Diane Moses / Moshe Dayan /( Army General)
Comments for Diane Moses / Moshe Dayan /
Biography Diane Moses / Moshe Dayan /
(20.05.1915 - 16.10.1981)
In the late 60's and early 80-ies in the Soviet Union, the name of this general was on everyone's ears. It was mentioned in the media, and in the famous kitchens, and in works of folklore - in songs, legends, anecdotes. The latter, incidentally - the most vivid indicator of the nationwide popularity.
The name of this general - Moshe Dayan ...
However, in those years of Soviet propaganda portrayed him as a symbol of international Zionism and the Israeli military ". First, it was he who developed the plan for the war that began in June 1967. Secondly, his appearance could not be more the image of the enemy. Rigid face, a black armband on his left eye did Dayan ideal negative hero.
If somewhere in published articles exposing the "Israeli aggression", there certainly was a photograph of him. If showing newsreels of the war - always present Dayan. He branded on all Party meetings, rallies the workers and the lectures of the Society "Knowledge". In short, Dayan was an integral part in the Soviet way of life ...
It became popular - again as a backlash to the excessive promotion. He became a colonel and the Soviet Army, and Hero of the Soviet Union, and a graduate of the Frunze Academy ...
. Who was he in deystvitelnostiN
. Moshe Dayan - of the generation "sabra" (Jews born in Palestine), the captain who brought Israel to victory in the wars of 1956 and 1967
. However, the older generation remembers the Israelis and its success in the first Arab-Israeli war in 1948 (the Israelis call it the War of Independence). He is known as cold-blooded, resolute leader, stubbornly defending their views, courageous and tough warrior. But really - this is a complex man, not an unequivocal, knowing the ups and downs.
Diana's parents were among the first immigrants from Eastern Europe. Father - Shmuel Dayan (Kitaygorodsky) arrived in Palestine in 1908. In the 1911-meters, he became a wage-worker at a public farm (kibbutz) Dganiya, founded two years earlier at the southern tip of the Sea of Galilee. This was the first kibbutz in Eretz Yisrael (Land of Israel), numbering at that time 11 people. Later, Shmuel Dayan was one of the leaders of Mapai, a deputy of the Knesset (parliament) 1-3 convocations.
Diana's mother - Deborah (nee - Zatulovskaya) came to Palestine from Russia with a letter to one of the members Dganii. But she was so attractive and educated woman (she later became one of the leaders of women's labor movement in Palestine) that the kibbutz was not at court. She returned the application for membership, and she found work in another village.
In 1915, Deborah married Shmuel Dayan. And only after the wedding couple was admitted to the Dganiya kibbutz, where in the same year was born Moshe. He was the first child born in the first Israeli kibbutz.
It is said that from his father, Moshe, who in childhood was a sickly boy, inherited the secretive, closed nature of. A mother, who was strong and vivid personality with a remarkable intelligence, he gained much of his intellectual qualities.
. In 1921, Shmuel Dayan was one of a small group of enthusiasts organized the new settlement Nahalal
. They abandoned the strict collectivist kibbutz, and Nahalal was the first experimental "Moshav" - village, where each family had their own house and a small subsistence farming, while the bulk of the economy has been cooperative.
. Childhood Moshe was unhappily
. In Dganii, and then in Nahalale settlers struggled against poverty, squalid living conditions, heat and disease, mainly malaria and trachoma. My father always absent, engaged in the affairs of the movement "Moshav" Labor Party and the Histadrut (General Federation of Jewish Workers). His mother was forced to do hard work on the farm and raise three children - Moses, his sister and younger brother, Aviv Zohar, who was killed during the War of Independence.
. Since childhood, Moshe had to help around the house while visiting a rural school
. During these years he became acquainted with the Arabs from nearby villages, he made friends with them, learned colloquial Arabic and, as many believe, "could think like an Arab."
. Passing two-year course in agricultural school, . established Nahalale the World Zionist Organization, . He met his future wife - a classmate, Ruth Schwartz, . daughter of a prosperous lawyer from Jerusalem, . which was two years younger than him,
. However, before you get married, they had one "operation", in which 19-year-old Moshe has shown that is capable of noble deeds.
At the request of Ruth, he designed the sham marriage with her friend - a Jewish girl, a refugee from Germany. The purpose of the operation "was to enable her to obtain a Palestinian passport and thus prevent its expulsion from Palestine back to Germany.
A year later, "marriage" was annulled. Ruth and Moses were married. Her parents arranged for their trip to England, that the future general could learn from the London Academy and see the world.
However, the venture was unsuccessful. Moshe knew little English, it was difficult to establish contacts, did not like the climate and the unusual wear: jacket, tie and shoes instead of sandals.
A few months later the couple returned to Palestine. It was at this time started the Arab revolt 1936-1939.
As a teenager, Dayan became an active member of the Haganah (in translation from Hebrew - "defense") - Jewish militias in the period of the British Mandate in Palestine. In the 12 years he was able to handle a rifle, took part in the protection of settlements from the incursions of the Bedouin, in the fourteen - went to the Night Watch.
At the time, the Haganah had difficult relations with the British mandate authorities. It was an illegal, underground militia, although its members together with the British were opposed to the Arabs during the uprising. Dayan served in special Jewish guard units, interacted with British patrols along Iraq's vital oil pipeline company, which passed through Palestine to the refineries in Haifa.
. In 1938, a Scottish officer in an artillery captain Charles Orde Wingate received permission to recruit a volunteer group of Haganah and use them on the northern border against the Arab militias that have infiltrated from Lebanon
. Dayan and other future military leaders of Israel have received invaluable lessons in night patrols: resourcefulness, surprise, ambush, speed and movement in the dark.
. Released in 1939 the British "White Paper" actually rolled British policy aimed at creating a Jewish national home
. Simultaneously, the political course of England shifted in the direction of pro-Arab. By the existence of the Haganah could no longer be tolerated. Mandated government decided that it represents a potential Jewish resistance movement, because it expressed defiance restrictions on the entry of Jews to Palestine.
. In October 1939, after the Second World War, Dayan was one of the 43 Haganah men who were arrested by the authorities mandate training for the organization of vigilante groups treated with non-permitted weapons
. A military tribunal sentenced one of the men to life imprisonment. The rest - to ten years.
At the prison in Acre to be treated as criminals to. Shaved head, was given a prison overalls, Arabic food and feed were taken for forced labor. Nevertheless, Dayan did not lose heart, and even, according to the memoirs cellmates, composing poems.
Sixteen months later, martial law allies in the Middle East has deteriorated. German General Romel moved to Egypt. Syria was in the hands of the French Vichy government, collaborated with the Nazis. Palestine was under threat of invasion by German troops.
"Yishuv (Jewish community in Palestine before the establishment of Israel), in spite of everything, all his strength left for the war, speaking on the side of Britain. In February 1941, 43 inmates were released.
Three months later, Dayan was ordered to form and lead a group of 31 volunteers Haganah. Problem - an exploration in Syria to prepare the British invasion. Members of the group were to become agents for the troops.
July 8, 1941 Dayan crossed the border with a small group of avant-garde. They seized a police post, but came under heavy fire from the French side. Dayan sought from the roof firing point, using binoculars killed a French officer. The bullet shattered the lens, and the fragments were in the left eye.
Only six hours it could be evacuated and transported to a hospital in Haifa. Surgeons removed the remnants of glass and metal, and eye opening stitched.
So a black armband, then became famous around the world. A kind of symbol of Israel's militarism and characteristic detail for cartoons. For Diana, this meant a long painful treatment, and problems with the brain at the end of his active career in Khaqani.
After leaving the hospital Dayan was sent to staff work. However, Yitzhak Sadeh, the first commander of the Haganah, he worked on the preparation of the Jewish population of Palestine to defend against a possible invasion of Hitler's army in Egypt. He belonged to the idea of a clandestine radio network, independent from the command of the Haganah, which were to be used in the case of the German occupation of Palestine. The plan was approved.
In preparation for its implementation Dayan established close links with British military intelligence in the Middle East. This helped to further establish cooperation with the British in the field of intelligence, including in occupied Europe, what is the command of the Haganah was particularly interested.
. In late 1942, when after the defeat at El Alamein and Stalingrad, under threat of invasion by the Axis in Palestine diminished, Dayan returned to Nahalal and engaged in farming
. However, in 1947, when fighting intensified with the Arabs and intensified preparations for war that had threatened to break out after the proclamation of the Jewish state, he returned to serve in Khagani. Yitzhak Sadeh instructed him to arrange for armored and artillery units.
In May 1948, when at the beginning of the first Arab-Israeli war, the Syrians besieged Dganiyu on Dayan (at his request) was entrusted with command of the defending units. He outlined the attack and the Syrians to end their sorties in this area. From Dganii he returned to the central front, and commanded units seized Ramla and Lydda.
After that success, Dayan led to Ben-Gurion (First Prime Minister and Minister of Defense of Israel), who was fascinated by the young commander. This meeting marked the beginning of the close connection between them and the rapid advance of Diana through the ranks of the newly organized by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). First he was sent to the southern front, and then transferred to the Jerusalem area, where he was brigade commander and commander of the garrison.
. The talks, organized under the auspices of the Chief of General Staff of the UN Observer Raleigh, led to the establishment of personal contact between Dayan and the Jordanian commander of the garrison of Old Jerusalem, Colonel Abdullah Tell
. Between the two teams was laid line, which operated 19 hours a day. At that time there were no other ties between Israel and Arab countries.
. This contact gave rise to rumors in Israel, mainly in the left-wing circles, the "secret agreement" reached between the two countries through Diana and Tall, and with the approval of the British
. In accordance with this agreement, provided, . that Israel would not make "serious attempt" to occupy more territory, . under the control of the Jordanian army, . and agree to the accession of the West Bank to the Hashemite kingdom.,
. In the spring of 1949 Diane was involved in all the secret meetings that took place during the 4 months between representatives of Israel and King Abdullah
. The aim of these negotiations was the establishment of the Israeli-Jordanian peace agreement (the King's death at the entrance to the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem in 1951 put an end to these negotiations).
. Moshe Dayan was left to serve in the army ...
. At this time, Arabs Fedayeen ( "Fedayeen" in Arabic - "sacrifice themselves") organized terrorist attacks against Israeli civilians, penetrating into its territory from Egypt in the hands of the Gaza Strip
. From time to time, Israeli forces attacked terrorist bases, for which Israel has repeatedly condemned in the UN Security Council.
. In the disputes that erupted in 1950-1953 years between David Ben-Gurion and Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett, Dayan was one of the main supporters of the "military line"
. Like most officers, he believed that the hard line and proactive actions of the Israeli army would prevent Arab countries to organize themselves for the "second round" against Israel, and even help him get support from Western powers.
. Charette advocated a flexible policy, which provided for the willingness to make concessions
. He sincerely believed in the possibility of reaching a settlement with the Arabs.
Meanwhile, Israeli retaliation became increasingly. After a particularly harsh condemnation of Israel by UN Security Council for an attack on the Jordanian village Kibiya (if such conviction has impressed the leaders of the Jewish State), Ben-Gurion in December 1953 resigned as prime minister and defense minister,
. However, before his departure, he withdrew from the study Diana in England and appointed him chief of staff. "Old Man" as they called Ben-Gurion companions, admired intellect Dayan, his unconventional methods and respect for him by the army.
With the arrival of Diana in the General Staff of the IDF, it was noted raising the morale of personnel. He developed physical training in the armed forces at all levels, encourage initiative and insisted that the officers themselves led his soldiers into battle. Airborne troops, it has become paramount. In the military-political plan Dayan continued to hold the line "old man".
New Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon tried to subdue the supreme command of the IDF, which is at Ben-Gurion used the very large independent. These attempts have generated ever-increasing tensions in his relationship with his chief of staff.
At this time there was "shameful" - the failure of Israeli intelligence in Egypt. Defense Minister Lavon was forced to resign, and Ben-Gurion once again received the portfolio of Minister of Defense.
1955 was full of events that caused the alarm in Israel. Baghdad Pact was created, and, Israel was not even invited to take part. The conference was held in Bandung, where the leading role played Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, while Israel has actually been boycotting the Afro-Asian group and other developing countries. It was signed by the first Egyptian-Czechoslovak agreement on deliveries of arms to Egypt. Significantly increased activity "Fedayeen" to Israeli territory.
Major retaliation against the Egyptian command in the Gaza Strip was a clear expression of a decisive policy response advocated by Dayan. This policy continued to be held during 1955, as terrorist acts "Fedayeen" did not cease. Mutual escalation on the border were further intensified in 1956.
In the same year formed documented alliance between Israel and France against the backdrop of anti-French national liberation movement in Algeria. Dayan several visits to Paris, accompanied by Shimon Peres, who was Deputy Minister of Defense. Israel began to arrive in the French armament.
At the same time, President Nasser of Egypt had concentrated large forces in fortified bases in the Sinai desert near the Israeli border and signed a military pact with Syria and Jordan. Egypt's nationalization of the Suez Canal has provoked an international crisis, in which Britain and France have begun to collect a joint military expedition to occupy the Canal Zone. Israel has decided to break the protracted Arab noose, yet it was not too late.
In early October 1956 held secret talks with Britain and France, where Diane was involved with Ben-Gurion and the new Foreign Minister Golda Meir. Israel was guaranteed air cover to the case of the Egyptian bombings, which are very afraid of Ben-Gurion. Dayan, in turn, feared that Israel would be forced to cease its military operations sooner than would be able to achieve its main objectives: to eliminate the Egyptian military bases on the Sinai Peninsula and break the naval blockade of the port of Eilat.
. On the morning of October 29, Israeli troops crossed the border at three sites
. Over one hundred hours of continuous fighting, the Egyptian army was defeated and surrounded. Sinai and the Gaza Strip were occupied, six thousand soldiers were taken prisoner along with a huge amount of arms and ammunition.
. An Israeli convoy crossed the Gulf of Aqaba, and, using the element of surprise, surrounded by Egyptian garrison at Sharm el-Sheikh
. The blockade had existed since 1948, was withdrawn. Ferry connections to the Israeli port of Eilat was opened.
In the first days of war, Dayan was at the front, then the General Staff. On the third day he remained at the forefront. In his diary he confessed that his absence hampered the work of the General Staff. But he could not do otherwise: "My place - among the soldiers on the front line."
Immediately after hostilities Dayan has begun to establish a military government in Gaza Strip. He sought to identify among the Arab population in force, ready to cooperate with Israel, if only to ensure the normalization of life in the area.
. It was in those days, Diane made several conclusions, which had a decisive influence on its policy toward the Arab population of the territories occupied in June 1967 during the Six Day War
. One of the most important finding was that the loyal attitude of the Arab population of Israel depends on the length of stay of its troops in this area. The duration of this period, according to Dayan, a beneficial effect on the environment here even if the subsequent withdrawal of Israeli troops.
. I must say that Diane desperately resisted the Israeli withdrawal from Sinai in exchange for international guarantees and tried to convince Ben-Gurion did not yield to pressure from world public opinion
. When it became clear that the withdrawal of troops is inevitable, he suggested that Israel gave the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, and not the UN force in order to receive information directly from the Egyptian assurances of free navigation and tranquility on the borders. The same position Dayan took second after the June 1967 issue of the ways of peace with Egypt.
The withdrawal of Israeli troops took place months after the negotiations. Through delaying tactics, Israel has made for a number of concessions. The main achievement consisted in the guarantee of free passage through the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba. The UN peacekeeping force were deployed in the Gaza Strip along the Sinai border and in Sharm el-Sheikh. There was a decade of relative calm.
Of course, that the complete evacuation of troops from the Sinai peninsula was for Diana "bitter pill". But he managed to show with a sense of humor.
In 1957, after returning from an official visit to Burma, he decided to visit the Taj Mahal in India. In the hotel, where he intended to stay, all the seats were occupied by Harold Macmillan, who came here and his retinue. Recall that Macmillan was replaced as head of the British Government's Anthony Eden, resigned because of discontent that erupted in connection with the participation of Britain in the Suez operation. Dayan asked the reception of the hotel "to pass on to Mr. Macmillan, that he arrived a man with whom he became Prime Minister". McMillan delivered to him two numbers ...
In January 1958, Dayan had finished his service as Chief of General Staff and was discharged from the army. He joined the Mapai still in the 30's, and expect that Ben-Gurion offer him a place in the party leadership ahead of elections to the Knesset, scheduled for 1959.
. When he met the "old man" and told him of his intention to study at university, Ben-Gurion would not have promised, as he hoped Dayan, include it in the government after the elections
. He only praised his plans to study the Middle East. But studies at the University is not particularly attracted by Diana. And soon, he decided to return to political activity. Veterans of the party were unhappy with this, seeing in him a rival in the struggle for leadership.
Nevertheless, Dayan took part in the elections of 1959 and was elected to the Knesset. Prime Minister Ben-Gurion appointed him Minister of Agriculture.
This appointment was something of a compromise. On the one hand, it came over the objections of several party leaders. On the other - did not satisfy the desire to lead Diana important ministry.
His work as minister of agriculture has not been very successful. He met with strong resistance to his plan for the elimination of livestock farms around the towns. He held a series of measures to reduce overlap in the activities of Agriculture and the Department of the Jewish Agency, the organization of settlements. However, his plan for the implementation of the new variety of grape was defeated by farmers. That's when Diane understood the difference between the army, where the give and execute orders, and civilian departments.
In 1963, Ben-Gurion resigned as prime minister, left the Knesset. His place was taken by Finance Minister Levi Eshkol. The new prime Dayan handed the portfolio of Minister of Finance, but excluded him from the narrow circle of the Cabinet of Ministers, decision-makers in the field of domestic policy, and deprived of his right to speak out on defense. Diana was the difficult situation that intensified his loyalty to Ben Gurion, who had quarreled with his successor.
. Diane finally resigned in 1964 and began work in the fishing company and writing "Diary of the Sinai Campaign, published in 1965
. Almost from the brutal frankness, he analyzed not only the successes but also the mistakes that cost lives. Golda Meir in connection with the publication of this book stated that Dayan "pouring dropwise poison of the wounds of the parents who lost children."
. In the same year, when the crisis erupted in Mapai, Ben-Gurion and several of his supporters have organized a separate party caucuses RAFI
. Dayan was in no hurry to determine its position. Only after much hesitation, almost at the last moment he joined the "old man" and was elected to the Knesset.
. Diane stayed away from big policy prior to the Six Day War in June 1967, when he dramatically appeared in the center of events
. What proizoshloN
In May of that year, Egypt and Syria signed a military alliance, threatening to "throw the Jews into the sea". Moreover, President Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran and concentrated its forces in the Sinai. Almost immediately, Dayan became in public opinion of the country, including his former colleagues in the Mapai faction, a symbol of determination and strength, withstand turbulence and uncertainty of Levi Eshkol and his government.
. Turning to Eshkol, Dayan was allowed to get acquainted with the operational plans of the General Staff and visit several military units
. His appearance in the units caused the enthusiasm of the soldiers, many of whom had served under his command during the Sinai War. After the inspection, he disagreed with the opinion of Ben-Gurion University of, . Israel's "missed" time and missed the right moment, . and therefore he has no choice, . but to reconcile to the blockade of the Strait and patiently wait for a favorable international situation for the war against Egypt.,
. Meanwhile, the Israeli public became increasingly demand to transfer the portfolio of Minister of Defense Dayan, who was in the hands of the Prime Minister
. Eshkol invited him to be his military advisor or deputy. Dayan refused, demanding the appointment as Minister of Defense or the commander of the southern front.
Finally Eshkol yielded to the demands of public. He turned Dayan as defense minister in a multi-party government of national unity. This happened four days before the start of hostilities.
After its inclusion in the Government of the oscillation period is over, formed a clear majority of supporters of decisive action. Eshkol and Dayan were given the authority to set the hour start of the offensive. The new Minister of Defense immediately took personal control of the situation and made the latest changes in the plans of the operation.
What happened between Monday 5 th June and Saturday 11 th June 1967, entered the world history. For six days the Israeli army kept the front on the perimeter, stretching along the Suez Canal, the Suez Strait, Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan Valley and Golan Heights.
Dayan actively involved in carrying out military operations. His photographs in a jeep in the desert of Sinai bypassed newspapers around the world. Characteristic that, in addition to being long-time face of a civilian, he appeared on the front only in military uniform. In it, he was captured and the well-known photographs, falling on June 7 along with the Chief of General Staff Yitzhak Rabin in Jerusalem's Old City.
. The rapid victories won in the Six Day War, a dispute broke out about what the credit goes to Diana
. Were such as Golda Meir, who believed that he had "come to the ready" and that Israel's victory was no less swift and devastating, and without his participation ". Others claimed that Dayan in fact not involved in the provision of high combat readiness of the Israeli army, but his "hawkish" spirit led her into action. "
. Changes that Dayan introduced into operational plans on the eve of the war, had, according to experts, no less political significance than military
. He shifted the emphasis from the occupation of territories and capture key strategic points on the persecution and destruction of the greatest possible number of Egyptian military units.
. Dayan was not encouraged by the idea of deployment of Israeli forces along the Suez Canal
. He believed that "Russian and the Egyptians will not long tolerate such a situation and take action to force the retreat of Israeli forces.
He put forward a draft chapter (at least temporarily) of the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt was to receive the western part of Sinai, which would allow the Egyptians control of the Canal and oil fields. In the hands of Israel would retain control over Sharm el-Sheikh, ensure freedom of navigation in the Gulf of Eilat. Later this project was the development in terms of "partial settlement" Dayan.
. Looking ahead, I will say that the fear of Soviet intervention to support Egypt pursued Diana from June 1967 until the time when Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had removed the Soviet military advisers in the summer of 1972
. The directives given by the Israeli pilots after the Six Day War, was ordered to avoid possible clashes with Soviet aircraft, and in any case does not vitiate the bases and sites, serving the Soviet units in Egypt.
At the end of hostilities Dayan said that in Jerusalem are waiting for a phone call from Arab leaders to begin peace talks. "Phone call" had to wait a long time ... Meanwhile, it was necessary to control the occupied territories - the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank and the Golan Heights, where more than a million Arabs.
. Dayan as defense minister played a major role in the management of the occupied territories
. His actions are largely determined the future situation in these areas. He developed the structure of the military administration, seeking to make Israel's control is so gentle and unobtrusive as possible. He gathered "Mukhtar" (chiefs of Arab settlements) and said to them:
- We are not asking you to love us. We want you to take care of their fellow citizens, and cooperate with us in restoring their normal lives. It should be more afraid of the Israeli army, which cooperate with the terrorists than the terrorists, when they refuse to help.
I must admit that after 1967 the Israeli policy in the occupied territories has been very successful. On the one hand, Diane has developed a complex system of active and passive safety measures, including the bombing of homes of Arabs who helped Palestinian terrorists. On the other, he allowed the inhabitants of conquered lands, not only to move freely throughout Israel, but also introduced a policy of "open bridges" between the West Bank and Jordan, but when it is through and with the Arab countries.
. Local laws and local government were preserved, not change
. Economic life to flourish, to invest in development plans, there was freedom of speech. The success of the policy Dayan testified and suppression of terrorist activity in Judea and Samaria, and their elimination in the Gaza Strip, the broad participation of Arabs in elections for local authorities in the West Bank.
. One of the policies Dayan was that, to use tens of thousands of workers from the occupied territories in agriculture and industry, Israel
. In his view, the main advantage of this policy - the provision of Jews and Arabs together opportunities to live and work.
After Golda Meir in 1969 led the government, Dayan remained at his post. Gradually, between the establishment of normal relations, and appeared on the basis of mutual respect for common position of the hawks.
Soon, Diane realized that "phone call" from the Arabs in the near future will not follow. Therefore, it is to move quickly and began to insist that the expectation of an illusory world without providence policy of fait accompli "Israel will not give anything. These facts were to be the Jewish settlements in the occupied territories. Speaking in 1971, the graduating officers' courses, . Dayan said, . that Israel should consider itself as the owner of the territories, . planned and executed all, . that manageable, . not dreaming in vain to achieve peace, . which, . maybe, . still very far.,
. At the end of 1972 intensified the impression that Dayan in the wake of the popularity of going with all the energy involved in the fight for the chair of the Prime Minister
. But soon the position of defense minister had been shaken.
It is worth recalling that in the years 1969-1970, President Nasser of Egypt made a failed attempt to hostilities in the Suez Canal Zone. In the next three years in the political and military life in Israel the situation of "neither war nor peace" became the defining. It was detonated massive Egyptian-Syrian offensive on October 6, 1973.
War "Doomsday" ( "Yom Kippur") caused to the reputation of Diana heavy blow. Minister of Defense made a gross miscalculation, not believing that the Egyptian army was able to take serious military action against Israel. As a result, he became one of the central object of criticism for the shortcomings and failures of the Israeli army in the initial phase of the war.
True, the Agranat Commission, investigating the causes of failures, Dayan removed from the charge of personal responsibility for it. However, in the government formed by Yitzhak Rabin in 1974 after the resignation of Golda Meir, it was not included.
In government, he returned with a very unexpected circumstances. After winning the 1977 block of right-wing Likud, Menachem Begin, who takes the chair of the Prime Minister, suggested Dayan portfolio of Minister of Foreign Affairs. He accepted the offer. Together with Begin, he played a crucial role in the negotiations leading to peace between Israel and Egypt. In 1980 he left the government because of disagreements on the Palestinian problem.
According to people who knew Diana, - it was a "lone wolf", which no one shared his thoughts and feelings. Either because he was not capable of it, either because they did not feel this needs. In one interview, to which he once descended, the general said of himself: "I do not despise people. They just blow up at me with boredom. There is no person on earth, in a society which I would be interested, if I do not have anything specific to say to him. "
He was an absolute individualist, which was difficult to establish a close relationship with another man. On the rift in the marriage Dayan was known long before he divorced his wife. His daughter, Yael told that he once said that if I had to start life anew, he would not have a family.
With his first wife, Ruth Dayan had lived 36 years and left her only after I met Rachel. Yes, and it is not immediately. She was the wife of a successful lawyer in Jerusalem, and her romance with Dayan lasted more than twenty years. According to him, he found in Rachel's what I wanted - motherly and slavish devotion. It was she, not the children, he left a legacy of several million dollars.
Yael and his younger son Asi calmly reacted to the decision his father. Firstborn same Dayan, Udi, wrote a book defaming the memory of the general.
Passion for archeology - excavations in the field, followed by a thorough qualification of clay shards in the pavilion, built in the courtyard of his home - to promote privacy. "This time when I was thinking ..." - He said.
. Dayan little touched, . what they said and written about his private, . not too virtuous life, . about his political views, . on his way to drive, . its not very clean methods of collecting archaeological, . on the legality of appropriation which questions have been raised in the press and the Knesset.,
. The one where he was sensitive to the slightest criticism - is in the military field
When a government meeting discussed the issues, not too interested him, Dayan usually read the newspaper. Discussions were interested in him insofar as being related to its activities. "I believe in solutions, rather than unanimity - the general said in an interview with French weekly" Express ". - Unanimity - is an abstract concept, not leading to any practical solution. "
Food for him was only a physical need, rather than a source of pleasure. Steak and green salad - was the best meal. On his desk in the Ministry of Defense has always had a large vase filled with grapes, oranges and other fruit, depending on the season.
He was always dressed to the "careful carelessness" - pants and shirt khaki. Sometimes it can be seen in a white shirt.
Moshe Dayan died of cancer 18 of the month "Tishrei" (October 16, 1981) at the age of 66. U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote: "The war was calling Diana, the world - his desire ..." Indeed, the war helped him to seek warmth, love and recognition, which he lacked in childhood ...