Demidov, Nikita Akinfievich( Prodalzhatel certain kind Demidovs industrialists)
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Biography Demidov, Nikita Akinfievich
(19.09.1724 - 7.05.1989)
"Marvelous, powerful and energetic" XVIII century rocks are known throughout Russia dynasty Demidov. Their story - a wonderful weave of bright noble impulses and "despicable pages" that posterity would like to tear or rewrite ... The founder of the dynasty - an illiterate peasant gunsmith Nikita Demidovich Antufiev. From the bottom, he stepped to the royal court - solely by virtue of its usefulness to the state! His son - Russia's largest manufacturer, . "noble rudoznatets", . Akinfiy, . ruled with an iron hand mortgaged father "of the Ural empire and was known as one of the richest people in Russia Empire,
. And what famous Akinfiy youngest son by his second wife, named in honor of the founder of the genus Nikita
Bequest Akinfiy Demidova all his "empire" had to retire the beloved son of Nikita. However, after a long family proceedings (they even attended the Empress Elizabeth), all legacy was divided between the three brothers - Prokofiev, Gregory and Nikita. The latter went to Nizhnetagilsky only part of the inheritance, which included six Ural plants. By the end of the life of Nikita Demidov number of businesses owned by him to nine. Moreover, the size of production, they have surpassed all plants belonging to the middle of the XVIII century to his father.
. Nikita, of course, inherited from his father's talent manager and industrialist, as, indeed, extraordinary cruelty towards those who forged it is wealth
. Its stern character glory was all over Russia. Thus, the peasants of the village Rusanov province of Tula, knowing that they bought Nikita Demidov, rebelled, refusing to move to a new owner. To pacify the peasants had been sent to a military unit - a result of the collision killed more than 60 people.
Nikita Demidov no longer lives in the Urals, in their factories. He has a near Moscow, Petrovsky, luxurious home in Moscow - one in the Butcher (in place of the current post office), another - on Ascension Street German settlement, on the Yauza - Sloboda house (now St.. Radio, 10). He was well known in Moscow. True, the house was built so long (from 1762 until the end of 1770-ies), that during this period gave way to strict magnificent Baroque classicism. And the building, built in Baroque style, is no longer consistent with the enlightened taste and it seemed old-fashioned. Yet the house was so good that M.F. Kazakov included it in his album "Particular structure of Moscow. Imagination Muscovites affects not only the house, but also a magnificent garden with a grotto, ornamental ponds, ornamental railings, cast in the Demidov factories, and greenhouses.
. Unlike his brother, Prokofy, who could not stand the titular know Nikita Akinfievich always sought to be recognized in the circle of high personages
. Perhaps in so doing it throughout his life to overcome the complex do not completely "clean", commoners. But, they say, it continually made itself felt. Outstanding Russian scholar and lexicographer A.T. Bolotov, . Noting the kindness and curiosity, a nice rich man ", . in Moscow whose house he plenty've seen enough of "those rare things, . What never seen ", . also notes, . that "with all his immense wealth and celebrity" Demidov, . essentially, . simpleton, . and through his gold is visible to "all the rudeness of his vile nature.",
. American Explorer
. Nikita Akinfievich actually the first of Demidovs launched into a long trip to Europe
. The main reason for this trip was the disease of the young (the third) wife. 26-year-old Alexander Evtihievna suffered from hysterical seizures. Treatment helped. But not only the joy it brought 50-year-old Demidov. During the trip the family has been considerably augmented. First daughter was born in Paris, but on the way back to Russia, 80 miles from St. Petersburg has been born the son of Nicholas (Nikita himself was also born on the road - on the river bank Chusovaya, during a visit their parents from Tula in Siberia).
. Family Demidov traveled Germany, Holland, France, Italy, traveled to Switzerland and England
. In light appeared "Journal of Travel His Highness Akinfievich Nikita Demidov in foreign countries since the beginning of his departure from St. Petersburg on March 17 of the day in 1771 on his return to Russia on November 22 day of 1773."
. From the Journal revealed that in France more "incomparable" statues and fountains of Versailles was surprised by his "machine ..
. which is held the water of the river Seine from Marly to Versailles ". Entertained Nikita Parisian manners and way of communication between people. "Here, from the excessive provision of friendship kept hugging" and "people are mostly engaged in operas and other spectacle". At the same time he did not disdain to the theater, but preferred "Italian comedy". But most of all struck by his Parisian. "The beauty of the female sex in Paris - he wrote in his" Journal "- like a watch spring - the beauty of their factory every morning. It is like the light, which are born and die in one day. All this is done ointment, sprinkling, haired, washing ... and so on until a person is not old "is new". And where did such a good knowledge of the holy of holies coquettish parizhanokN
. In England the Russian industrialist, takes the royal family, he attended the parliament, met with London aristocrats, inspects factories and mines of Birmingham, making detailed notes about the technological features of steel production
. Nikita Akinfievich visited and businesses owned by Bolton, who soon, along with Watt will be the first manufacturer of steam engines. Russian traveler you done in the Academy of Arts and convinced, . that the British masters have surpassed the French in the "mathematical arts" - complex instruments, . Hours, . jukeboxes and other "ingenious mechanics works", . distinguished by a clean finish with a long-term effort and a great Dependent ",
. Such things have always attracted Demidova. Before going abroad in January 1771 he was sent to the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts thousand rubles for the promotion of pupils' instrumental "and" time "classes. The interest on that amount they were given gold medals for achievements in mechanics.
In his journey to Italy accompanied by the famous sculptor Fedot Shubin, who Demidov orders marble busts - his and Alexandra Evtihievny. In Italy, Demidov spent four months. Was adopted "graciously and affectionately" by Pope Clement XIV, listened to the Sistine Chapel to admire the magnificent music of the "full of glory Michelle Anzhelevu painting". Surprised the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa, . that "if at all will fall", . and rarities from the study of natural history of the Bologna Academy of Sciences, . Walked for hours in Florence, . not assuming, . in a few decades, this city will become native to their future son, . grandchildren and great-grandchildren.,
. Returning from abroad, Nikita was carried away, like his elder brother, charity
. He opened with his Nizhny Tagil metallurgical factories school with public library. And in 1781, after learning about the construction of a new stone building of Moscow State University, sent a five and a half thousand sheets of black iron yardstick "for the roof and an additional 800 pounds of" the best messenger of iron to enhance degree
. Nikita was known as an enlightened man
. He loved to study science and very closely followed the new developments, and new books. He was sent from St. Petersburg almost everything that came out in the light. However, several eclectic collection of books - from "sad love the Marquis de Toledo" to "preach Feofanova and works of the Free Economic Society, of which he, incidentally, was. Were Nikita Akinfievich and their preferences - he liked the satirical magazines educator and Mason H. Novikova, ordered it and the satirical magazine "Miscellaneous", which was edited herself Catherine II, who wanted to see his people, "happy and contented."
. Evidently, sought Nikita Demidov, the spirit of the time, which heralded the age of enlightenment
. But for some reason the word "enlightened" him (if only he had!) Somehow unexpectedly added another. And something amazing happened - "enlightened despotism". "Freedom-loving Nikita corresponded with Voltaire, . was reading the works of Diderot and Montesquieu, . satyrs Novikova, . talked with them about the spirit and letter of the laws, . freedom and democracy, . but when this was one of the most ruthless Russian serf! Wonder, . however, . nothing,
. Under sounded from the throne and around the beautiful words of the "golden era" when "freedom of thought," but "the title of a slave" will be wiped out, farmers have continued to beat Batog Only one thing is that they dare to complain about their landlords ... Nikita Akinfievich was a worthy citizen Empress.
Some thought Nikita Demidov bright personality. Others did not find anything remarkable in it and were confident in its ordinariness. And some people thought that the most important event in his life was meeting with Fedotov Shubin, who created the wonderful "marble Nikita". Sealed in Stone Nikita Nikita really liked the way that the sculptor had been ordered copies in marble and plaster. So in every house (and houses Nikita Akinfievich was plenty), the owner met his stone or plaster statue.
Experts believe that the portraits Fedota Shubin biased observation and deep understanding of nature. Nikita Demidov, a sculptor has turned out a strong, powerful, and certainly an extraordinary man. Rigid and inflexible, he at the same time, several romantic and dreamy - casual unbuttoned shirt, beautifully streamed pleats and lace ... Perhaps because so like the portrait of Nikita Akinfievich that the sculptor has managed to find a wonderful compromise between the real man and his dream of himself.
. These marble busts in the life of Nikita Demidov never left the crimson room house on the Yauza
. When the son of Nikita, Nicholas, settled in Florence, he moved the family portraits Demidovs in Italy. There they were kept at the villa Pratolino, near Florence. In 1969, the remainder of Demidov's heritage has been sold at auction, organized by the famous Sotheby's. Marble busts of Nikita and Alexandra Demidovs work Fedota Shubin acquired Mr. Benigni from Switzerland, and then suggested to the Ministry of Culture of the USSR. Now sculptural portraits Akinfievich Nikita and Alexandra Evtihievny Demidovs belong to the State Tretyakov Gallery.