Fauchart Pierre( Dentist Louis XV)
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Biography Fauchart Pierre
Everyone knows that a false tooth roads. Everyone knows that when working in the course often go hammers, drills and other long-known carpentry tools. Everyone knows, at last, and the technology of manufacturing artificial teeth - pins, cermet. But as the visitors were surprised to dental offices, if they knew that everything was exactly 250 years ago. Today's false teeth came up with a dentist Louis XV Pierre Fauchart.
Pierre Fauchart was born in Angers in 1678. His family was not rich: his father worked pieces, writing in a law office, his mother was raising five children. Pierre childhood carried away medicine. PochemuN My father always said to him that the doctor will never go hungry, because he always needs people: and in war and in peace, and holidays, and weekdays. But even the mere sight of Pierre liked the doctor's office, a magnificent role, which is always given to the doctor when you visit the sick, banks and a bottle of scented solutions, lotions and gleaming instruments.
In general, he followed the advice of his father. Already in 15 years, having two-year course, he became a surgeon. Practice it has been so successful, that after some time he was invited to the naval hospital - a place for those times a prestigious and profitable. Pierre cut sick ulcers, reduce a dislocations, amputating gangrenous limbs seized, tore his teeth. But no success and the money could not drown in Fauchart desire to colorful life, full of lights, fireworks and merry laughter secular ladies. For all these had to go to Paris. Fauchart figured out how to conquer the capital: he decided to leave general surgery and immerse themselves in the study of dentistry, and then in her practice. This is, reasonably believed he would open his way into high society - the poor teeth can not be cured, much less put a prosthesis. His teacher in this case was the chief surgeon of the Royal Navy Potelre Alexander, known for his dental talents and famous clientele. Dental science fascinated and inspired Fauchart. He meticulously examines the ancient "teeth atlases, found during excavations of the Phoenician city of Sidon in the IV - III centuries. BC. e. Consider as given in the French commentaries pictures of artificial teeth from the animal bones and human teeth, which were attached to neighboring through gold or silver wire. Study reports on the excavations of the city Tarquinia, where the tombs of the Etruscans were found prostheses made of artificial teeth and a number of gold rings, secured to a neighboring healthy teeth. He reads books on dental craft, written by Roman barbers and goldsmiths - in ancient Rome they were engaged in dental prosthetics.
. But carefully Pierre Fauchart studied treatises famous Arab surgeon Abul-Qasim, who was one of the first said; dentures - it is medicine, because it helps people to heal illness and to correct the defect
. Fauchart in these views and claimed the works of French dentists, who to improve their craft has always pushed the exquisite manners of the French court life. For example, in 1575 the French surgeon Ambroise Pare proposed to close the defect of the hard palate of gold plate, combined with a piece of sponge, penetrating into the nasal cavity, and called a prosthesis obturatom. This type of prosthesis is very popular among French aristocracy and bourgeoisie, who carefully watched his appearance and present a demand for skilled dental care, especially in the field of prosthetics. But such examples then it was a little bit, but now (this Fauchart heard from the teacher) in the capital all literally covered mania insert your teeth.
. Fauchart wrote while in Paris a few letters known dentist and offered scientific contacts and joint practice
. In these letters, he expressed his indignation at the fact that in a country such as France - especially in the provinces, where not enough certified dentists - are so difficult to continue to engage barbers, bath attendants and even executioners. And this despite the fact that even in 1700 by royal decree, laid the beginnings of dentistry as an independent branch of medicine, a new specialization of the surgeon-dentist, gave the right to dental. A conscientious doctor to get this rank had to withstand a special examination in committee, composed of distinguished surgeons. Fauchart Pierre passed the exam with distinction and could not bear dilettantes in such a case, like dentistry.
. I Fauchart struck up an intense correspondence with metropolitan dentists, and in 1720 he moved to Paris
. How quickly acquired a very decent clientele. Thus Fauchart. became the personal dentist Diderot (who had bad teeth and malocclusion), and that led to him other educators. However, they, according to the doctor, not too worried about the aesthetic aspect of the. But he treated with the French army generals and their wives, as well as his regular patients of Cardinal de Fleury to his appearance is treated with great care. Several times Fauchart treated teeth and Louis XV, in particular, made him a small bridge on back teeth, which immediately made him famous. Solid earnings Fauchart allowed to settle in the huge house on the famous Rue Fosse-Saint-Germain-des-Pres next to the park, which often strolled the most famous people in Paris.
In 1747 he moved to Fauchart no less prestigious Rue des Cordeliers. There, he was not the only reception room, and adjoining wing with a prosthetic workshop and laboratory where he conducts research and prepares and anti-inflammatory compounds for bleaching teeth.
Dental Fauchart was a genius. First of all, he once said, . that dental diseases are caused not by worms, . then considered as, . but for quite different reasons, . about which he talked a lot to their patients and are outlined in his treatise Le Chirurgien-dentiste ou traite des dents ( "Dentist-Surgeon, . or a treatise on the teeth "), . selecting the 102 varieties of dental disease,
. He developed and a new method of tooth extraction, changing the position of the patient's body during this operation. Formerly with sick bull: put on the table or seated on the floor, with the patient's head was between his knees doctor. "The head of the patient should not be clamped between his knees - wrote Fauchart .- It is from this goes into a junk nervousness". And scientifically substantiated, another position that is convenient for the extraction of teeth: when the patient sits in a chair, and the doctor was located on the right or behind him. In this position, he removed the teeth, even pregnant women, who bore the operation remarkably quiet. That at the time was considered the height of healing.
But if the doctor Fauchart able to do this alone, he would certainly not famous outside France. And even more so his fame would not overcome the boundaries of his metered century. However Fauchart not only a virtuoso could pull out teeth. He figured out how to embed. More precisely, it was he who invented false teeth in their present form. Fauchart, . particularly, . belongs to the idea of fixing the prosthetic springs from the thickened gold wire or a spiral: a printed or palatal plates at the time was not yet, . a spring allows you to set flexible denture, . taking into account individual characteristics of the patient,
. This serious problem to solve Fauchart monstrous way. Here is what he wrote: "Some doctors in order to strengthen denture pierce holes in the jawbones of patients and introduce there a gold wire - a method that demonstrates the courage of surgeons rather than on their mind". As a material for prostheses used Fauchart fallen teeth, ivory, walrus tusks and hippopotamus. He carefully picked up color retainer, for which the Parisian ladies gladly paid the big money and waited for hours just from him for months and sometimes years. He also invented the pins teeth and thought to strengthen one or two pins connected by a few teeth, which was the prototype of the modern bridges.
. Another important invention Fauchart due to cosmetic reasons: to give the teeth of ivory, more natural look, . he covered their caps of gold, . which a layer of baked porcelain enamel of different colors,
. This is what initiated the manufacture of artificial teeth made of porcelain. Fauchart also improved obturaty Pare, . replacing sponge mobile, . like the wings of "spikes" of ivory, . connecting to an palatal plate (appendages were introduced into the nasal cavity vertically and using a special screw moved in a horizontal position, . thus withheld palatal plate),
. Finally Fauchart invented and is so popular nowadays, metal plates to correct bite. He refused to remove abnormally growing teeth, as was done in his time, and tried using the wire, silk ligature, silver and metal plates put abnormal tooth in place.
. What kind of person was Dr. FosharN First, very, very wealthy
. And secondly, steady, solid, witty and never violated his leisure time, or pre-established regulations due to unforeseen circumstances. Once, he tried to conjure with the performance of the Comedie Francaise ": a top adviser to the king, they say, is tormented by his teeth for several weeks, and now does the wall climbs. Fauchart with the performance did not go the next day explained his position: "The dentist, having usually the case with strongly affected by the patient should not panic. The damaged tooth back in haste to correct it is impossible ". At the entrance to his office on the Rue des Cordeliers at multiple tables were well trained secretaries, who were careful record of the reception. Registration book store hundreds of names, most of whom were proud owners of the French nation. But whatever happened in the waiting room, Fauchart never violated the given order.
A huge number of patients has Fauchart to the idea of opening dental shop. Workers, he gained a master jeweler an average hand, planting them for medical books and anatomical atlases and only after passing the exam gave them the know. From the books of the workshop, which bore his name, we know that it was made up to 1000 false teeth in a year. For particularly important clients he did his own set of false teeth. It is known that the Marquise de Pompadour, he made a few pin tumbler teeth on special technology exclusively from precious materials, and each tooth cost the French treasury 100 louis (worth so much expensive diamond ring).
. At the doctor calls Fauchart rarely went, . Recalling, . equipment that he needs his cabinet: screwed to the floor chair, . system of small mirrors, . designed for his drawings, . burners for boiling and cooking all kinds of liquids, . special light, . for precise directions which he also invented a special instrument with lenses and mirrors,
. But in rare, . exceptional cases, he went to the patient - and sometimes even with his wife (Fauchart married in 1729, . already a famous and wealthy dentist, . Elizabeth-Giyemett Shemen, . a descendant of the famous acting family in 1737 they had a son, Jean-Baptiste Fauchart, . who became a lawyer and advisor to the parliament the king in Admiralty),
. One of his regular customers was Jean-Jacques Rousseau, terribly impatient, and shy, to divert attention whose wife Fauchart with a sense of reciting verses of Ronsard
Nevertheless age Fauchart was troubled. He made the king's decree on conferring to him and his children of a title. However, the younger Fauchart, earning enough money at the mercy of taxes, unexpectedly followed the example of the ancestors of the mother and became an actor in the Comedie Francaise ". For the theater, he even put their own one-act comic opera "Merry shoemaker". Dr. Fauchart loved the theater, but wished for his son, a more serious career. I regret that he will not have a successor. In 1738, Pierre Fauchart a widower, having married a second time only after nine years, already a 70-year-old man. His chosen ones were Catherine Roussel, a lady of high society, great-niece of his deceased wife. Balance Fauchart days spent in endless court: Catherine desperately was tried with him about her other aunt's inheritance left by his late son, whose guardian was Fauchart. Scary family squabbles completely overshadowed the last years great prosthesis. In 1761 Fauchart died, leaving his family a huge fortune, and descendants - a stereotype. The fact that the prosthetist - an elite and very dear doctor, able to return what had once been taken away by nature: the teeth.