Lazar Kaganovich( Statesman.)
Comments for Lazar Kaganovich
Biography Lazar Kaganovich
(November 22, 1893 - July 25, 1991)
. In modern Russia, researchers have not often remember about Lazar Kaganovich: no significant research, . that could be contacted to find interesting facts from the life of this let the odious, . but, . certainly, . outstanding person,
. However, on 22 June, we can not forget Lazar Kaganovich, as one of the heroes of the Great Patriotic War, which no doubt he really was.
Kaganovich was very far from the Jewish problem. He was born 10 (22) November 1893 in the town Habnoe (Habne - in Ukrainian) Kyiv region, . Kaganovich came to be known during the peak of his power, . a Jewish family, . where only talking in Yiddish, . and, . Despite this, . He was an admirer of assimilation.,
. He came from large and poor Jewish family
. Kaganovich Poverty forced to interrupt their studies, and, having studied the craft shoemaker, Lazarus was the age of fourteen to work in shoe factories and shoe shops. In 1911 young Kaganovich joined the Bolsheviks.
Spring 1917 Kaganovich drafted. A young soldier, who had had seven years experience of the illegal Party work and good data orator and agitator, took a prominent place in the Saratov Bolshevik organization. After returning to Saratov Kaganovich was arrested but escaped and illegally moved to Gomel in the frontline zone. Within weeks he was not only chairman of the local trade union of shoemakers and tanners, but the chairman of the Polesie Committee of the Bolsheviks. Gomel Kaganovich met the October Revolution.
Lazar Kaganovich remarkable for the fact that he was one of two or three Jews, who continued to remain in power at all times of Stalinism. When Stalin's anti-Semitism that was possible only thanks to a complete renunciation of Kaganovich from all their relatives, friends and acquaintances. Known, . example, . fact, . that when Stalin's secret police before the Stalin raised the case of my brother Kaganovich, . Michael Moiseevich, . Minister of Aviation Industry, . and Lazar Kaganovich, Stalin asked, . he thought about it, . then Kaganovich, . well knew, . that prepares pure murder without the slightest reason, . answered, . that this case "investigative bodies" and it does not apply,
. Before the arrest of Mikhail Kaganovich shot.
Lazar Kaganovich, throwing himself into the revolution, according to the needs of the revolutionary work in 1917 moved from place to place. In Nizhny Novgorod, he met with Molotov, who nominated him for the post of chairman of executive committee of the Nizhny Novgorod, and this meeting has determined his career. True, he had wandered, traveled to Voronezh, Central Asia, and finally in the All in trade union work. Hence, Molotov in 1922, takes it as a heads Orgotdelom CC, and here begins his rapid ascent.
Kaganovich climbed the ladder of power during the struggle against Trotskyism. During the 30 years he directed the rail, built the Moscow subway, later bore his name.
. Kaganovich was the most "gray cardinal", without the consent of whom Stalin did not take any serious decision and not make any decisive steps
. Lazar Moiseevich supervised all personnel matters, was the initiator of the cult of personality "father of all nations" and was the chief organizer of reprisals carried out during the rule of the dictator ". In short, it was he who gave birth to a monster, the magnitude of the crimes of which still affect the whole world.
Immediately after the intercession for the post of secretary of the Communist Party of Kaganovich, Stalin appointed head of the Organizational and Instruction Department of the Central Committee of the RCP (b). In the hands of Kaganovich were powerful levers of power, since he headed the Division engaged in placement and recruitment. Attracts the most valuable information about the situation in the party, here prepared many important decisions.
Kaganovich had a strong and powerful character. But he did not get into arguments with Stalin, and immediately rendered himself totally loyal employee, ready to fulfill any orders. Stalin was able to assess this complaisance, . Kaganovich, and soon became one of the most trusted people a kind of "shadow cabinet", . or, . as expressed in the West, . "team" of Stalin, . ie that personal power apparatus, . which Stalin began to form within the RCP (b) before the death of Lenin,
. Lazar Kaganovich in 1924 he was elected not only a member of the RCP (B), but the Secretary. The new Secretary of the Central Committee was then only thirty years.
On the recommendation of Stalin, Kaganovich, it was elected in 1925, the First Secretary of the CC CP (b) U. Much of the party cadres and drew among the Jewish population of the republic, which saw the Soviet government guarantee of protection from persecution and pogroms that swept over the Jewish settlements in the Civil War. At least half of the students of Ukrainian universities was Russian and Jewish youth.
Start 30-ies was the time of greatest power Kaganovich. In 1932 - 1934 years of letters from places many have addressed: "Comrades and. V. Stalin and L. M. Kaganovich ". At the same time has undertaken a radical reconstruction of Moscow. As a "leader" or "steering" of the Bolsheviks in Moscow, Kaganovich was one of the organizers of this work. However, since the mid 30-ies, Stalin began to move it to the economic work. In 1935, Kaganovich was appointed People's Commissar of Railways
. After, . how to Stalin and Kaganovich people were placed at all key locations in the Russia Federation, . Kaganovich handed the Department of the Party Central Committee to its people, . while he is replaced for the post of secretary of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine, . where at that time there were many independent-minded towards it and Stalin executives,
In terms of importance Ukraine ranks second after Russia Federation and, of course, Kaganovich, and Stalin could not leave her without her attention. For two and a half year tenure as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party of Ukraine Kaganovich replaced all cadres and their people everywhere set up the.
Time has shown that Kaganovich Stalin was not wrong. Lazar Moiseevich forever remained his satrap ...
. The conscience of Lazar Kaganovich, the total destruction of valuable historical monuments of Russia, are concentrated in Moscow: he hated symbol of glory and victory of the Russian people in the Patriotic War of 1812 - the majestic Cathedral of Christ the Savior ...
. ... remains wine Kaganovich for the deaths of millions during the collectivization, . died of starvation, . shot and gone in unmarked graves of peasants Russia, . Ukraine, . North Caucasus and other parts of the vast country: Foreign Sovietologists attributed to solid collectivization of agriculture destroy 13 million,
. farmers, including more than 7 million. people died of starvation ...
Kaganovich, Stalin entrusted to the chairmanship of the Central Commission for verification of the Party ranks during the years 1933-1934 held in the purge of the Party. And in 1933, Kaganovich has endowed the country and the party next opus "Purging the Party".
In 1934, Kaganovich headed by Transport Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), and subsequently - the Traffic Commission and the Central Committee of CPC, until his appointment as Commissar of Railways ...
Since February 1935, Kaganovich been led almost all the business people's commissariat ministries: Railways, heavy machinery, fuel, petroleum, construction materials. And wherever he worked, Kaganovich was able to show good face. The most important of their weapons and management practices, he did fear: The fear and blackmail, multiplied by the organizational acumen, built their success in the management of Lazar Kaganovich ...
. Wherever Kaganovich appeared, everywhere he found "pests", but to eliminate bottlenecks began with the elimination of people
. Combining the two posts - the People's Commissar of Railways and the People's Commissar of Heavy Industry (1935-1939), . "the first superintendent, jail all the commanders of production, . members commissariats and departmental head up to the directors of trusts, . enterprises and heads of roads,
. Kaganovich acted in this case, the two faces - as secretary of the Communist Party and as a commissar.
Once at Stalin's dacha LM. Kaganovich made one discouraging, but mnogoznamenatelnoe proposal, which, according to his calculations, was to please the owner giving. He said: "We all talk - Leninism:, Leninism:, Leninism. But Lenin is long gone. Stalin did more, and we should talk about Stalinism with a capital letter, and on Leninism enough !"...
But by the end of 30-ies the situation has changed dramatically not in favor of Kaganovich and other Jews, surrounded before Stalin. First, . a "father of nations" are no more apparent enemies, . which would have to fight, and secondly, . increased anti-Semitism in the country; Third, . threatened attack by Nazi Germany, . whose leadership negative attitude toward Jews,
May 3, 1939 was removed from his post as Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Litvinov, a Jew and replaced by Russian Molotov. In the same in 1939 was dismissed from his post of secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) the Jew Kaganovich. Most other Jews who have held to this high office and positions were also excluded. And none of them thought to argue, because everyone knew it was time to go into the shadows.
For all that, the NKVD, OGPU were as previously filled by Jews, but it is certainly not publicized. Line managers were mostly Jews, especially in those industries that were related to trade and supply.
. Suspension Litvinov, Kaganovich and other prominent Jews from key leadership positions has made a positive impression on Hitler
. As a result, he agreed to negotiate and to conclude (23 August 1939), nonaggression pact and mutual aid, which had to do was not going to. After that, the trains with the Soviet raw materials went to Germany without interruption.
At last, for Stalin, the Politburo, where he had a stroke, he suggested that the infamous plan for the evacuation of all Soviet Jews. Voroshilov spoke against this, Molotov said that it will cause resentment of intellectuals and democratic circles around the world. Lazar Kaganovich helpfully asked: "All evreevN!"
So L. Kaganovich was far from being "holy". And we should not hesitate to say that among Jews there are types like him.
Figure Lazar Kaganovich still remains a mystery to researchers. Self-educated because of the "Pale" in the years of Soviet power has risen to its heights, for several decades was part of Stalin's Politburo, headed by industry and transport of the Soviet Union. He was called the "Iron Commissar ',' Stalin's best pupil, he was assigned to the most responsible job.
After retiring from the big-time politics after the death of Stalin, Kaganovich live to perestroika. His name was again mentioned in the press, this time as one of the main perpetrators of Stalin's repressions, unscrupulous bureaucrat and careerist.
Kaganovich silence. He avoided reporters, he lived a very closed, and only after his death became known that until the last day he did not stop work on the memories, which described all his long life.