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Erich von Manstein (Erich von Manstein)

( Military)

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Biography Erich von Manstein (Erich von Manstein)
photo Erich von Manstein (Erich von Manstein)
(24.11.1887 - 11.06.1973)
. March 30, 1944, Hitler removed Manstein from his command of the forces on the southern flank of the German front, mockingly adding some words to promise to return the field marshal in the army in case of successful planning a large attack.
. Some believe that Hitler never forgave Manstein his persistence in demanding permission to retreat 1 Panzer Army Hans Hube, failed in the Ukraine in the disastrous sack of the environment
. Rescue 1 Panzer price of his resignation Marshal until his death thought fitting culmination of his military career
. Erich von Manstein, . hereditary military, . passed all stages of the Army hierarchy: the First World fought on the Western Front, Lieutenant beardless (the command of his uncle, Field Marshal von Hindenburg), . seriously wounded, . but slightly more than half a year back in operation, . managed to make war against another, and on the Eastern Front, . Poland, . rising to captain.,

. At the beginning of the century, few who have inspired or even interested in the chapters of the belligerents, but on everyone's lips rang orchestral brass name captains
. Kitchener, Joffre, Brusilov, Hindenburg! But something has happened to mankind for two dozen years "Peace", and during the Second World already sounded thunderous country and continent names are not the generals and political leaders are fighting camps. Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin, Chiang Kai-shek, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Emperor Hirohito. And this is exactly the opposite change in the attitude of the commanders - they were perceived as public servants, as managers of military affairs with their masters.

. Commanders had to pass a test at the executive, the ability to obey the decisions of civilian
. This verification withstood a few. One of the few - Erich von Manstein. In each operation in the theaters of World, . every battle, . which Manstein participated or led, . He found a successful solution of a combat mission, . realizing the maximum potential of its military forces and also minimized the possibility of enemy,
. The Polish "Blitzkrieg" in 1939 Manstein, . Chief of Staff of Army Group South, . planned encirclement of the main forces in Lodz groups of Poles, . concealing Warsaw, . creating the first in the Second World War "cauldron", . then designed the defeat of an elite core of the Polish Army in Bzura and capture the capital of Poland.,

. In the war against the USSR Manstein launched his talent in all its brilliance, has shown that such a modern style, methods and level of engagement
. 56-Panzer Corps Manstein in June 1941 was the point of "northern wedge" - the main thrust Wehrmacht in the USSR, . the very "northern direction", . that Hitler betrayed Stalin, . Red Army was preparing to battle on the southern flank of the front in case Germany attacked the USSR,
. It Manstein, . passing with his body in the rear of the Red Army's 200 miles in five days, . provided transportation for the Wehrmacht captured with the move the bridge over the Western Dvina and burst into Central Russia, . Stalin plunged into a state of shock several days of panic and prostration,
. Marching for Manstein main forces only captured in pots near Minsk, and further to 700 thousand. our soldiers. And for the entire 41-th in this manner were taken prisoner to 2,5 million!

Then, commanding the 11 th Army, Manstein captures the Crimea, his army, despite the desperate resistance, took the fortress city of Sevastopol. From December 1942 to February 1943 Manstein trying to bail out of the encirclement of Stalingrad army of Field Marshal Paulus, . but the, . fulfilling the will of Hitler, . not go for a breakthrough to meet the troops stein, . already made their way to Stalingrad to a distance of 18 kilometers, . Manstein unable to overcome the defense of the Red Army and relieve encircled the German group,
. COLLISION WITH Fuhrer for Manstein began immediately after the battle of Stalingrad
. Recognized as the leader of the military historians of the West Liddell Hart declared: "The general opinion among the generals, . which I was questioned in 1945, . reduced to, . that Field Marshal von Manstein emerged as the most talented commander in the army and that is what they primarily want to see in the role of commander in chief ",
. Such an opinion on Manstein repeatedly expressed orally and in writing a recognized authority in the Wehrmacht Gerd von Rundstedt, "Lord of tanks," the legendary Heinz Guderian, Wilhelm Keitel, even. Fuhrer himself once said: "It is possible that Manstein - is the best brains, which only produced a body of staff.

. One of the chroniclers of the Second World David Irving said: "Respect for experienced Hitler to Manstein, bordered with fear"
. Each of them had the Iron Cross of the First World. Hitler, a corporal in the war, proudly wore a soldier, Class 2, Manstein - officer, class 1. For private meetings, both always put these orders - the language of these orders, they began a dialogue, always rolling in the dispute. According to the recollections of witnesses of such disputes, Hitler, feeling professional excellence Manstein, fell into a rage, rolling on the floor and chewing the carpet.

NOT Manstein led upstairs to the leaders of Germany and himself as chief of Hitler. Manstein not all sympathetic to National Socialism. In the first year of Hitler's chancellorship Manstein even tried to protect Jewish soldiers from Nazi repression. Hitler in his chosen leaders deceived the German people, and the Wehrmacht, as it was written in the military oath, served Hitler, the German people and its state. Go against Hitler meant to violate the oath, what Manstein, hereditary Germanic soldiers could not go and repeatedly wrote and spoke.

. Besides the focus on Hitler's war against the Western democracies Manstein was understandable - the predatory Versailles Treaty strangled his beloved Vaterland
. A desire to crush the Fuhrer of the USSR Manstein was surprised and not repelled by - he did not consider the USSR a legitimate public education. In addition, Manstein, as a professional high rank, the Soviets knew about the preparation for an attack on Germany and Europe

. The irony of fate stein is, . what, . being born "the author of the offensive" (this the main feature of his professional nature early notice, . more than once publicly stated, and very often raped Hitler), . He often acted Role ambulance,
. Actually, the seizure of the Crimea Manstein led and conducted only because the previous commander of the Wehrmacht's actions on this front was killed. After the capture of Sevastopol Hitler throws Manstein's army on the northern flank of the Eastern Front - save rattled in the ring around Leningrad, Volkhov. It came together head-on, two devilish talent - Manstein and the hero of the battle for Moscow, a favorite of Stalin, General Vlasov, who was given command of the latest "full up" equipped with a 2-Shock Army with the task of eliminating the threat of the embargo "the cradle of revolution". Total - 2 Shock defeated, taken prisoner by General Vlasov and "forge".
. In the battles of the Volkhov Manstein lost a son - a young officer was killed on the front
. U LIGHT in a fight with heavyweight is only one way to play: quickly and prudently move, turning this way the mass of the enemy against himself
. Such a war against the Red Army would, could and knew how to Manstein. But it is precisely such a war Manstein and the entire German army to Hitler forbade. This allowed Manstein to put their Fuhrer diagnosis: "After the brilliant success, . achieved by the German armed forces in the early years of the war by conducting mobile operations, . Hitler, . When it was first crisis at Moscow, . Stalin took over the recipe for persistent holding any position,
. This recipe in 1941 led the Soviet High Command on the edge of death ... "Only in February 1944 Manstein managed to persuade Hitler to legitimize any commander himself give the order to retreat without the sanction of Berlin. This immediately saved from complete destruction grouping Stemmermann, which fell to Ukraine in the environment.

. Manstein, accustomed to the frontline soldier spirit of brotherhood, too simplistically understood and perceived political slogans, speech and manners of the Berlin imperious beau monde
. He, . example, . and could not imagine, . what, . until he puts hundreds of thousands of lives of German soldiers on the altar of victory in Germany, . with the highest organ of the Wehrmacht - Command rate - already in 1943 there is a secret department to seek the possibility of a separate peace with the enemy not only in the West, . but even in the East.,

. However, Manstein and find out about it, he would not be surprised, knowing that politics - a dirty business
. To the mud is not corroded the troops entrusted to him, Manstein did what he could. For the sake of instilling in our soldiers and officers of the feelings of high self-prescribed them in the occupied territories of the USSR to distribute farmland in private hands (and this was done, . being contrary to the will of Hitler and Goering, . author of "Green File" - the plan for preserving farms),
. Moreover, . in his custody parts Manstein nipped effect Hitler's personal order of the execution on the ground captured political commissars of the Red Army (the "Order of the Commissioner") and was not reassured, . not yet made its repeal, . Considering the shooting of prisoners of war participants fight in violation of a soldier's honor and morality.,

. Maybe, . these actions answer to the question, . why stein on the front guarding the voluntary detachment of Russian Cossacks, . and the disposition of his troops often did not require protection for convoys of prisoners - they do not scatter, and in full force marched to the venues, . specified for the camp, . preserved as evidence and that no one had overturned.,
. March 30, 1944, after dismissing Manstein from his command of the forces on the southern flank of the German front, mockingly adding some words to promise to return the field marshal in the army in case of successful planning a large attack.

. Some believe that Hitler never forgave Manstein his persistence in demanding permission to retreat 1 Panzer Army Hans Hube, failed in the Ukraine in the disastrous sack of the environment
. Rescue 1 Panzer price of his resignation Marshal until his death thought fitting culmination of his military career.

Another point of view on the reason for the resignation of such. On numerous evidentiary requirements Marshal to appoint a single commander in chief of the Eastern Front, Hitler eventually countered evil and bitter: that, even him, the Fuhrer orders the generals do not always, what can we say about someone different ... At this Manstein cold, and firmly said: "My orders are always subject to all".

But most commentators, including the direct witnesses of the incident, all agree that led to the resignation of Field Marshal incident in Rastenburg. Bonzo the Nazis decided to politprofilaktiku in higher military circles. January 27, 1944 in Poznan assembled from all fronts generals brainwashed chief ideologues of the Reich Goebbels and Rosenberg, and then the generals moved in spetspoezdom Vaterland home to Hitler. And the Fuhrer proclaimed: if, say, happen that one day he, as commander in chief will be left alone, the prime duty of the officer corps to gather around him with drawn daggers ... Suddenly, Hitler interrupted Manstein, jumped from their seats with the exclamation: "So it will be, my Fuhrer!"

Cavalry General Count Erwin von ROTKIRCH-und-fuck later recalled: "It was just awful. There was a silence that we could hear the flies fly ... "The ambiguity of what Manstein shouted, interrupting the speech of Hitler, different minds understood in different ways. Adjutants Hitler and his deputy, Martin Bormann was interpreted in conversations with Hitler, the words of Field Marshal clear: Manstein had in mind a close realization of the drawn picture of the last leader of a hypothetical act historical drama ...

. ALLIES Manstein could not be accused of aiding and abetting extermination of Jews or organization in the occupied territories
. But Marshal left no allegation that he failed to prevent civilian casualties in the course of their battles. Defendant received 18 years in prison. But he was released after three years because of ill health

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