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Trumpeldor Yosef (Joseph TRUMPELDOR)


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Biography Trumpeldor Yosef (Joseph TRUMPELDOR)
photo Trumpeldor Yosef (Joseph TRUMPELDOR)
(1880 - March 1, 1920) - As good to die for the Motherland!
. This phrase is uttered March 1, 1920 in the Jewish settlement Tel-Hai mortally wounded Yosef Trumpeldor - Russia's imperial army officer, George Knight, a member of Defense of Port Arthur
. But he did not mean a huge country Russia, . defended by even his father Zeev (Vladimir) Trumpeldor, . Nicholas soldiers, . himself, . designed in 1902 in Russia's army and volunteered for the East-Siberian Regiment, . who has served in Port Arthur.,
. Hero of the Russian-Japanese War Yosef Trumpeldor had in mind the small Jewish country, which in those years was not even on the world map
. But perhaps nothing that he did not speak - and these words he ascribes to gossip.

Trumpeldor became the first Jew to receive a royal army officer rank. It was a reward for heroism in the defense of Port Arthur in 1904. Then he lost his left arm and was taken prisoner.

The Holy Land, he arrived in 1912. At first he worked in the agricultural farm "Migdal", then under Dganiya (which later became the commune, and then - the kibbutz).

. Incidentally, the idea of a commune, which supported Trumpeldor, was launched by Leo Tolstoy and was first implemented in practice in Russia settlers Tolstoyans near Rostov-na-Donu
. The seeds of this idea fell on fertile soil Zionist - so that the rest of his life Trumpeldor was a supporter of the establishment of agricultural communes in Eretz Yisrael (Land of Israel). But given the fact that they should, if necessary, to defend with arms. Therefore, his responsibilities also included the organization of the first Jewish settlements in Lower Galilee, from the raids of Arab militias.

. In spite of everything (raids, arson, murder), Jewish settlements, called colloquially the "wall and tower" (wall protects homes and assisted sentinel tower to see the approach of the enemy), erected on this Jewish holy, but the stony ground
. However, with the beginning of the First World War, the majority of Russian Jews, who were pioneers, and the inhabitants of the settlements, was evicted from Palestine - that is, outside of Turkey. The fact that Turkey, fighting against Russia did not want to have on its territory nationals Russia Empire, koimi were the first immigrants.
. The Turks offered them to take Turkish citizenship (and thus, to encourage the Turkish army and fight against Russia)
. None of the Jews, including Trumpeldor not agree to this proposal. And because 11 thousand young Jews were expelled from Palestine to Egypt.
There, in the city of Alexandria, met two men - Ze'ev Jabotinsky (one of the leaders of the Zionist movement), and Joseph Trumpeldor. Both dreamed of creating a Jewish state, and both thought that this could be accomplished even in this difficult time of war. They suggested that the British created a volunteer Jewish Legion of the number of young men who were driven from Palestine, who have participated in the liberation of Eretz Yisrael from Turkish rule. But the English law forbade the taking in the British army of aliens.

The British proposal Trumpeldor and Jabotinsky initially rejected. But then agreed to a compromise - form of Jewish volunteers transport unit, which could be used in any part of the Anglo-Turkish front. Thus, was found to circumvent British law.
Jabotinsky - purely civilian people - from the proposal refused. He was eager to fight, and the proposal to bring up the shells to the front seemed to him humiliating. Trumpeldor, the last Russian-Japanese War and Japanese captivity, the proposal received. And uttered winged words: "In this war, every front - a front for Zion"
With Trumpeldor related and other very interesting story. It also ends with a "winged", but anti-Semitic phrases, made him a commander.
It was at Port Arthur. Soldier Trumpeldor was trapped at the front. From this position he began to see weaknesses in the Japanese positions, which could use Russia's soldiers to be one "Suvorov onslaught of" overthrow the enemy. He decided to inform the officer, who was on the commanding heights. Under fire from the Japanese, he got to the command post and told the officer about an event. He agreed with the soldiers and ordered to return to the front and send the soldiers ordered him to attack the Japanese.
And once again under fire Trumpeldor made his way to his. But when he reached the front, none of the Russian soldiers was not there.
Then Trumpeldor, again under enemy fire, returned and reported that the soldiers abandoned their positions. At that the officer, stung cowardice "rebyatushek", shouted (in the presence of Jewish soldiers): "Run like the Jews!"
The official formation of the Jewish Legion was in March 1915. At the same time a new military unit was given the title "The Zionist case drovers, although often it was called" Detachment mule-drivers ".

After 15 days of exercises in the camp unit, numbering 650 men, sent by sea to the front. April 20 squad arrived on the island of Lemnos, and was included in the strike group, which is preparing for the invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula.

. When it became clear that the Gallipoli operation failed, the command decided to evacuate part of the peninsula
. "Order mule-drivers" carried equipment on ships and was among the units, the latter fled from the peninsula. Tired and depressed "gallipoliytsy" in late 1915, arrived in Alexandria. In a farewell speech Trumpeldor said: "We have finished our work and we can say that we have done it well: We have no reason to be ashamed of:"

. After the dissolution of "detachment mule-drivers have performed their task on the Gallipoli Peninsula, through which runs the British-Turkish front, deputy commander of the Jewish Legion Trumpeldor went to England
. There, along with the Jabotinsky he was to pursue the establishment of the Jewish Legion of those living in London of Russian Jews. But the basis of the Legion were to become battle-hardened fighters DцLtachement mule-drivers.

. Soon the Jewish Legion was founded, but Trumpeldor was already at that time in Russia (June 1917), which tried to persuade the Provisional Government, as previously the British government to form in the Russian army regiment Jewish
. Purpose - to fight the enemy on the Russian-Turkish front, and then, breaking through the Caucasus, to reach Eretz Yisrael.

The idea of the regiment received the support. However, the task before him supposed to put a somewhat different: the protection of the Jewish population of Russia from the pogroms and looting. But even this remained on paper.

The following year, Soviet Russia signed a peace treaty with Germany. The idea of a Jewish regiment was declared illegal, and its initiator - arrested. This happened in 1918 in Petrograd.

But under arrest Trumpeldor was not too long. After his release, he decided to "go another way" and founded a new Jewish movement in Russia - "Ha-Halutz (Zionist, . agricultural migrant in the Land of Israel), . whose goal was to prepare young Jewish boys and girls to live in Eretz Yisrael,
. At the first congress of the organization in 1919 was elected chairman of Trumpeldor. He made a long speech in which he proposed the introduction of military training to its members.

Apparently, and the way teams "Ha-Halutz" to their historic homeland was supposed to be the same - through Turkey. This conclusion can be drawn from the fact, . Trumpeldor that later went to Istanbul, . to establish there a "Reference Desk" and a training farm "kneading Hadash (" New track ") - for Jewish youth, . bound for agricultural settlements in Eretz Yisrael.,
. But Trumpeldor always remembered that Jewish settlements - it is still "Wall and Tower"
. And they need to protect. And because he has repeatedly appealed to the British Mandatory authorities of Palestine with a proposal to bring to the country of 10 thousand - other sources say about 100 thousands - of Jewish soldiers from Russia, which have worked to protect Jewish settlements.

. But this proposal was rejected
. It is possible that the British feared the growing influence of Russia in this region, and perhaps the British were afraid that the British Expeditionary Corps under General Allenby would not be able to cope with 10 thousand Jewish soldiers, past military training in Russia.
. In 1919-1920 the Arabs revolted against the French authorities in Syria, but at the same time destroyed the Jewish settlements in the neighboring areas of Eretz Yisrael
. Trumpeldor was requested to organize the protection of these settlements.
January 1, 1920, he arrived at the place. Along with the settlers and members of his small detachment, he took up the strengthening of such "walls and towers, as Tel Hai, Kfar Giladi and Metula. As a soldier and commander, he was a head taller than his friends and teammates on defense. But he was not familiar with the peculiarities of behavior of the Arab raiders.
At day 11 Adar (March 1, 1920) a significant number of cavalry and infantry armed Arabs surrounded the Tel-Hai. The commander of the Arab detachment said that they want to in the settlement of a search to find him hiding in the French. Trumpeldor allow Kamil al-Hassan and a group of his subordinates enter the premises. When they tried to disarm one of the participants of Defense Trumpeldor fired the first shot, and ordered all who are in positions to open fire and drive away the Arabs.
During the shooting Trumpeldor was mortally wounded in the stomach. The battle lasted all day, and only in the evening, he and seven wounded were evacuated to Kfar Giladi. However, in the way he died:
His death on the battlefield has become a symbol of heroism. At the grave Trumpeldor and five of his associates is a monument with a statue of a lion, whose head proudly lifted up.

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