Efimov Alexander( Veteran of the war, Air Marshal)
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Biography Efimov Alexander
(May 6, 1923)
Currently, Air Marshal A. N. Efimov is chairman of the committee on cooperation with public organizations of veterans, reserve officers and retired at the RF President, the President of the International Charity Fund "The Victory - 1945.
. He was born May 6, 1923 in the village Kantemirovka (now urban-type settlement in Voronezh region)
. Father, Nikolai Yefimov Gerasimovich (mind. 1939) - hereditary railroader. Mother - Efimova Akulina Mitrofanov (1904-1984). Married. Four children. Sons: Vitaly (1948. born.) - Lieutenant General Aviation, Deputy Chief of Air Force Engineering Academy named H. E. Zhukovsky, PhD, Professor Igor (1953. born.), - the colonel, a teacher of the same academy, doctor of technical sciences, Dmitry (1961,. born.), Lieutenant Colonel, Ph.D., works in the system Aeroflot. Daughter, Nina (1950 g. born.) graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute.
The life of Alexander Nikolayevich Yefimov emerged not as like his father. Decades before the end of his days spent chief Nikolai Gerasimov distance path. Naturally, he believed that the son would follow in his footsteps. But there. Alexander chose a different path - the sky. A passion for aviation had emerged from school, in the mid 30-ies. Who has not dreamed then become letchikomN Yes, almost all young people.
Sasha attended school aviakruzhok (and studied it in high school city Millerovo N 2), where the boys were making simple aircraft model with rubber motors. In Millerovo at Osoviahime worked Glider School, which had a few gliders CSS-4. It involved senior students. The children enthusiastically mastered the theory and waited impatiently for independent oversight.
Finally, they took. That day, August 18, 1938, Alexander will never forget. He first took to the air. Suppose that at low altitude, but got up and hovered above the ground. Feeling is not put into words!
So Alexander laid, without exaggeration, the beginning of a new dynasty - the dynasty of aviators Efimovs. It is not only his children but his grandson, Alexander, devoted his life to aviation.
. After graduating from high school in 1940, Sasha joined the Aeroclub Voroshilovgradsky, and in May 1941 - Voroshilovgrad in military pilots flying school and graduated in July 1942 and immediately - to the front
. He was assigned to the 198 th Attack Regiment 233rd Attack Air Division.
Alexander, as they say, was lucky: he identified the second squadron of captain in. A. Malinkin, which is rightfully considered one of the best commanders. Before the war Victor Malinkin was an instructor at the flying club, then flew the fighters, then retrained on the pilot of attack aircraft. Under his leadership, and the start of the pilot Efimova. And very successful: he rose quickly in the combat system.
Like all veterans, Alexander remembers his first flight on a combat mission. Attack aircraft then struck a blow to the railway station Osuga River, in the Kalinin region. Firmly got the enemy, he suffered heavy losses. The first flight brought the young pilot a lot of joy because he fulfilled the task.
By the beginning of the Battle of Kursk, Alexander was already a mature pilot. He was promoted to the rank and position, sent to the moderator of the group responsible job. He became deputy commander of the squadron.
Assignments followed one another more complicated, the situation sometimes evolved the most incredible. Pilots often had to fight in a clearly unfavorable conditions, with superior enemy forces. Firmly etched in my memory of Aleksandr Nikolaevich battle that took place in mid-July 1943.
Battle of Kursk unfolded to its full width. The Germans, having failed to break the resistance of Soviet troops, stop the offensive and turned back. 198-th regiment was ordered to strike at Bolkhov direction of the retreating enemy, destroy its tanks and troops in the townships Sorokin, Ukolitsy. To achieve this, the regimental commander identified two groups of storm troopers. The second of four "sludge", which included the crew Efimova, led to job captain Malinkin.
The short flight - and attack planes already at the goal, near the village of Sorokin. But takoeN No retreating columns there is no. Top is clearly visible enemy defenses. The Nazis managed to gain a foothold: to dig trenches for the infantry in the trenches to put tanks and self-propelled equip positions for artillery and mortar. What a surprise!
Malinkin decides to attack the first self-propelled guns and tanks as the most dangerous goal. The captain makes a U-turn and rushes on the enemy. Is followed by the remaining crew. At Hitler fly powerful PTAB. Explosions - and up vzmetyvayutsya flames. Nazi tanks are burning.
Group makes a new call and thunder from guns and eresov batteries of the enemy, shoot guns out of manpower.
Now you can go home. Attack aircraft lie in the opposite direction. Soon the pilots saw a large group of Nazi planes bombing the Soviet troops with impunity. We must rescue his infantry to disperse the vultures. And there were thirteen Me-110 and four "Focke-Wulf-190". Force is clearly unequal. But it did not scare captain Malinkin. "In the attack, follow me!" - Tells it on the radio.
Deadly fight ensued. A powerful fire from guns Malinkin knocks one "Messer". The Germans immediately set fire to the car lieutenant Century Zinovskogo. Fighting continues. Strelka Efimova not incite another "Messer". However, Alexander soon left without the knowledge - falls to the ground plane, Lieutenant Petrova. Loss of huge!
Carousel in the air do not stop even for one second. Extraordinary efforts "oozes" not to press the enemy, to cover the infantry. But by using their absolute superiority, the Nazis are brazenly attacking continuously.
"The commander, shot down the plane squadron leader" - Alexander heard the voice of his air gunner Sergeant Yuri Dobrova. Efimov turned his head to the right and saw a car pulled Malinkin with a decrease in the east. Cover the captain he could not, "Messerschmitts" were arrayed. Now Alexander was alone against a flock of vultures. Time and again he maneuvered, threw the IL-2 to the left, right. A Me-110, as kites, threw themselves at him. Here's one of them is not intended, jumped ahead stormtrooper. Efimov instantly pulled the trigger guns and machine guns, and the concentrated fire has broken into pieces fascist. Buzzard exploded in the air.
Efimov has led attack on the tops of trees, making it difficult maneuvers "Messer". Suddenly, they lagged behind the "sludge". Alexander understood: they have run out of fuel, and the Germans came out of the battle. To this he was counting.
Of the entire group, only the crew of Alexander Yefimov returned to their base. Mechanic Sgt Yuri Konovalov looked at the car and sighed deeply: it was not a living space, all riddled with shrapnel and bullets, but from the oil cooler sticking fragments of needles.
This was probably the hardest battle lieutenant Efimova. But he steadfastly endured inhumane tests. Broke down and pondered: why they are quite experienced pilots, so badly battered gitlerovtsyN long puzzled Alexander and concluded: outdated tactics battle. Must seek new. And he sought consistently improve their combat flying skills and his subordinates, has honed the art of maneuver. After the death of Captain Malinkin Lieutenant Yefimov was appointed commander of the Second Squadron. And he was then only 20 years!
- Flight to photograph the front edge of the enemy, - said Alexander Yefimov regimental commander. - What is it, I will not explain, you know. You will cover six fighters.
- Yes! - Curtly replied Alexander.
Yes, Efimov knew perfectly well what a hell it is sent. He was thoroughly ready to fly. In his plane, the cabin air gunner, regimental aerocamera craftsmen adapted so as to produce a promising photographing ground objects of the enemy.
. At the appointed time, Alexander picked up in the air "ill" and headed for the city Amе?cisе-aе-, where he was met by escort
. Below - the front line of defense. Efimov dropped to a height of 50 meters and under the noses of the Germans at a high speed low passed along the front line. And aerial gunner in the meantime to take photographs. Efimov both drove the car to create the most favorable conditions for photography. The Nazis opened a furious fire.
After the first call, Alexander turns around and makes a second, then third. And at a height of not more than 20 meters. Around stormtrooper raging sea of fire, but he insists on doing his job. Finally photography completed. Since Efimov climb away from the front. The photographs were extremely successful and very valuable. Commander 2-Byelorussian Front announced the crew thanks.
The last sortie Captain Efimov made May 5, 1945 at the port Swinemunde, located on the Baltic Sea, this time as a navigator of the regiment.
Altogether during the war, A. N. Efimov made 222 sorties and 47 exploration. Personally and in the group destroyed 85 enemy aircraft on the ground and 7 in the air battles. And how much equipment and manpower from the Nazis lost his fire fighter bomber! Their number in the hundreds. For heroism, courage, bravery and great skill on Oct. 26, 1944 he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, August 18, 1945 it awarded a second medal "Gold Star".
. Alexander could not imagine myself without aviation
. After the war he remained in the combat Air Force ranks. In 1951 A. N. Efimov graduated from the Air Force Academy (now the S. A. Gagarin), and in 1957 - the Military Academy of the General Staff. Literate, educated officer (in 1970. He received the title "Distinguished Military Pilot of the USSR"), A. N. Efimov moving rapidly in the service: command regiments, air divisions, Air Force. In 1975, it is assigned a rank of Air Marshal.
In 1984 A. N. Efimov appointed to the highest office in aviation - Chief of the Air Force - Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR. In this position, he spent 6 years. Also in 1984, Marshal Yefimov awarded the State Prize of the USSR for testing new weapons. Since 1990, he - Chairman of the State Commission on the use of air transport and air traffic control under the government of the country.
A. N. Yefimov was elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 2 nd, 9 - 11 convocations, people's deputy of the USSR (1989-1991.), Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, the Ukrainian and Latvian SSR. He - professor, candidate of military sciences.
. Alexander awarded three Orders of Lenin, . Order of the October Revolution, . five orders of the Red Banner, . Order of Alexander Nevsky, . two honors World War I degree, . two Orders of Red Star, . "For Service to Motherland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" III degree, . many medals, . as well as foreign orders and medals.,
. Currently, Air Marshal A
. N. Efimov is chairman of the committee on cooperation with public organizations of veterans, reserve officers and retired at the RF President, the President of the International Charity Fund "The Victory - 1945.
. A significant phenomenon in the life of Alexander Nikolayevich Yefimov was his close friendship with his fellow countryman - a great writer M
. A. Sholokhov. Don earth produces truly real eagles. Two double-Hero: one - the labor, the other - the war. They met frequently. These meetings are mutually enrich friends. Early deceased poet Felix Chuev wrote about them a great poem "Don Eagles. Here's an excerpt from it:
Even let the souls
new thing be done,
grandchildren will feel in their time
Marshal words --
two fellow countrymen in the steppe and blood.
Lives in Moscow.