Kollontai, Alexandra( The world's first woman cooks-ambassador.)
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Biography Kollontai, Alexandra
(April 1, 1872 - March 27, 1952)
The world's first woman cooks-ambassador. Since 1923, the authorized and trade representative in Norway, since 1926 - in Mexico, since 1927 - the plenipotentiary representative in Norway, 1930-1945 - Envoy, then Soviet ambassador to Sweden. Her name was covered with legends. One of the most mysterious women in Soviet Russia. Until very old people go mad men.
There are women whom God has not given the talent to be the guardian of hearth. While seemingly the rest of the nature of their reward: the beauty and grace, and charm, and ability to love, and mind ... But the desire to create family comfort Shura Kollontai was deprived as it is sometimes a man completely devoid of hearing or vote.
. Aleksandra Mikhailovna Domontovich (Kollontai) was born April 1, 1872 three-storey mansion in a wealthy family of Colonel General Staff
. He married only forty years, a woman with three children, who left her husband. So Alex was her fourth child, but for the father - the first and favorite. In the girl blended Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, German and French blood.
The education she received at home, but the examinations for matriculation in the St Petersburg gymnasium delivered better than many of the students.
She was sixteen, she loved to dance, and her favorite dance partner was Vanechka Dragomirov. They were found on the balls of the most glamorous couple. She thought that she was in love, but when Vanya tried to convince her that they should be together forever, Shura lifted him to laugh. Ivan put a bullet in his heart.
Some time later, the brilliant Emperor Alexander III, adjutant general of forty Tutolmin asked hands Shura Domontovich, but received a strong rejection. Departing for in Tiflis, my father took Shuru with a. Here she spent time with a cousin - and the merry-haired handsome, young officer Vladimir Kollontai. They talked about politics and social injustice, read Herzen. Vladimir won the heart and mind of the young beauty. Alex returned to the capital, but Kollontai came followed and enrolled in the Military Engineering Academy. Parents dreamed of another party for his daughter and not allowed to see each other in love, which, of course, only warmed passion. To cool the daughter, his father sent her to unwind in Paris and Berlin under the supervision of her half-sister. But the correspondence between the lovers is not stopped, but in Europe Schur learned about unions, Clara Zetkin, "Communist Manifesto" - about everything that was forbidden in Russia. And it is the sweetness of forbidden fruit made her say:'m going to marry Koе┌е┌д┘taj!
They were happy and beautiful couple. Husband was gentle and kind, trying to please her around, he was much in the imagination and fun. Reproach him was not in it, but she wanted something else. ChegoN She did not know. Alex began working in the public library, a gathering capital freethinkers. Her son, Misha, is not fulfilled yet, and six months, and his mother, who picked up the first information that not everything in this world of harmony and fairness, has been obsessed with a thirst to participate in the redemption of mankind from the universal evil. But while she pursued the goal of a simpler. For example, to marry best friend Zoe Shadurskiy for another husband, an officer Alexander Satkevicha. For this she even came up to live "commune", inviting, and Zoe, and Satkevicha in his house. I must say that means a young family was not constrained by - the father of a married daughter has allocated a significant content. Evenings gathered four of them, read aloud the social journalism, the selected Shura. Zoey was listening passionately Satkevich carefully, her husband, yawning. They came new friends hostess - teachers, journalists, artists - and themselves hoarse arguing about politics.
Satkevich not captivated by Zoya, but the lady of the house completely and unreservedly took possession of his senses. Formed a painful love triangle. Since then, the Shura Kollontai began undivided care about freedom of love, family happiness, duty, love for two of opportunities for men. She theorized, but anything could not decide. She liked both. Zoe left the "communes" and rented an apartment where Alex secretly met with Satkevichem. Finally, she left the marriage apartment, rented a room for himself, his son and nanny, but not to dissolve the marriage with Kollontai and enter into a new. She did not want family comfort, the house was all she needed to do business - to read and write. Satkevich was in her apartment with a welcome but rare visitor.
August 13, 1898 Shura Kollontai went abroad, leaving his son in the care of parents. She was twenty-six.
Kollontai chose Switzerland to get an education. But she was suffering from a nervous disorder, had gone to Italy, 'where he wrote articles for newspapers and magazines that no printed. Breakdown intensified, doctors were advised to return home. Then it was the last time tried to live a normal life of women in the family. Husband was ill, she nursed the sick. But the role of a doting wife, she got bored, and the renewed visits from Satkevichem placed in front of her intractable problems. Kollontai went to Switzerland.
She enrolled in the seminar Professor Gerknera, read much, her articles have appeared in reputable journals. She wrote about Finland - the projected reforms of the economy, the labor movement, and became a recognized expert in this country. Alex quickly took on a new connection: friendship with Rosa Luxemburg, from Plekhanov and his wife. Occasionally she came to Petersburg, met with a friend, but not with her husband. Mother died, the son lived with his grandfather. Satkevich wanted to marry Shurochka, because civil marriage for the Colonel was unacceptable. But it was opposed. It has already adapted to different life. She met with Kautsky and Lafargue, became an expert on the Russian labor movement and a specialist in Finland.
When his father died, arose many domestic problems. She inherited the estate passed, which brought high income to live comfortably in Europe. She needed money, but getting them to engage in, burdened with financial statements do not want. She requested all the affairs of the estate Satkevichu. By the time their relationship even got used to the strict command of Colonel, and Alex and Alexander had from no one lurked. My father's house was sold, Kollontai took off a good apartment, a faithful friend Zoe lived with her as a maid. She cooked, washed, ironed and sewed, and besides, writing for newspapers, essays, satires, reviews. Shura Kollontai preferred to just work: it was already the author of three books on social issues, a lot written about the women's movement of the proletarian morality, which will replace the bourgeois.
In 1905 A. Kollontai found himself in yet another talent - talent as a speaker. Having engaged in illegal propaganda work, she acted with fervor at workers' meetings. At one of them she met a co-editor of the first legal newspaper of the Social-Democrats in Russia Pyotr Maslov, fiercely criticized by Lenin. Plump, too early to start balding Russian economist has made an indelible impression on the Shura. She talked only about him, and Peter Maslov - staid, prudent - rushed into the maelstrom of love, though legally married.
Maslov was able to read a series of lectures in Germany. Kollontai came to the founding congress of the Social Democrats in Mannheim, where the circle of its friends in the elite of European Social Democracy considerably expanded. But, most importantly, in Berlin, where she stopped for a few days, her waiting Maslov. And in St. Petersburg Peter mortally afraid of publicity, secret meetings did not bring joy. But the popular economist invited again to Germany, and Kollontai - the Congress of the International. Personal combined with public
Meanwhile, a violent revolutionary activity Kollontai not remain without attention of the authorities. She was arrested, but released on bail. While she is sheltered from the writer SHCHepkinoj-Kupernik friends prepared her passport, and she ran. Her separation from St. Petersburg at this time stretched for eight years. Soon after it was followed by Peter Maslov, however, he had to take a family. Secret Love continued in Berlin. But she, like most Russian immigrants, could not sit in one place. For Kollontai house was she, a roof over his head and a table for. But, most importantly, she knew perfectly several European languages and is easily adapted to any country.
Roman with Peter Maslow began to weigh Shura Kollontai, since turned into a trivial adultery, and marriage with him she would not hear. She went to Paris, rented a room in a modest family pension. But Peter ran for Shura, clutching, as always, his family. He came to her every day, but at exactly half past nine hurry home. It was pretty depressed.
At the memorial meeting at the grave Lafargue Kollontai saw his gaze on the young man - honest, open, powerful look. After the funeral, he came up, praised her speech, kissed the hand. "He is dear to me, this cheerful, open, direct and strong-willed guy," - she wrote a little later. Then they wandered through the city, went into the bistro. She asked him his name. Alexander Shlyapnikov, revolutionary proletarian. At night he brought her to the suburbs, in a modest house for the poor, miserable room where the shot. He was twenty-six, she - and thirty-nine. The morning followed by an explanation and the gap with Peter Maslov. We decided to go Sanka in Berlin, but she still lingered in Paris: the husband arrived, Vladimir Kollontai. Not reading, Alex signed harvested his lawyer divorce papers, which took all the blame on myself. Now her ex-husband could safely marry the woman he loves, with which long-lived and who loved them with Shura son Misha.
Kollontai wrote Zoe that immensely happy with new boyfriend. Only with him it really felt like a woman. Now, living with the proletariat, it is believed that was a better understanding of life and problems of working. Shlyapnikov performs a responsible order of Lenin, so do not often visited at home. When they managed to live together longer, Alex noticed that one begins to irritate. The man, who for all unassuming yet require a minimum of care and attention, was a burden. He interfered with her work, writing articles and abstracts of lectures. The estate gave less money.
World War caught Kollontai with her son, Misha, in Germany. Together they rested in the summer in the resort town of Kol-rude. They were arrested, but two days later she was released because it was an enemy of the regime, with which Germany entered the war. With some difficulty rescued Misha, and they left the country. Alex sent him to Russia, and moved to Sweden, where he was at that time Shlyapnikov. But it was sent from Sweden for revolutionary agitation without the right of return ever. Expelled forever. She stopped in Norway. Sometimes people came Shlyapnikov burden of it, moreover, Satkevich reported on his marriage. She is upset. Affected and the long separation from Russia, and the inactivity. She was depressed, she wrote of her loneliness and uselessness. And at that moment she was invited to give lectures in the United States, moreover, Lenin himself asked her to translate his book and try to publish in the United States. Kollontai fulfilled its task, and lectures were a huge success. It traveled 123 cities, and each read by a lecture, and even two. "Kollontai conquer America!" - Wrote the newspaper.
She arranged for Misha, through her friends at the U.S. military plants, which freed him from conscription into the army. The mother decided to go along with his son. Shlyapnikov like to join - it did not allow him. This was a discontinuity.
Kollontai was in Norway, when Russia king has abdicated. Lenin himself wrote Shura, that she hastily returned to his homeland, and then gave it to his people through a delicate assignment. At the station in St. Petersburg to meet her Shlyapnikov, immediately took one of the suitcases. It was assumed that it was money that Lenin provided Germanskoe government on the revolution in RUSSIA. Soon arrived and Lenin himself in the notorious sealed railroad car, surrounded by close associates. Kollontai has been elected to the executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet, however, after learning about the illness of her former husband, she hardly found time to visit him, but to come to his funeral, she could not: it was entirely absorbed by the revolutionary work. Newspapers followed her every move, calling it the Revolution Valkyrie. About her inspirational speeches at rallies become legend. Crowd everywhere greeted with enthusiastic cries of. Her stunning oratorical success prompted Lenin to trust her the most difficult: to influence the sailors, who absolutely did not respond to Bolshevik propaganda. Kollontai went to warships. She met the chairman of Tsentrobalt sailor Paul Dybenko hero and the young bearded man with bright eyes. He was on his hands moved Shuru with boat ramp at. From that day he accompanied her in all her trips, but the novel has developed slowly. It is unlikely that it embarrassed the age difference - he was seventeen years younger. Everyone said that in twenty-five, she looked ten years older, and when she was forty, she looked twenty-five years. Dybenko came from illiterate peasant family, he was distinguished by daring, violent temper and impulsivity. She decided that met a man destined to her fate.
The rumor about the passionate love Valkyrie Revolution with the famous leader of the Baltic sailors reached almost to every citizen of Russia. "This man, in which prevails over intellect, and soul, heart, will, energy, - wrote about Kollontai Dybenko. - In it, in his passionate gentle caress no offends, insults a woman stroke ". However, she wrote about him and another: "Dybenko undoubted natural talent, but not these rebellious people just do the People's Commissars, to give them such power ... They dizzy ". She went to him to the front. Dybenko transferred from one part to another - Alex followed him. But to be "at someone," she did not want it hurt her pride. Dybenko was ordered to destroy Kolchak, Kollontai returned to his work in the Women's Section of the CC and women's section of the Comintern Vice Armand.
At that time, Kollontai has very much understood in the revolution. In the diary she wrote that the workers are cruelly disappointed, but in the articles called for workers to new efforts towards building a new life. And despite all intentions to break with Paul, she continued to meet with him. But she was tormented by jealousy. She soon fifty, and she felt the young opponent next to him. One day she waited for him until late at night, and when he came, he chided. Paul tried to shoot himself, wounding himself. It turns out that the girl has set an ultimatum: "Either I, or she". Kollontai came out a friend and said goodbye to him forever.
Kollontai long did not like what happened in the Bolshevik Party. She felt that inner struggle of good things come to an end, and decided to hide. Her fiercely hated Zinoviev. At his request, Stalin sent Shura in Norway, in fact, in honor of the link.
In Norway, her friend, assistant and advisor to become Body Marseille, the French Communist secretary of the Soviet mission. Obviously, he was the last love of Alexandra Kollontai. It was the European polish and deference, and he was twenty-one year younger than the Shura.
After a while she became head of the Soviet diplomatic mission in Norway, and then the world's first woman ambassador in Sweden. In Sweden, she wrote and Dybenko, and Shlyapnikov. Sometimes she went to the secret, carefully conspiratorial meetings with Body. In Russia, grip of terror. Letters of friends were full of gloom.
In one of his visits to Moscow caused it Ezhov - asked about the Body. She broke off all contact with the Frenchman. Then Kollontai learned about the arrest Shlyapnikov, and not even tried to help, understand - it is useless. He was shot in 1937. Then he was arrested Satkevicha. Seventy professors were executed by a decree signed by Yezhov. Dybenko arrested as a "party-military fascist conspiracy" and was shot in July 1938. "Live - scary," - wrote Kollontai. Prepare the case of "traitors, diplomats, the list was, and her name. But the loud process is not followed, the diplomats "removed" quiet. Kollontai somehow survived.
In March 1945, Molotov informed by telegram in Sweden, that upon their arrival for a special plane. Vnukovo Shura met the grandson of Vladimir. Peter Maslov died of natural causes in 1946. Kollontai died before reaching five days prior to the eightieth. She was buried next to Chicherin and Litvinov.