Milutin Dmitri( One of the closest, most energetic and highly respected members of Emperor Alexander II)
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Biography Milutin Dmitri
(23.06.1816 - 25.01.1912)
Dmitry Milyutin twenty years has led the military department in Russia. He survived three emperors, and all of Russia won the Order of St. Andrew to and including. From Alexander II was George's second degree and title of count, from Alexander III - sprinkled with diamonds portraits of Alexander II and his, from Nicholas II - Field-Marshal's baton ...
Dmitri Milutin came from a poor aristocratic family. His great-grandfather was the owner of Andrei Yakovlevich silk braid and brocade factory. (Hereditary nobility was granted Milyutin in 1740.) His father, Aleksey, along with factories and estates inherited huge debts and was forced to enlist the Secretary of the Commission on the construction of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior,
. Milutin mother, Elizabeth D., born Kiseleva, belonged to an ancient noble family. Liberal leanings and business qualities Milutin inherited, it seems, with the family genes. His uncle, Earl P.D. Kiselev, was the largest reformist era of the reign of Nicholas I. Brother Nicholas led the work on the preparation of the peasant reform, another brother, Boris, a military lawyer and writer who spent life in the military and judicial reform, the 60-ies.
In 1833, Mr.. Dmitri graduated from boarding at the Moscow University and was defined in the artillery of the Guard. After studying at the Military Academy and served in the General Staff. In 1839, Mr.. for the acquisition of combat experience Milutin was sent to the Caucasus, where at this time Russian troops have been fighting with the mountain tribes, united under the rule of Imam Shamil.
. Then the trip abroad to Europe and the Caucasus again, the headquarters of the troops of the Caucasian line and Black Sea; further - professorship at the Department of Military Geography, Military Academy in St. Petersburg and scientific work in the field of military statistics and military history
. His fundamental work "The History of the war in 1799 between Russia and France in the reign of Emperor Paul I" was highly appreciated by professional historians.
In October, 1856. Milutin was appointed Chief of Staff of the Caucasian Army. With his participation was a plan of military operations, culminating in 1859, Mr.. to the capture of Shamil. Reorganization of the military administration in the Caucasus, the victory in the Caucasian War, the business person MILYUTINA visible and popular, meet new frame of mind of the emperor and his liberal entourage. And as a logical outcome - November 9, 1861. Dmitri appointed Minister of War. His predecessor, General Suhozanet, was a person before the odious, that his ignorance and illiteracy go anecdote
HERITAGE TIMES OCHAKOV "
The report of the king of the new War Minister of the Russian army has put a heavy diagnosis. 800 thousandth Russia's army, he called the "power of the imaginary, existing only on the staffing provisions". The abuses of military commanders assumed the character of organized looting of the treasury and soldiers. A regimental commanders, as noted by contemporaries, Commercial sharpness and resourceful has long been leveled with people shopping title. Many Nedorosl of the nobility, "produced in the officers, barely knew how to write, and knew arithmetic in the best case, within the four actions.
Trained reserves in case of war did not exist. Infantry (and not just her) had to be urgently rearm - to change the old smooth-bore guns, fired less than 300 steps to the rifle, which were already equipped European army. Inspections showed that the soldiers were able to walk in formation to the parade ground, but are not trained to shoot aiming. Do you think you learn when training is necessary under the "three rounds in round figures per person per year" ...
After the Crimean War, the War Department seemed to be embarked on reforms. But of all her dreams change, according to the witty remark of an observer, "came just one thing: the destruction of the former, any sort of order". The full impact forces of the War Department was engaged in a change in the form of uniforms troops. Of the 282 orders issued by the Minister of War of 1855, 62 were devoted to this subject. A new form of "substantially" different from the old: so, . generals instead of the Sultan of white hair on his helmet relied Sultan of cock feathers, . instead of summer trousers - trousers, . winter of red cloth! In St. Petersburg, . seems, . were two officers of the same regiment, . recall witnesses, . "dressed alike: one in a new form, . other did not have time to sew her own, . third - already in the very latest.,
. Program transformations have been prepared in record time for Russia's officialdom routine time - for two months with a small. In January 1862 the Emperor approved it without any major changes. However, the implementation of military reform is not dragged on for decades.
AMATEUR Prussian Slasher
After the Crimean War, the financial situation of the country proved extremely difficult. The public debt exceeded one billion rubles, which could not but reflect on the financing of the military department. Still, money found. Cost of the War Office 1862. by 1874. managed to increase by 51% (although the share of military expenditure in the budget for the entire period of reforms has remained unchanged and averaged about 30%). However, the military budgets of potential adversaries have increased during this time in Turkey by 73%, . and in Germany - by 164%! In addition to administrative costs, . Awards, . benefits, . patrols officials, . relay, Russia's army took more money, . than, . example, . to provide artillery pieces, . guns and ammunition,
. With this and Milutin could not do anything!
But not only the lack of funds hindered the reform. Formed a "antimilyutinskaya Party, led by Field Marshal Prince Baryatinsky. It was he who in his time MILYUTINA recommended for the post of minister of war, hoping that he will be obedient executor of his plans. Prince believes that Russia's army to reorganize the Prussian model, ie the formal leadership of the army should belong to the emperor, in fact - the Chief of Staff. It is at this post and claimed the prince, believing that the War Department should deal only with administrative and economic issues. I MILYUTINA to this effect was the opposite view - Minister of War should be the only military leader of the whole diocese, and his position, he consistently defended. Dmitri made clear: those who want to "replace the Russian bayonets of the Prussian swords," he was not on the road.
Domestic situation has played into the hands of "antimilyutinskoy Party. After an unsuccessful attempt Dmitry Karakozov on the king in 1866, began shift from positions of responsibility liberal-minded officials. Milutin survived. But the minister of war remained in isolation and with their hands tied in the face of the "party of the feudal."
. Fortunately, the military reform "helped" the political developments in Europe (the defeat of France as a result of the Franco-Prussian War, the prospect of a Germanic empire)
. They are forced, according to Milutin, ponder, "enough of our armed forces to protect Russia's security in case of any new political turmoil". The international situation has played into the hands of "the Minister of War, by speeding up the discussion and adoption of the reform. Conceived nearing implementation. Milutin biographer wrote about this time: "The War Minister, was beaming."
. National service
. The Defense Minister proceeded from the principle of detention in peacetime, mobile and compact army capable in time of war quickly turn into the power
. Milutin not only had reduced the life of soldiers, improve their living conditions, the abolition of "smertoboynyh strokes of the rod, to improve training. He replaced conscription vsesoslovnoy military service. The Charter of the conscription law summing up lasted for a decade military reform was an important and more than timely step in the modernization of the Russian army. According to this law, military service was to serve the entire male population over 21 years. No differences estates. Admission to the service determined by lot - "stretched out room" went into military service. Others enlisted in the militia. Durability was determined in 15 years. Among them - 6 years of active service, 9 - in stock. Were completely exempted from the service the clergy, doctors and teachers. The postponement was given for completion of education and income class. Provision of benefits and marital status, for example, only son.
However, new recruits for service preferred to send to distant from their homes the edge of the Empire. And it was explained by some vague "security" and "domestic tranquility". Miliutin this practice sickened and morally, and from a business point of view. However, give the floor to himself, the more so that his words ring even today - alas! - True ... "Every soldier understand the need to defend the state in time of war, . to uphold the integrity and security of the homeland from attacks of enemies, . so he would understand if the administration at least at the most distant suburbs, . to confront enemies,
. But when he was among the deep peace of the place torn homeland and throw on the edge of the world for a peaceful life in the same troops, . which are located on the ground of his homeland, . He can not look at it differently, . as an act of distrust him, or as a heavy public duty.,
. Milutin radically reorganized the War Department, has reduced its staff by almost a thousand people, and even achieved a reduction of clerical correspondence to 45%! Achievement in Russia's bureaucratic practice unprecedented
. When Milutin were established military districts and reorganized the command and control in wartime. The troops re-equipped rifle Small Arms. Have been developed and introduced new military regulations. Been established cadet school, and the cadet corps replaced Military High School. According Milutin, . Education, . based on strict discipline, . gives results only in adulthood, . and education of children, . regardless of their vocation, . military service bad effect on the quality of officers, . very often have no inclination for a military career. ",
. CHECK Plevna
. In 1876, . at the height of the military restructuring ", . Milutin bitterly complained in his diary at, . that he "happens to receive anonymous letters, . filled with the grossest, . polygonal curses, . if a disorder of the Army, . and all this after a 16-year-old heavy cares about the device and strengthen our military forces ",
. And yet, for sure a connoisseur of his case, he stressed, "never again, never positively Russia did not have the readiness of such forces, as now, never could be particularly prepared for such a rapid mobilization. It is sad that all the vicissitudes of rumors, malicious slander and curses have to respond with silence. Do not publish the same in our plan of mobilization, the numbers of our forces, our reserves. "
The coming Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. promised to be a serious test Milyutinskij undertakings. "Chess games" with the conservative bureaucrats overshadowed. Realistically assessing the domestic and international situation, Milutin could not help but notice two major risks: poor training and lack of diplomatic skills among "those in whose hands is the very conduct of hostilities". Difficulties and loss of the initial phase of the war have confirmed the fears of the Minister of War. However, the government sphere, oriented on a quick and easy victory, did not hide his irritation and discontent Minister of War.
. It was useless to argue, . that the war started in the middle of reform, . in the midst of its implementation, that the new law was held at that time only two recruits call, . and so reserve army was small in number, that commander in the Balkan theater of operations Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich if anything different, . it is only his self-confidence, that the conservative majority of generals and senior officers blindly believed in the patriarchal heroics of closed linear series, that, . Finally, . as predicted by Milutin, . Russia entered into this war without allies.,
. Ultimately, only the heroism of the soldiers, the ability of talented commanders MI
. Dragomirov, п≤.п÷. Gurko, NG. Stoletov, ppm. Skobelev, and the first results of military reforms have helped turn the tide in favor of Russia. In January 1878. Russian army had already moved to Constantinople, and Turkey was forced to sign an armistice on terms proposed by Russia.
Russian-Turkish War of 1877-1878. confirmed the timeliness and appropriateness of Milyutinskij reforms. Together with the king he was for 7 months in the Russian-Turkish front and welcomes the changes in the army. "Here he is, the new soldiers, - he said - the old would have died without the officers, but they themselves know where to throw. These initiative. It is - the soul of our new soldier, a soldier of Alexander II "
Recluse from SIMEIZ
The murder of Alexander II by revolutionaries and accession to the throne of Alexander III led to a curtailment of military and other reforms. In May 1881. Dmitri was forced to resign and go to Simeiz, in his Crimean estate.
. Milutin finished his life in solitary contemplation, leaving most of his four million of the benefit of the army, which served as a rich library - the military academy, an estate in Crimea - Red Cross
. His diary, . correspondence with friends, . memories of contemporaries tell us that, . that the initiation of power was for him a heavy burden, . held that he was prepared for the sole purpose: to use the historic opportunity, . given the history of Russia, . to break into another political dimension,
. And in this sense, 20 years of his ministry were not in vain. Asking for similar work in conditions of autocracy double stock of human strength and endurance, . professional competence and political sanity, . willingness to compromise and stability of liberal belief forged from MILYUTINA this devotee of his case,
. Free from "Soldier of psychology, what were still sick, and the proponents of the autocratic status quo, and adherents of the idea of" global destruction ", he calmly and without rhetoric gave himself to the Fatherland. So one of the most difficult moments of his life he could say with certainty: "In all his long journey the service I never raced for awards, never gave them the values. I like to be a creditor than the debtor. "
In 1898, Mr.. about the merits of MILYUTINA remembered Nicholas II, and in the days of celebrations to mark the opening of the monument to Alexander II in Moscow has made it to the Field Marshals.
Gen. VD. Krenke (note, sometimes sharply criticized some Milyutinskij beginnings in the Russian Army) once said about the Minister of War: "God grant that in Russia was Pobol Milyutin" ...