Invincible Sergei Pavlovich( Designer)
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Biography Invincible Sergei Pavlovich
It is possible that he would have lived long, happy life, while remaining 'widely known in narrow circles', despite the fact that the names of his machines the whole world knows. He opened 'catastroika' and unilateral disarmament. Only when he was a former, . country learned about the General Designer of the Kolomna KBM - KBM, . creator of operational missiles of almost all types of, . whose name is the best way possible consistent with its work, . and former, . and current, . - About Sergei Pavlovich invincible.,
. Yet the repeated publication reflect albeit an important, but only one side of his activity - history of operational-tactical missile system 'Oka'.
. Meanwhile, the MSC and its long-time chief S.P
. Invincible is:
. - The country's first anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) "Bumblebee ', . most common in the world ATGM 'Baby', . The world's first supersonic anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) 'Storm' (and its profound modification of the 'Attack'), . the world's first dual-channel anti-tank systems 'of Christ's zantema-';,
. - The world's first portable anti-aircraft missile system (MANPADS) "Strela-2 'and his current successor' needle ';
. - The system of active protection of tanks 'Arena' and created on the same principles of active protection of silo launchers of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), . first time in the world have implemented the non-nuclear low-altitude interception of ballistic targets;,
. - High-precision short-range missiles 'Point', 'Point-to-P', 'Point-to-have' and 'Iskander-E'
And besides, - interrupted for reasons beyond the developers program mobile ICBM bases 'Dwarf', the development of weapons of 'space-space' ...
Today we tell about some of the most unusual and least-known systems, created by Sergei Pavlovich.
DIPLOMA. MVTU them. BC. Bauman he graduated in 1945, and Diploma were 'Handheld missile systems for anti-tank long range'.
The point: existing at that time bazookas, bazookas and other similar samples had a range of tens of meters. No, the rockets of the same German-propelled grenades - 'ofenrorov' could fly further, but sharply decreased the accuracy.
Uncontrolled rocket is stable at high speeds and unstable at low. But the maximum speed it develops, naturally, at the time of complete combustion of fuel, having already some way. The first option - the direction of such length that the desired speed was developed to sink them, but then the structure obtained cumbersome.
Traditional twist for artillery shells although quite common now for missile technology, always raises certain questions. For example, how will behave rotating cumulative jet, not reduce it at the expense of the working body twist that same range, for which all zatevaetsyaN
Sergei unbeaten proposed and justified a different decision. Short, compact guide and start the engine, burning up almost instantly. Shell is already flying, the speed is sufficient, stabilizers work, starting perturbations mollified. And only here, through the moderator, started boosters!
Then, many years later, this principle is used in 'Iglд≈'. No, the accuracy of homing missiles plot the initial instability does not affect - affect the range and speed. And most importantly for a portable set - excludes defeat arrow and space for him by jet propulsion.
'GNOM'. Talk about this idea come from the time of FA. Zander, and WHO and now there ... In this case, the unconquerable prevented the reasons far removed from scientific and technical.
In the late 50-ies. before the rocket troops were tasked: to create a mobile complex mezhkonti Mr. coefficient of LH and range, most suited to the requirements of the troops (read - extremely simple in operation).
The main way to solve the problem was and remains a solid application (very easy to use due to lack of liquid, almost always - poisonous, components of fuel) engines. However, they have serious (and, alas, irresistible) disadvantage - less than the liquid, the specific impulse. So, other things being equal, to achieve the same range (ie. speed) needs more fuel, the missile will be harder.
At that time, a solid propellant missile has been designed RT-1, with a starting weight of 34 metric tons traveling at 2400 km, and the RT-2, respectively - 51 m and 10000 km ( 'TM', б╘ 4 per 1998). But for the mobile complex required not more than 32 tons! Elementary: the bridges (with a strategic, fortified) may take the car up to 65 tons, and was already known that the mass of the empty transporter is approximately equal to the mass of the rocket.
Theoretically, the yield offered more Arturovich Friedrich Zander: use as an oxidant air. First, almost twice the mass of fuel decreases, and secondly, the specific impulse of the jet engine, in principle, much more, almost 10 times more.
Then another head KBM its founder, the eminent designer mortar B.I. Shavyrin proposed to establish the first stage solid-propellant motor STRAIGHT-FLOW. It was already known that not 10 but 2-fold greater specific impulse, he developed a touch of humor, in the dense layers of the atmosphere provides overclocking up to 3 'Makhov' - but more and not have to.
This alone made the intercontinental (11000 km) ballistic missile 'Dwarf' unique. But perfect application had yet to realize the characteristics of the 'iron' ...
They say one of our outstanding designers artillerymen, whose gun went from Brest to Berlin, and Port Arthur, on the question of Stalin, will he be able to recreate the V-2, said: I can, if you give me fifty electricians. Maybe it's a legend, but the level of understanding of the new technology a number of professionals it represents. And Shavyrin nearly made the 'Dwarf' is even more unique, already lay -.
First, direct-flow stage, he proposed to place in front. And in its tail inserted into the second, purely a missile with a warhead. And in flight, with the division, boosters was tied to the first stage of the second.
For all the originality, it almost ruined the idea of standing: despite the fact that the 'nested' proposed missile still Obert in 1929, and implemented such a scheme and to date only in relation to anti-submarine systems ( 'TM', N 10 for 1996 g.). Yes another Makeevka R-39/RSM-52 similarly placed block surfacing, but there it is under water.
Invincible, who led after the death of MSC B.I. Shavyrina in 1965, offered a more familiar face: the first stage with the side air inlets on it - the second, then - head part (MS). In the given 32 t fit. Problems remained to be done, even though the engine was working at the stand in Turaev - suffice to say that pryamotochnik at zero speed is not included, need a seed dispersal. In addition, Sergei Pavlovich was searching for ways to improve mobility 'Dwarf': along with the creator ekpredlozhil place intercontinental range on the 'board-layout' (known and called 'Caspian Sea Monster'). However, further bench samples missile 'not go', earned the factors of technology far.
Designer of the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering aq. Nadiradze, building on existing already had experience in creating mobile short-range missiles 'temp', proposed a conventional solid-fuel ICBM at the engines, but the launch mass of 26 tonnes. He supported the Defense Ministry leadership, and as a result we have a 45-ton Topol '7-osnoy MAZovskoy' centipede ', consisting of the complex total mass 98 tons..
'Chrysanthemums'. In the N 10 for 1999. We have already written about 'Krizantema', serial production of which seems to be finally deployed in Saratov. But it is always interesting, . born as a 'product', . and why it is takoeN history of the world's first dual-channel anti-missile system began in summer 1981, . when, . in order to scare the Polish Solidarity, . Belarus were large maneuvers with live ammunition,
. All sorts PTRM famously struck RC tanks target, but riding, shooting and exploding cars lifted this wall of smoke and dust. Through it simply could not see anything, let alone to build the rocket on a laser beam ...
And although the military assured us that the real battle, so the density of the exploding technology (and, accordingly, such pylischi) does not happen, the defense minister Ph.D.. Ustinov, lamented: 'how to shoot, if nothing vidnoN' I demanded: problem solved!
Well, the decision itself, begs, the choice of a poor boy: optics or radio waves, and if the first does not work ... But the radio band is great, but it was necessary that the radar beam was in its parameters, in particular - on the angular divergence (defining the accuracy and noise immunity), is close to the light.
Possesses the required property of submillimeter radio waves in the range of Sergei Pavlovich and decided to use, leaving, however, and the laser channel - in case of good visibility, and to strike two targets simultaneously. But the trouble is that the country did not exist the element base Radioengineering submillimetre! It had yet to establish.
In the first approximation, the problem was solved as early as 1984-th, when earned poster design 'Chrysanthemum'. However, until the series was as much as 15 years, and not only in the 'restructuring' case. Suffice it to say that, in the end, the radio channel had to completely redo! But now 'Chrysanthemum' capable of hitting a target at a distance of 6 km in fact in any weather. And through all the smoke.
'WEAPON OF SELF-DEFENSE'. 'Traydentovskaya' or 'MHovskaya' warhead approaching goal. Yes, somewhere very far away and long ago (20 minutes ago) it detected locators, and chtoN anyway from Russian interceptor missiles are only in Moscow but it is far, the aim of the present MS - well ... say, missile silos in the Middle Volga. And if the machine is capable of experiencing pleasure from successfully performed the target, then he is pleased: after a few seconds from Russian rocket will be one less. However ...
From somewhere below, the side of the cloud grows snaryadikov steel, in which the head cuts at a speed of about 6 km / s.. And moments later, a reinforced concrete cap rocket mine fall only ravaged wreckage, that they are radioactive, but to fulfill its task content of mine is not a pome-creases. ..
Instead of 'MHovskoy' - ours, prototyping 'head', instead of the protected shaft - ground in Kamchatka, and everything else is quite realistic. In the late 80's the development of the MSC met for the first time MS intercept intercontinental ballistic missiles, not only without the use of nuclear charge (this is a novelty even in 1960), but no ... rocket.
Objective: To increase the resistance of protected objects (because there is no way to survive, but the direct hit of a nuclear weapon) to the effects of ballistic missiles. The difficulty is that in the far Interception is very difficult to identify targets for the background of false. In the near remains extremely little time to relieve the defense complex.
Control System trigger interceptor missiles just do not have time to. PushkaN but lacks any Rate: to destroy the RBA to hit multiple submunitions, and all this at high absolute and relative angular velocities of goals ... MND-gostvolkaN Modern systems are firing from all barrels are not at the same time (what is achieved by their monstrous, but insufficient in this case, rate). By the way, any complex, such as those described, is contrary to the ABM Treaty in 1972. But the idea of multiple-good.
Block of several hundred barrels. In each of them - a shell and a charge of gunpowder. Their detonation is performed synchronously, centralized, and so that the shells came to the line interception rather than simultaneously uniformly filling a certain amount of space (as the atoms in the crystal lattice). They do not even require a very high speed, let them fly kilometer and a half seconds. And a kilometer from the protected object before the rocket heads will rise steel cloud.
Sergei Pavlovich stresses that it is - the system of protection of mines, bunkers, but not cities. It assumes that the object hit the debris, even radioactive, stand.
The most interesting - such a complex under the above ABM Treaty does not enter: it is not even a means of interception, and, in essence, 'Active Armor'!
Incidentally, on the 'active armor'. It is known that anti-tank missile, in principle, can penetrate any armor that tank in a position to carry. Already the usual 'box' reactive armor (DMZ), side (bottom) fires a flat on the interception of shaped-charge warhead (Warhead) steel sheet - a partial solution to the problem. To counter the tandem (as is already a 'three-stage') Warhead blocks DMZ should be integrated into the design, which means - you want to completely rearrange the tank. It is difficult and expensive, and need to fight liN But something is needed now, a lot of old tanks, and they are very personal, even if they increase the resistance to ATGM. KakN destroying missiles on approach!
On the missile defense system say the tank for a long time, real as long as two, both our: Tula 'Blackbird' and Kolomna 'Arena'. Only 'Drozd' to meet the approaching missile starts small raktivny shell, while the development of the MSC uses the principle outlined above: an incoming missile before it destroys the wall fragments. Structurally, these are the same (almost) blocks the DMZ, but installed on inclined rails that surround the turret of the tank as the stands - the arena of the stadium (hence the name). ATGM are recorded by a radar, a suitable location for the unit fired in her direction, a little higher, and undermined at a given point. You can configure the system and so that the fragments struck by a missile from the side, which is more efficient.
More daunting is the same problem for ships. They are, first, today if armored, then much weaker than the tanks and, secondly, as a rule, are attacked simultaneously by several missiles. For the Navy proposed such a system: military units run horizontally from the upper deck (laid at the interface with bulwarks), the flow of the fragments is in the plane perpendicular to the path block, and an incoming missile.
The fundamental difference in the detection system: if the tank is placed on the radar, then the ships proposed opto-electronic complex. After all, for every extra antenna shipbuilders - nagging headache ...
That terrible word 'democracy' ... It so happened historically that in our country, almost no former general designers - with this post, as a rule, carried away (feet first). Or, in one way or another, often quite distant from the technology, the reasons were filming. This nightmare situation had changed somewhat, but now at the helm of relatively prosperous 'firms' are the same permanent Simonov, Mikheev, Semenov, Kozlov, Kovalev ...
Unbeaten left. Himself. And not just from the post - from the organization. When little ochuhalis of perestroika intoxication our okolovoennye Media, . when the 'bite' first and last President of the Soviet Union was not only risk-free activity, . but good manners, . when a 'gekachepista' late Marshal Akhromeyev was, . Finally, . national hero, . from article to article went for a walk version: SergePavlovich his departure expressed the pro-test against the elimination of - the Treaty on intermediate-and shorter-range missiles - in any way under him does not get a complex 'Oka',
It is. But the story of the 'Oka', I hope, yet to be assessed, along with many others, the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court. And with the company, which Sergei Pavlovich gave his life, he was forced to bow out another 'achievement of perestroika - the election of heads of enterprises.
We - the magazine - also in his time glorifying this 'process', completely forgetting that life - a difficult thing, everything in it is connected to everything ... What happened in Kolomna, while going on across the country. Our organization, creating a complicated art techniques, tightly tied to the military structure. Including this is reflected in the military discipline of work: superior orders - the law to a subordinate. Of course, if it turns out that the chief made a mistake, it can and should be corrected, and the sooner the better, but it must be justified. Desirable - Calculations. Even better - the experience, qualifications correcting. I always need to remember that the terms hard, domestic production is not all-powerful government's pocket is not bottomless, and the best - often the enemy of good ...
But in any organization there are people whose needs exceed their ability. Rid of them in Soviet times it was almost impossible: in contrast to the selfless romantics, they are very well aware of their rights.
The majority of the rest, unfortunately, do not accept the fate of his plant, KB, country, finally, as his own. And to this day 'voice of the heart' (remember the 1996-yN), with all the consequences ... No wonder that it is incompetent bawlers, unable to work, but 'everybody comfortable', as a rule, and won the elections, the leaders of labor collectives in the late 80's - early 90's.
In the MSC, thank God, there were. But man, . wished to win that election, . anticipated that all current 'elective technology' (rather, . just carefully read Mark Twain - that all described a century ago) - with the, . that his past deeds deserve close interest, . at least, . Forgotten now the people's control, . and can not - and prosecutors,
Sergei Pavlovich did not know the technical failures. Anti, . Portable Air, . operational-tactical missiles from Kolomna were perhaps the first in their classes, . otherwise remain the best in the world, . name 'Maljutka' and 'Strela', . now - 'Shtoorm' and '1 d1a 'understood without translation, in many countries around the world,
. And this, incidentally - is quite real honor, respect, awards, titles and awards to staff the firm. In Kolomna KBM - no town-forming, but rather a significant enterprise with a developed, in Soviet times, the rapidly growing, social sphere, it is - too much credit Invincible. In short, the election he would have won, it was evident. And then, not even himself - to his wife, singer, once for the sake of a loved one to leave the stage, struck threatening phone calls ...
And he went. Himself. Not just from the post - from the organization. He became a senior fellow in his own former allied - Central Research Institute for Automation and Hydraulics (TSNIIAG), developer of control systems and hydraulic.
A small digression. Yes, in the beginning of the century Bolsheviks (even not so much they - sought to destroy the old Russia, many) used a similar technique: the soldiers' committees for 1917 was the army was paralyzed, nearly destroyed. But, unlike other of the then 'actors' and current 'p-reformers', then the Bolsheviks were going to build, and in February 1918 began to create a new army structure to serve as a defense of the Fatherland. And that is why, despite everything, in the Red, but not in the White Army went the bulk of Russian officers. Then, eight decades ago, the collapse lasted only a year - before the Bolsheviks took power. And then they began to build. Iron hand. Country. Superpower. Not immediately, but it has turned. Democrats in power for more than 9 years old, is officially considered innocent. And if something still works - so just what is left from the one superpower ...
Only ahead For any of their cars invincible already earned a place in history not only of military equipment, but also the XX century. But ...
Sophisticated weapons, military complex lives than one year, - says Sergey Pavlovich. - At least 5-10 years leaving only the development, from concept to series. For a while, to the deployment of production, training troops ... In short, from the very beginning the system to conceive, so that in 10-15 years it is not obsolete, and in 20 - 25 was suitable for the modernization. For this new weapon (yes a new model of any equipment) should be fed the most advanced, based on the latest research to ACHIEVEMENT. Himself to organize the relevant research, ordering, if not necessary ...
Desire Invincible use any promising innovations is best characterized by the following episode. In the early 1970's published the results of experiments on the American telepathic transfer of information. The value of 'thought control' for weapons may not be explained. So, it was Sergei Pavlovich supported similar studies in our country. Experimenters have seen: perhaps, but practical application - not immediate future. Okay, Moscow was not built ...
Today, unbeaten all their authority, informal bonds, the developer experience of complex systems is pushing for - or not say - the new direction of homing systems. Developed in science and technology center 'Reagent', . TSNIIAG and other organizations of production technology of sensors and methods of processing information, . using elements of artificial intelligence, . many orders of magnitude increases the sensitivity of optical devices, . that gives a stunning qualitative leap: the optical system are beginning to see through clouds, . not require backlighting, . and if needed, . then in such a weak, . that it does not fix the sensors enemy ..,
. This reduces the cost of devices and.
In letters to the highest Sergei Pavlovich stresses that it is impossible to live indefinitely on the old hurt: indeed, today, to adopting only prepare the system created in the Soviet Union ... New scientific research is virtually lacking, and it is fraught with disastrous consequences: it seems that the XXI century will not be peace!
|Inga Sitte for Invincible Sergei Pavlovich
|Written interesting! But somehow it all does not occur in real combat conditions.