Haj Amin el-Huseyni/Haj Amin al-Husseini /( Jerusalem Mufti)
Comments for Haj Amin el-Huseyni/Haj Amin al-Husseini /
Biography Haj Amin el-Huseyni/Haj Amin al-Husseini /
(1895 (N) - 4.07.1974)
On the morning of 6 th April 1945 has entered a critical day for the Hajj Amin el-Husseini - the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, as was officially called his office. The events became a turning point in his life occurred in the capital of Nazi Germany - Berlin.
During the Second World War, Hajj Amin repeatedly hosted (in his villa on Getenshtrasse in Zelendorfe) senior leaders of the Nazi. But that morning, the Mufti was sitting in the apartment of one of his friends and the only representative of the Third Reich was the SS - a bodyguard and chauffeur. The man, a table which is a few months ago, was bursting with the most exquisite delicacies of European, now a plate of food, the Egyptian fellah (peasant) - a porridge of red beans with vinegar.
. In the room were several Arabs with gloomy faces
. These were the same people, . that in October 1941 followed Mufti, . when, . dressed in a dress maid Italian diplomat, . "slipped away" from the British and made his way to Tehran, . then to walk to the Turkish border and to get to Berlin.,
. Convinced that the victory of Hitler's Germany will implement its goals - the expulsion of Jews from Palestine and the British and the Middle East - Haj Amin put the Nazi card all
. He used all his personal prestige and all of its influence on the religious leader is to transform the Arab allies of the Nazis.
And now - 6 th April 1945 - it became clear that the Grand Mufti lost. Reminder of his defeat was not the incessant roar of planes allies methodically bombed Berlin.
- Here we have nothing more to do, - said Hajj Amin, looking inscrutable and impassive gaze of Arabs attending. - Each of you should try to return home. There, we will continue our fight ...
. Then he stood up and fast festination slipped out of the room - so nun sitting quietly on the bed of dead leaves
. Haj Amin al-Husseini, the Mufti received sanierusalimskogo in 1922 from the hands of a Jew - the first High Commissioner of Palestine, Sir Herbert Samuel
. Before that he spent two years at Cairo University, Al-Azhar and threw him, not having succeeded in geology. Later he served as a cadet in the Turkish army, in cooperation with the British intelligence. Then, believing that the liberation of the Arabs realized through the British crown, became a fierce Anglophile and enlisted advisor to the British administration in Sudan.
. "The Balfour Declaration and the Sykes-Picot agreement had convinced him of duplicity English
. Haj Amin hated them even more than Jews. After returning from Sudan in Jerusalem, he started on the streets and bazaars to incite the Arabs against Jews. It was then that he realized at last that he had found his vocation. His intrigue and incitement to bear fruit - on Easter Sunday in 1920 a crowd of Arabs attacked Jews near the Jaffa Gate. It killed 12 people: six Jews and six Arabs. Since the first blood was shed in the struggle for Jerusalem.
The role of Hajj Amin in this collision would have cost him 10 years in prison if he had not fled in time in Transjordan (the sentence was handed down in absentia). However, in exile, he did not stay long. Soon released the mufti of Jerusalem Post. Sir Herbert Samuel, who, as a Jew, tried to remain impartial, was persuaded to appoint exactly Hajj Amin al-Husseini. As the High Commissioner urged the political secretary of the mandatory administration of E. Richmond, an ardent anti-Zionists, "Stay at this position may abound appointed a sense of responsibility."
. Since British authorities have provided a very important and, moreover, a lifetime position in Palestine, his worst enemy.
. At first it seemed that the British had cleverly figured
. For a while, Hajj Amin behaved quietly. However, he did not sit idly. He cared about consolidating his power and did not want to irritate their powerful enemies. He secured election to the presidency of the Supreme Muslim Council and has authority over all Muslim foundations in Palestine.
People Hajj Amin seized the courts, mosques, schools, cemeteries. So soon in Palestine, no Muslim could be born and die without that this was not traced the Mufti of Jerusalem. None of the sheikh, or a school teacher, no official, no matter how small it may be imposed without checking their complete devotion to the Mufti. Disregarding educated Arabs and not trusting them, he recruited his supporters in the bazaars and villages. Using the ignorance of these people, he promised them weapons and easy profits.
Finally, in 1929, Haj Amin decided that the hour has struck. When his secret inciting the crowd pounced on Arabs praying at the Wailing Wall Jews. A wave of pogroms swept across Palestine. When the carnage ended, more than 100 Jews were dead, and the Mufti became the unquestioned leader of the Palestinian Arabs.
. In 1935 the devotees Mufti people began to conduct sabotage in protest against the growing immigration of Jews from Nazi Germany
. And the mufti has decided that now people are prepared to have to go to death. Well, he could give him that opportunity - to begin "jihad" (holy war) to expel the British from Palestine, but at the same time "solving" the Jewish problem.
. 25 th April 1936 at a meeting of Arab community leaders in Nablus was founded Arab Higher Council, which was attended by all Arab parties and circles in Palestine
. Chairman, as expected, was elected Hajj Amin.
. This council proclaimed a general strike, . which was to last until, . While the authorities do not fulfill the three requirements of the board: a ban on entry of Jews into Palestine, ban the transfer of land to Jews, the establishment of the Government, . responsible to the people's elected representatives,
. However, the strike was declared the boycott of the Jews. In that case, if the demands of the Arabs will not be satisfied until 15 May, the council declared civil resistance and the beginning of terrorist and subversive acts against the authorities and the Jews.
. The general strike was the culmination of the Arab national movement in 1936
. None of the organizers initially did not anticipate that it will continue 175 days. Then it turned into armed revolt, which was originally directed against the British and the Jews, but he soon turned against the Arabs - the enemies of the Mufti, against the clans competing with his family. And then, and against those whose social status or profession aroused the suspicions of Hajj Amin. They murdered farmers, school teachers, employees, officials, and sometimes just those who are "too good" knew English.
People Mufti began to hire in order to settle scores with personal enemies. In the cities the murder is usually committed in the markets early in the morning, when men of Arab customs went shopping. In the villages, the murder occurred at night: a band of thugs kicked a man in the house and killed him in bed.
. In early September 1937 in the resort town of Bludan near Damascus hosted a pan-Arab conference on Palestine
. It was chaired by Haj Amin. The participants expressed their strong opposition to a plan for partition of Palestine and the establishment of a Jewish state.
. In the days of the conference created the Committee to Protect the Mufti of Palestine, which was to become a political and military leader of the uprising
. This committee is actively initiated an anti-Jewish propaganda and the organization of new unrest in Palestine. He was collecting money, the transfer of arms and the recruitment of volunteers.
28 September the same year, Palestine was shocked to learn of the murder of Luis Andrews, shortly before the appointed governor of Galilee. This was a direct challenge to British authorities, and they proceeded to take immediate and decisive action.
Five days after the murder of the Arab Higher Council was dissolved. All national committees were outlawed. Haj Amin was removed from his post. Hundreds of Arab community leaders were arrested.
When British authorities finally decided to arrest the Mufti, he was disguised as a beggar, he fled from Jerusalem to Jaffa, and thence to a fishing boat made his way to Lebanon. Since then he became the chief leader of the Arab national movement in Palestine. From his residence in Beirut, under the benevolent patronage of France, he continued to lead the insurgency until the Second World War broke out.
. In September evening in 1939, pensively sucking olives, Haj Amin asked one of his friends:
. - How do you think the Germans are better anglichanN
. However, the Mufti had already made a choice ..
Haj Amin was in contact with the Nazis in 1936. The French, who learned about it, politely evicted the Mufti of Baghdad, where he took part in the plot, aims to overthrow the pro-British regime in Iraq with the Axis. When the plot failed, he fled to Tehran. Once in Iran have been introduced British and Soviet troops moved to Germany, where he personally received the Adolph Hitler.
There, he recruited people, which the Germans then threw in the rear of the British as a subversive. Helped form two SS divisions from the Yugoslav Muslims. Did everything to facilitate the invasion of the Germans in Tunisia and Libya. Its agents for 48 hours Wehrmacht headquarters warned of an impending Allied landings in North Africa.
. Finally, . knowing for certain, . what is the "final" final solution to the Jewish question, . Mufti had made every effort, . that none of the victims of Nazism has not escaped the gas chambers Reichsfiihrer Himmler and has not reached "the promised land",
. In 1943, he personally appealed to Reichsminister Foreign Minister Ribbentrop, asking to prevent the emigration of 4000 Jewish children from Bulgaria to Palestine.
. A correspondence Mufti with Hitler and the remaining minutes of a personal meeting between, . held on 28 th November 1941 in Berlin, . shortly before the famous Wannsee Conference, . leave no doubt, . that the Palestinian leader was not merely an accomplice, . and one of the main initiators of the Nazi genocide,
. By the time the Berlin meeting with the Fuhrer in a political asset Hajj Amin had the number of organizations progermanskogo rebellion and anti-Jewish pogroms in Iraq in June 1941. But this was only the beginning of a long, fruitful cooperation between the Mufti and the Nazis.
Berlin remained the main base of the Palestinian leader until the end of the war. Mufti regularly lectured to various Nazi officers, instructing them in all matters related to the "final solution". In addition to being formed on the Balkans, the Muslim SS battalion Hajj Amin proposed the creation under the auspices of the Wehrmacht's thousands-strong Arab Legion. He insisted on the bombing of Tel Aviv Luftwaffe aircraft, demanded to land in Palestine, the German parachutists. Exclusively military tensions on the Eastern front did not give the Nazis the possibility to meet this "modest" the wishes of its Palestinian ally.
With time, the Mufti of Jerusalem appeared in Berlin influential competitors - the capital of the Third Reich became a place of pilgrimage for Arab chiefs. Each of them tried to present himself a true expression of political aspirations of its people. However, Hajj Amin enjoyed in Berlin, a special influence, and in the course of work in the Balkans, he was, moreover, a personal friend of Heinrich Himmler's SS Reichsfuhrer.
Never again has the Mufti did not repent of their actions, as eloquent he left memoirs. "Germany was our true friend, - claimed Hajj Amin in the postwar years. - In the past it was not an imperialist power and will not harm any Muslim country. I remain convinced that if Germany and her allies defeated in World War II, in Palestine and the Arab East from the Zionists, there would be no trace of
. ... Six weeks after the meal in Berlin, Hajj Amin and his two companions were in a Paris prison Cherche-Midi
. Shortly before Germany's defeat they were on a training flight from the Luftwaffe flew to the Austrian city of Klagenfurt in Switzerland and asked refuge. When the Swiss authorities refused to harbor the Mufti, he decided to surrender to the French.
. Seemed, . from Paris, he was prepared for a direct road to a place of honor in the dock, the Nuremberg trials and the severity of his sentence, . which forever would deprive him from engaging in politics, . and released to his office for a more moderate figure,
. Evidence of his criminal activity was more than enough. Many of them were gathered his trusted servant - spies, planted by the Jewish Agency, especially in order to monitor the mufti (he never guessed her true role).
However, at the Nuremberg trials Haj Amin did not get. The French, enraged by the fact that under pressure from the British, they had to withdraw from Syria and Lebanon, do not hurry to deal with one of the worst enemies of Great Britain. Mufti said: "General Charles de Gaulle is sympathetic to your cause". Haj Amin and his associates are not allowed to stay in prison, and a villa in the suburbs of Paris under secret police surveillance.
The British, not wanting to cause unrest in the Muslim colonies, also inactive, despite the virtuous statements.
Finally, during the visit of French Foreign Minister Leon Blum in the U.S. Zionist leaders argued that the concealment Mufti - a war criminal - from the Court is incompatible with receiving U.S. economic aid. Blum, a sympathizer of the cause of the Zionists, disagreed with them, but the Prime Minister Georges Bidault had another opinion. Haj Amin hinted that the best thing he can do - is quietly disappear.
. 29 th May 1946, sbriv beard, in a strict civil suit, the Mufti with a forged Syrian passport in his pocket got in Paris on the plane bound for Cairo
. Four days later, in his Jerusalem headquarters received a telegram: "Daddy is back".
From that day uncompromising zealot again to seize power over the Arabs of Palestine. Young, . educated, . open-minded Arab intellectuals, . which the British hoped to make enlightened leaders of the Palestinian people, . began timidly to look around on the sides, . Should not someone behind them, . and suddenly began to find a lot of Mufti every merit, . which previously they somehow did not notice.,
. 29 th November 1947, sitting in a room of the Lebanese resort of Aley, Haj Amin closely followed every word of discussion at the UN General Assembly
. The morning after the vote, . when it adopted resolution No.181 to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish states, . He telephoned to Jerusalem and ordered the start of the first stage of the struggle, . that during his last afternoon in Berlin vowed to resume,
Like 27 years ago at the dawn of his career, he began the battle from the bastion, which he knew best - from the Arab markets of Jerusalem. Crowds of Arabs began to gather there in the morning on December 1. Street prepared to demonstrate response Haj Amin to the UN decision.
The merchants closed their shops and painted on the facades of a crescent or a cross to protect their property from the fury of rioters. For the Jews of Jerusalem had ended the night of fun. Among flammable Arab crowd deliberately provocative rumors were dismissed.
That same morning, a rumor that the Jaffa Gate Jews raped two young Arab women. The crowd grew, absorbing more and more people - workers, vagrants, fellahin, traders, school children, weeping women. They poured into the Jewish quarters ..
... During the week of December 1947, every evening on the streets of Qasr al-Nil, the main thoroughfare of the Egyptian capital, crowds of people. They came here to gawk at the lights of the palace, which houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. They deliberated eight angry men. Seven of them were prime ministers or foreign ministers of the States that were part of the Arab League - Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, Lebanon and Transjordan. Eighth was the General Secretary of the organization.
For people who gathered in the palace, was a formidable force. Under their authority was total population of 45 million people - 30 times the population of Palestine. At the disposal of these people had five regular armies, of which three (Iraq, Egypt and Transjordan) were considered sufficient combat-ready.
. - If the UN wants the Jewish state existed - boasted Lebanese Prime Minister Riyad Solh, - she would have to send their soldiers to protect each and every Jew.
. But during the negotiations revealed that and so they were all aware
. Between public statements and personal beliefs of these leaders was a huge distance. Whatever they're going to take in Palestine, it could be done not for assistance to the Palestinian brothers. Unless, . participants adopted a resolution, . which, . in particular, said: "The Arab League is determined to prevent the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine and to keep Palestine as a united and independent state",
I must say that the whole debate is hovering shadow myagkogolosogo red-bearded man, has long played a major role in Palestinian tragedy - Haj Amin al-Husseini. He set up his headquarters on the outskirts of Cairo, from which followed closely the progress of the conference. All Arab leaders, gathered outside the Qasr al-Nil, in deep secrecy alone visited the Mufti in his secluded haven. He took them under a huge picture of Jerusalem and tried to persuade to a solution that suits him.
Haj Amin did not want to Palestine, the Arab armies invaded. They realized that the army come to seize power, but he did not have the slightest intention to share with anybody else had their power in Palestine. And at least he agreed to see in Palestine, his rivals, who commanded the armies of Iraq and Transjordan. The purpose of the mufti was to create its own army, which would break the Jews without outside assistance.
Resolution adopted by the meeting, fine with Hajj Amin. Now was to get control over all money and volunteers were promised the Arab League, and put the troops under his command. To prove the validity of their claims to leadership of the country, Mufti immediately sent to Palestine as Commander of his cousin Abdul Kader Husseini.
After several days of Hajj Amin left Cairo. He left with the firm intention to fulfill the oath, first uttered by one of his followers and became the main slogan of the mufti, - "throw the Jews into the sea!
. Since the Conference of the Arab League in Cairo in December 1947, Hajj Amin insisted that all the weapons and money collected by the League, were placed at his disposal
. In early February 1948 he arrived in Damascus, the headquarters of the Iraqi general Ismail Safuata. He was appointed commander of Arab forces, who were to invade Palestine.
In Damascus, the Mufti had to solve two problems. First, he wanted to transform the Arab Higher Committee in Jerusalem, a Palestinian Provisional Government, which is intended to oppose the Jewish Agency. Secondly, he intended to insist on the abolition of the Cairo decision to establish a volunteer Liberation Army.
This army of volunteers recruited from Arab countries, led by a Syrian, was to start a guerrilla war in Palestine before the withdrawal of British troops. If you can not prevent the formation of this army, Haj Amin hoped, at least, to hold the post of Chief of any of his henchmen.
However, the Mufti has little. Ismail Safuat accused him of embezzlement, theft of weapons, nepotism and appointments to positions of responsibility for anything not suitable people. At one meeting the general shouted that the Mufti henchmen appropriated money and weapons, sufficient to ensure that only one in Haifa contain two thousand men, whereas in fact it operates only some two hundred people.
. Associates and colleagues Mufti understood that in the days when public opinion, shocked by the Nazi atrocities, widespread support of the Zionists, the struggle of the Palestinian Arabs are unlikely to attract the sympathies of the peoples of the world
. Moreover, this fight is headed by a man who collaborated with Hitler. Enemies of the Mufti of the Arab League did not want that in his hands were too many weapons
. The British Government has no doubt that an acceptable solution to the Palestinian question will be found only if they adopt a more responsible rulers of Arab states, as such compromised people, like Hajj Amin
. The British made it clear to the Secretary General of the Arab League Azzam Pasha and Syrian Prime Minister Jamil Mardamu, . that they will be against the Liberation Army, . if she will be under the supervision of Mufti, . but adopts a more conciliatory stance, . If this army will be commanded by somebody else.,
. Faced with such a serious opposition, Haj Amin felt that his plans in serious danger
. In addition, King Abdullah of Jordan does not want to Mufti-led government. But the worst blow to the Mufti was appointed as Chief of the Liberation Army Lebanese Fawzi Kaukidzhi - both for past military achievements, and in contrast to the Mufti.
. ... On Tuesday the 11 th May 1948 at 6 pm, Prime Minister Egpta Nukrashi Pasha rose from his seat in front of the podium for speakers at a round conference room of the Egyptian Parliament, and looked at him sitting in front of deputies
. A lowered voice, he asked members of Parliament to give its consent to a declaration of war is not born Jewish state.
. At the same time, after two days of debate in the council of war, the Arab League, Jordanian monarch Abdullah managed to thwart the plan, . which insisted on the mufti of Jerusalem - a plan the proclamation of the Palestinian Arab State, . Government which would be a Jerusalem Arab Higher Committee.,
. Acer Haj Amin sent his benefactor to the Egyptian King Farouk's congratulatory telegram on the occasion of Egypt in the war and sent a secret emissary to the headquarters of the royal army in Al-Arish
. He hoped to persuade the Egyptian command of the army did not move to Tel Aviv and to Jerusalem. Haj Amin longed to get back into the city, where he was nominally Grand Mufti. He understood perfectly that if the Holy City would be seized by King Abdullah, his chances of back rest in the Al-Aqsa Mosque will be as insignificant as in the event that Jerusalem would be in the hands of the Jews.
. What ended the first Arab-Israeli war, which began immediately after the proclamation of the night of 15 th May 1948 the State of Israel, known
. Arab forces suffered a defeat on all fronts. The dream of Arab Palestine zavevat blown away ...
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Amin al-Husseini, spent the rest of life under Beirut. Until the end of his days he hated the Jews and the British, believed that God would return it lost power in Jerusalem. He died in Beirut on July 4, 1974 at age 77. When the mufti's funeral, the coffin was the current Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. By the way, a distant relative of Haj Amin. His face was wet with tears.
The name of the mufti, who even went to the pact with Hitler, to create the preconditions for the establishment of a Palestinian state, not memorialized in the names of Palestinian organizations. Moreover, in memory of him is a special funeral date ...