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Carl Linnaeus

( Swedish naturalist)

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Biography Carl Linnaeus

(May 13, 1707 - January 10, 1778)
Swedish naturalist. Created a system of classification of flora and fauna. For the first time applied and put into use binary nomenclature, according to which each species is designated by two Latin names - genus and species.
. Carl Linnaeus, the famous Swedish naturalist, born in Sweden, in the hamlet Rozgult, May 13, 1707
. He was a humble family, his ancestors - the simple peasants, the father, Nile Linneaus, a poor village priest. The following year, after the birth of a son he had received more lucrative in the coming Stenbrogulte, where he fled by all childhood Carl Linnaeus to the age of ten.

. My father was a great lover of flowers and gardening, in the picturesque Stenbrogulte he spread his garden, which soon became the first in the entire province
. This garden and the lessons his father played, of course, a considerable role in the emotional development of the future founder of scientific botany. The boy took a special corner in the garden, several beds, where he was considered a complete master, they are called - "a garden of Charles.

When the boy passed ten years, he was sent to elementary school in the town Veksa. School classes gifted child was bad, he continued to enthusiastically engage in botany, and prep for him was exhausting. My father was about to take the boy out of school, but the event pushed him to the local doctor Hetman. He was a good friend of the Chief of the school, where Linnaeus began his teaching, and he knew about the boy's exceptional talents. In Rothman classes "underachievers" schoolboy went better. The doctor began to slowly acquaint him with medicine and even - in spite of reviews of teachers - made to love Latin.

. After high school Carl goes to the University of Lund, but soon passes out in one of the most prestigious universities in Sweden - in Uppsala
. Linnaeus was only 23 years old, when a professor of botany Oluas Tselzy took him to his aides, and then himself, while still a student. Carl began teaching at the University. It is very important for a young scientist has been a journey to Lapland. Linney walked nearly 700 miles, has collected a significant collection and as a result published his first book - "Flora of Lapland.

In the spring of 1735 Linnaeus arrived in Holland in Amsterdam. In a small college town Gardervike he passed the exam and 24 June 1935 he defended his thesis on the medical theme - fever, written by him in Sweden. The immediate objective of his trip had been reached, but Karl stayed. Stayed fortunately for himself and for science: a rich and highly cultured Holland served as a cradle for his passionate creativity and his loud glory.

. One of his new friends, Dr. Hron, invited him to publish some work, while Linney made and published the first draft of his famous work, the foundation of systematic zoology and botany in the modern sense
. This was the first edition of his "Systema naturae", entering into the time being only 14 pages of large format, on which were grouped in tabular form, a brief description of minerals, plants and animals. With this edition begins a series of rapid scientific progress Linnaeus.

. In his new works published in 1736-1737, respectively, were already more or less complete form, its main and most fruitful ideas: the system of genus and species names, improved terminology, an artificial system of the vegetable kingdom.
. At this time he received a brilliant proposal to become personal physician to George Klifforta with a salary of 1000 guilders and the full content
. Kliffort was one of the directors of the East India Company (then flourished, and replenish the wealth of the Netherlands) and mayor of the city of Amsterdam. And most importantly, Kliffort was an avid gardener, a lover of botany and general science. In his estate Garteh Camp, near Harlem, was a famous garden in Holland, where he is, regardless of the costs and tirelessly engaged in the cultivation and acclimatization of foreign plants - plants in Southern Europe, Asia, Africa, America. When he had a garden and herbarium, and a rich botanical library. All this contributed to the scientific work of Linnaeus.

Despite the successes, which was surrounded by Linnaeus in Holland, he began to gradually pull back. In 1738, he returned home and faced with unexpected problems. He, . accustomed to three years of life abroad to the universal respect, . Friendship and signs of attention most prominent and famous people, . at home, . homeland, . was simply a doctor without a place, . without practice and no money, . and to his learning to anyone, there was no case,
. So Linnaeus, the botanist Linnaeus gave way to the doctor, and favorite activities at the time they were abandoned.

But already in 1739 the Swedish Diet allocated him a hundred ducats of annual maintenance with the obligation to teach botany and mineralogy. At the same time he was given the title "royal botany". In the same year he obtained a position Admiralty doctor in Stockholm: The post opened up a wide scope of his medical activities.

Finally he found an opportunity to marry, and 26 June 1739 was held five years-delayed wedding. Alas, as often happens with people of outstanding talent, his wife was the complete opposite of her husband. Ill-mannered, rough and quarrelsome woman, without intellectual interests, in the brilliant work of her husband she valued only the material side, it was a wife, mistress, wife, cook. In economic matters it held power in the house and in this respect was a bad influence on her husband, developing in him a tendency to avarice. In their relations in the family had a lot of sad. U Linnaean had one son and several daughters, his mother loved children, and they have grown up under its influence, uneducated girls and petty bourgeois family. By the same to his son, a gifted boy, his mother entertained a strange antipathy, in every way he pursued and tried to recover his father against him. The latter, however, she could not: Linnaeus loved his son and with a passion developed in him those tendencies for which he suffered so much in childhood.

. In a short period of his life Linney Stockholm participated in the Stockholm Academy of Sciences
. It originated as a private community of several persons, and the initial number of its full members were only six. At its first meeting Linney was appointed by lot by the President.

In 1742, Linnaeus's dream came true and he became a professor of botany in his native university. Botanical Department in Uppsala acquired when Linnaeus extraordinary brilliance, whom she had never had either before or after. All the rest of his life was spent in this city almost continuously. The chair he occupied for over thirty years and left it until shortly before his death.
Financial position it becomes strong, it has the good fortune to see the complete triumph of his scientific ideas, the rapid spread and widespread acceptance of his teachings. The name of Linnaeus was considered among the first names of the time: people like Rousseau, treated him with reverence. External achievements and honors showered upon him from all sides. At that age - age of enlightened absolutism and the patrons - the scientists were in vogue, and Linnaeus was one of those best minds of the last century, which fell courtesy of sovereigns.

. Academic bought a small estate near Uppsala Gammarba, where he spent his summers in the last 15 years of his life
. Foreigners who came to engage in under his leadership, took off his apartment in the neighboring village.

Of course, now Linney longer practice medicine, was engaged only in research. He described all known at the time of medicinal plants and studied the action of these drugs produced. Interestingly, these studies, which seemed to fill his time, Linnaeus successfully combined with other. It was at this time, he invented the thermometer, using the Celsius temperature scale.

But the main business of his life Linney still considered systematization of plant. Home Work "system of plants" got the whole 25 years, and only in 1753, he published his major work.

Scientific thought of to systematize the entire plant world of the Earth. At the time Linnaeus started his work, zoology is in a period of exclusive dominance of systematics. Task, . she then put a, . consisted of simple acquaintance with all breeds of animals, . living on the globe, . without regard to their internal structure and to link the individual forms of each other; the subject of zoological works of that time was a mere enumeration and description of all known animals.,

. Thus, zoology and botany at the time engaged primarily in the study and description of species, but in recognition of their boundless confusion reigned
. Descriptions, which the author gave the new animals or plants, are usually so confused and inaccurate. The second major drawback was the lack of science then more or less tolerable and accurate classification.

These fundamental weaknesses systematic zoology and botany and corrected by the genius of Linnaeus. Staying on the same basis of environmental studies, which were his predecessors and contemporaries, he was a powerful reformer of science. The merit of it - purely methodological. He did not open new areas of knowledge and a hitherto unknown laws of nature, . but he created a new method, . clear, . logical, . and with the help of his introduced light and order there, . where before it was dominated by chaos and confusion, . What gave great impetus to science, . powerful way paving the way for further research,
. It was a necessary step in science, without which it would not have been further progress.
The scientist suggested that the binary nomenclature - a system of scientific names of plants and animals. Based on the features of the structure, he divided all plants into 24 classes, selecting as separate genera and species. Each name, in his view, was to consist of two words - genus and species designations.

. Despite the fact that the application of the principle was rather artificial, it was very convenient and has become generally accepted in the scientific classification, retaining its importance in our time
. But in order for a new nomenclature has been fruitful, it was necessary that species, have received the code name, at the same time were so precise and detailed that they can not be mixed with other species of the same kind. Linney and it did: he was first introduced into science a well-defined, precise language and precise definition of signs. In his treatise "The fundamental botany, published in Amsterdam during his life in Klifforta and submitted the result of a seven-year labor, set out grounds of botanical terminology, which he used to describe plants.

. Zoological Linnaean system has not played a major role of science such as botanical, although in some respects, stood above her, as being less artificial, but it should not be its main advantages - convenience in determining the
. Linney was not very familiar with the anatomy
Works of Linnaeus have given a huge boost of systematic botany and zoology. Worked out a terminology and a convenient nomenclature easier to cope with the enormous material, in which the first was so difficult to understand. Soon, all classes of plant and animal kingdoms were closely examined in a systematic respect, and the number of described species has increased from hour to hour.
. Later, Linnaeus applied his principle to the classification of all nature, in particular, of minerals and rocks
. He also became the first scientist who took the man and the monkey to one group of animals - primates. As a result of his observations naturalist was another book - "System of Nature". Above her, he worked all his life, from time to time republishing his work. Total scholar produced 12 editions of this work, which is a small book gradually turned into a lengthy multi-volume edition.
The last years of his life were overshadowed by Linnaeus decrepit old age and disease. He died on January 10, 1778, the seventy-first year of life.
After his death, the department of botany at Uppsala University has received his son, zealously set for the continuation of the father. But in 1783 he suddenly fell ill and died at the forty-second year of life. The son was not married, and with his death in the men's race Linnean generation ceased.


. Distinguished biologist

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