mortgage loans for the purchase of land by peasants, introduced various forms of credit - agrokulturnogo, mortgage, land, reclamation.
However, not everything planned perfectly put into practice. Voluntary withdrawal of peasants from the community is not universally observed. Since forced to provide land from the community could be implemented at the request of at least. a peasant during the general redistribution, and the term of redistribution redistribution equal to 12 years in 1909. Ministry of Interior issued a circular, which were permitted forced to provide land. Thus, the implementation of economic reforms supported by administrative measures. Career governors and district chiefs in the field is largely dependent on the implementation of the Decree of 9 November 1906, which pushed them to numerous abuses.
. The country just do not have enough surveyors to cope with the required volume of
. Estimated historian. S. Dyakina, in 1906. in the State Ministry of Agriculture had 200 "of survey ranks" in 1907. their number had tripled, and by 1914. reached a strength of 6 thousand. But for such a huge country like Russia, this was not enough.
There was not enough and the money allocated for the implementation of reform. So, clearly underestimated the State Audit Office estimates, the minimum cost of resettlement of one economy on the farm ranged from 250 to 500 rubles. Ministry of Agriculture on the entire European part of Russia has provided loans totaling $ 32.9 million rubles, while in the country, according to the census, in 1905. There were about 12 million peasant families.
. For the implementation of the reform has been characterized by spreading of hamlet land tenure system, although the natural, geographical conditions, socio-psychological readiness of farmers to new forms of management are not always conducive to this
. Still to 1915. more than 25 per cent of householders have announced withdrawal from the community. Most of these were poor peasants who worked in the city, and to a lesser extent, the peasants, who wanted to lead independent economy. The buyers of land were often well-off farmers, not emerged from the community, as well as the communities themselves, the return of land to the secular use. Cut themselves felt mainly in the Volga, the North Caucasus, in the provinces of Northern Black Sea coast, the farm - in the western provinces.
. As a major landowner (Stolypin had about 8 thousand acres), he flatly opposed the forced transfer of landed estates, believing that this will lead to a sharp drop п¦пЁя-п+п¦я¬п¦я-я-я¬я-я- and cultural level of the village as a whole.
. Not meaningless criticism Stolypin in the State Duma the project of the nationalization of land
. He noted that the land alienated from some and given to others, "would have the same properties as soon as the water and air. She would have to use, but to improve it, to make her own work so that the results of this work shifted to another person - that no one would do. In general, the incentive to work, . ta spring, . which makes people work, . would be broken ", . nationalization of the land "would lead to such a social revolution, . to such movement of all values, . to such a change of all social, . legal and civil relations, . whom had never seen history ",
. Do not support it and the idea of leasing activities in agriculture, believing that the temporary possession of land will lead to its rapid depletion.
. An important part of Stolypin's agrarian legislation was the work of the Peasant Bank, to buy land and then resell them to the peasants on easy terms, with part of the costs funded by the State.
. One way of allotment of land to the government opted for resettlement policy in Siberia
. Decree of 10 March 1906. all interested persons without restrictions would be entitled to relocation. The Government has allocated funds to build roads, landscaping at the new place, medical care, social needs. Perhaps this is the direction of agricultural policy was the most effective. During 1907 - 1914 he. in Siberia moved 2.44 million farmers, or 395 thousand families. The population of Siberia during the years of colonization has increased by 153 per cent. If, before the reform took place in Siberia reduced acreage, after the reforms they have been expanded almost twice as. As the pace of Livestock Development Siberia overtook the European part of Russia. Butter and cheese made in the Tomsk and Tobolsk Province, became widely known not only in Russia but also in Europe.
. At the same time, not all of the settlers were able to get accustomed to the new location, from 5 to 12 percent of farmers were forced to return home
. Affect the lack of state financial support, lack of roads in remote areas, poor adaptation to new climatic conditions, turmoil in the relationship with the local population. In general, an active immigration policy has helped to alleviate some of the agrarian question in the center of Russia, in some measure to justify the statement Stolypin "Then you go - quietly going!".
. Evaluating the Stolypin agrarian reforms, should recognize their appropriate, from an economic point of view - necessary
. From 1909 to 1914, Mr.. Russia produced more grain than its main competitors - U.S., Canada and Argentina - together. Of course, we must bear in mind that in all these years were good, and in 1909 and 1913. record harvests, but such a dramatic change of the situation in agriculture is directly linked to the reforms carried out. The beginning of rapid growth at the beginning of credit, . and then the production, . marketing and consumer cooperatives, . have various agrokulturnaya assistance: training courses on the study, . demonstration and introduction of new effective forms of management.,
. But Russia has not become a prosperous country
. There have been resolved issues related to hunger and agrarian overpopulation. Agriculture to continue to develop extensive, labor productivity in him grew more slowly than in the U.S. and Western Europe.
. For the reforms of this magnitude was not created adequate financial and material base, and it forced a purely administrative measures
. As you know, Stolypin believed that reforms can be successfully implemented for 15-20 years. Can not completely agree with this date, because even in a small Prussian period of transition from communal farming to farms took 100 years.
Reforms in Russia were clearly of a political nature. Stolypin never hid the fact that they tried to extinguish the fire, he peasant uprisings. As a result, methods of implementation of reforms have caused their rejection by the various political forces.
. It should be emphasized that the Stolypin agrarian reforms were launched with great historical delayed by at least forty years.
. In addition to the Stolypin agrarian reforms has developed a very interesting bills in the political, social and cultural fields
. It was he, on behalf of the Government introduced the III of the State Duma a bill on workers' insurance, disability, . age, . sickness and accident, . the provision of health care workers by enterprises, . Restrictions on the length of the working day for juveniles and adolescents,
. He also brought to the Nicholas II project to resolve the Jewish question. Few people know that Stolypin was the initiator of the introduction of universal free primary education in Russia. From 1907 to 1914, Mr.. steadily increasing costs of state and zemstvos the development of national education. Thus, in 1914. these needs is allocated more funds than in France.
. Stolypin sought to improve the educational and cultural level government officials, and for precisely this purpose proposed to raise teachers' salaries, employees postal service, railways, priests, officials of the state apparatus.
. Peter Arkadevich also participated in the elaboration of documents on political reform
. He suggested that non-estate system of local governance, for which elections were to be held zemstvos not on caste curiae, and on property, and property qualifications had to be reduced by ten times. This would greatly expanded the number of voters at the expense of the rich peasants. Stolypin planned at the head of the county did not put the leader of the nobility, and a government official. His proposed reform of local government provoked sharp criticism of government policy on the part of nobles
. In the formulation of national policies Stolypin did not show the flexibility and sensitivity, . adhering to the principle of "no oppression, . not the oppression of non-Russian nationalities, . and escort the rights of indigenous Russian population ", . which in fact often been a priority of interests of Russian, regardless of their place of residence,
. Stolypin was proposed bill on the introduction Zemstvos in six western provinces (Minsk, . Vitebsk, . Mogilev, . Kiev, . Volyn, . Podolsk), . whereby zemstvos were to become national Russian elections through a national curia.,
. Typical political line of Stolypin against Finland, the autonomy which was impaired
. There was a situation involving the need for separation of legislative powers between the center and the region because of the differences between Finnish and laws of the All-Russia. Peter Arkadevich insisted on the primacy of all-Russia law, while at the Diet in Borgo in 1809, Mr.. Alexander I was granted autonomous status the Grand Duchy of Finland.
It should be noted that Stolypin was never allowed expression, belittled and insulted the national sentiments of small nations. In his deep convictions, he was a Russian patriot, he understood the need for the development of national identity, dignity, unity of the nation. Very interesting and thought Peter Arkadevich that "people sometimes forget about their national problems, but such people are killed, they turn into manure, the manure, which grow and are becoming more and more powerful nations". However, its policy does not help to solve the national question.
. The latest in his life, reform projects were related to the consolidation of finance due to the increase of direct and particularly indirect taxes, excise taxes on alcoholic beverages, the introduction of a progressive tax and sales tax
. Stolypin was the first time raised the question of reforming the industry - foreign loans to be used only for research of mineral resources of land, construction of railways and especially paved roads. Envisaged the establishment of seven new ministries.
The political course, scheduled Stolypin, has drawn sharp criticism in his address from both the left and right-wing political forces. Interestingly, the contemporaries of his political credo tried to express in such mutually estimates as "conservative liberal" and "liberal Conservative". In 1908, Mr.. in the media was harsh criticism of President of the Council of Ministers. The Conservatives accused him of indecision and inaction, . Liberals mounted on it the label "nationwide governor", . accused of being "dictatorial tastes and habits", . Socialist Party issued a sharp criticism of domestic policies, . called him "the chief hangman", . "rioters".,
. Increased dramatically in this time of Stolypin's relations with the king
. Many historians believe that Nicholas II had feared the usurpation of power by the Prime Minister. Indeed, Peter Arkadevich allowed himself to have his own opinion, even in those cases where it is at odds with the position of king. He could express unflattering comments to Nicholas II, for example, that can not tolerate the rise of the role of G. Rasputin at the court. Palace dignitaries intrigued behind Stolypin, his quarrel with the Empress, who believed that the king was in the shadow of the Prime. When Alexandra Feodorovna was told that at a dinner at his wife Stolypin officers were armed, that was only made for the king's table, she said: "Well, were still two queen would now be three."
In March 1911. Stolypin offered his resignation due to the fact that the State Council finally rejected the bills on the western zemstvos. The king, after a moment's reflection resignation not accepted and went to meet the demands of his prime minister, but it became clear that the political career of Stolypin's given up.
. September 1, 1911, during a stay of the royal family in Kiev, in the building of the local opera Stolypin was mortally wounded
. Attempt made Dmitry Bogrov, son of the local owner of a multistory building. Single opinion on the motives behind the crime Bogrov still no. Some researchers believe, . that Stolypin's assassination - the handiwork of the secret police, . perhaps, . undertaken and not without the knowledge of the king, others - that, . Acting on orders from Revolutionary Party, . Bogrov managed to deceive the leadership of the secret police and from the hands of the Chief of Police Department Kulyabko receive invitations to almost all places, . visited by the royal couple and Stolypin; third, . - That Bogrov were purely personal reasons,
. In any case, the Socialist Party has declared his innocence to this action.
September 5, 1911, Mr.. Stolypin died. He was buried in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, because at one time commanded to bury it where it will reach death.
Death of Stolypin brought a lot of responses in Russia and foreign press. The foreign press left assimilated this fact with satisfaction. Thus, in the newspaper the Independent Labor Party of England noted: "Duma Stolypin turned into a farce and deceit. He, he, threw thousands of people infected in prison, and sent thousands to the gallows ". "He can not go back - and, of course, many thousands of Russian reverently thanked for this gentlemen". Organ of the French Socialist Party, declared: "Death of Stolypin Honored. Before this tomb of mankind can only sigh with relief. "
On the whole, remained highly controversial as the personality of Stolypin, and its activities. S. YU. Witte, . who meticulously followed the political career of his successor, . noted, . Arkadevich that Peter was a man with a great temperament, . a brave man ", . but accused him of lack of public culture, . unbalanced, . undue influence on his political activities, his wife Olga Borisovny, . use of official position for the patronage of relatives,
. There is some truth, as Foreign Minister Sazonov was married to the sister of the wife of Stolypin. Junior officer of the imperial yacht Bock, who had married the daughter of Stolypin, and immediately received the position of maritime agent in Berlin.
. Witte, Stolypin, accused of borrowing from him, Sergei Yulievich, the idea of leaving the peasants from the community, but stressed the difference in the methods of implementing this idea
. Evaluating the decree of 9 November 1906, he wrote: "I feel that this law will serve as one of the reasons for the shedding of innocent blood. I would be happy if my feelings deceived me ". The most unacceptable, he saw that the "Stolypin last two or three years of his rule, in Russia slid positive terror, but most importantly, introduced during the administration of all public life, police brutality and police discretion". In his memoirs, Witte said the evolution of Stolypin's liberal prime minister to "a reactionary who would not disdain to use any means to retain power, and arbitrary, in violation of any laws, rules Russia."
. It is interesting to view P
. N. Milyukova, one of the leaders of the Cadet Party, which Stolypin, despite seemingly insurmountable differences with them, described as "brains of the nation": "Stolypin served in a double guise - a liberal and an extreme nationalist". Miliukov very skeptical about the effectiveness of Stolypin's reform efforts, but paid tribute to his unordinary. "P. A. Stolypin - wrote Miliukov - was among those who imagined themselves as the saviors of Russia from its "great upheaval". In this his task, he made his great temperament and his stubborn will. He believed in himself and in his appointment. He was certainly bigger than many of the dignitaries, sitting in his place before and after the Witte.
. One of the first Russian Marxists, . Peter Berngardovich Struve, . gave the following characterization of Stolypin: "Whatever our attitude to Stolypin's agrarian policy - you can accept it as the greatest evil, . You can bless it as a beneficent surgery, . - This policy, he made a huge shift in Russian life,
. And - truly revolutionary shift in substance, and formally. There can be no doubt that the agrarian reform which eliminated the community meaningfully in the economic development of Russia in one series can be supplied only the liberation of the peasants and the holding of the railways. "
. Father Pyotr Stolypin, having become acquainted with L
. N. Tolstoy, during the Crimean War, became friends with him. Tolstoy was well acquainted with children of his friend. Having a high appointment of Peter Arcadievich, he wrote him a letter condemning his policy. Tolstoy saw in the Stolypin two mistakes - "began to fight violence with violence, . that led only to the widening of its scope, . and proceeded to conduct a land policy, . which meant not appeasement, . and approval of a land of violence. ",
. At the same time, another humanist in XX
. - In. V. Rozanov - gave a very high estimate Stolypin, . which, . according philosopher, . not lay any dirty spots: a rare thing scary and difficult for a politician ", . it "could kill, . but no one could tell: he was a liar, . curve or selfish person.,
. I. Lenin, evaluating Stolypin as a politician, wrote that he was able to conceal their activities, and the gloss of the phrase, posture and gestures, forged under the "European". Describing the same state activities Stolypin, . Lenin said, . that he "tried in the old bottles to pour new wine, . remake the old autocracy into a bourgeois monarchy, . and the collapse of Stolypin's policy is the collapse of the tsarist on this very useful, . last conceivable tsarist Way,
. Perhaps it is suitable for determining the core of the policies formulated and carried out not only Stolypin and Witte. In spite of being different means to achieve both tried to reach one goal - to whatever was to preserve the monarchy, to prevent the revolutionary explosion by means of concessions to various social forces.
. The proposed reforms they objectively helped to accelerate the development of market principles in economics, multiculturalism
. But if Witte in its policy was oriented to the West European way of development, the Stolypin tried to find their own, special, Russian Path. Both have been using the strength of the state in implementing reforms, which gave reason to some contemporaries reproached both in the introduction of "state socialism". Witte emphasized the economic methods of influence, and Stolypin used the administrative power of the state. This is seen in their vision of how the transition from communal to private ownership. If Witte favored a gradual, without the forced transition to the farm, the Stolypin, understanding community vitality and conservatism of the peasants, offered to expedite this process by administrative methods.
. Witte and Stolypin, questioned the need to reform the political system, but if Stolypin offered mainly local government reform, the Witte has started the introduction of constitutionalism.
. Conceived by the reforms they are, alas, were too late
. Their effectiveness could be higher only in terms of parliamentarism and EGAL state.
. The experience of political activity Witte and Stolypin demonstrates, . that without a change in the political system, even with talent conceived economic reforms are doomed to failure, . and delay in resolving the pressing economic and social problems poses a real threat to the public system.,