VOLTAIRE( writer and philosopher, educator, deist.)
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(1694 - 30 May 1778)
Real name Franц╖ois-Marie Arouet, French. writer and philosopher, educator, deist. The lyrics of the young Voltaire permeated epicurean motifs, contains attacks against absolutism. He played a major role in the ideological preparation of Franz. Revolution of the late. 18. The name of Voltaire associated spread in Russia TN. Voltairianism (the spirit of free religious pathos of the overthrow of authority).
Francois Marie Arouet - better known by his pen name Voltaire - was a leading figure of the French Enlightenment. Poet, playwright, essayist, novelist, short story writer, historian and philosopher, Voltaire was an apostle of freethinking liberalism.
Voltaire was born in 1694 in Paris. Was related to the middle class. Voltaire's father was a lawyer. In his youth, Voltaire entered the Jesuit College Louis-le-Grand in Paris, then for some time studied law, but gave it up. He soon won a reputation in Paris, very witty guy, author of subtle jokes and satirical poems. Under the old regime in France, such umnichane could be dangerous, and as a result of some political poems of Voltaire was arrested and thrown in the Bastille. Almost a year he spent in prison, where dedicated time to write the epic poem "Genriada", which subsequently received significant recognition. In 1718, shortly after his release from prison of Voltaire, his play "Oedipus" was staged in Paris, where he was a huge success. In the twenty-four years of its author became famous, and during the remaining sixty years of life was a leading figure of French literature.
. Voltaire treated the money as wisely, . as the word, . and eventually became independent rich man but in 1726 got into a nasty their situations, . proved to wittiest and brightest from anyone of his time (and possibly, . and all time) lacked modesty, . which some French aristocrats loved to ordinary people,
. This resulted in a dispute between Voltaire and one such aristocrat - the Chevalier de Rogan, in which the wit first brought him victory in a verbal duel. However, soon organized a massacre of the enemy group huligano, and later put him in the Bastille. Soon Voltaire released from prison on condition that he leave France. Voltaire went to England, where he spent two and a half years.
Stay in England was a turning point in his life. He learned to speak and read in English, became acquainted with the writings of such famous Englishmen, like John Locke, Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and William Shakespeare, and personally acquainted with many English thinkers of the time. Voltaire was appalled by Shakespeare, English, science and empiricism. But most of all he was struck by the political system. British democracy and personal freedom were a sharp contrast to the political conditions in France. No English lord could not issue a decree, and thus throw Voltaire in jail. And if it for some reason, unjustly accused, after delivery to the court, he soon would be released.
. When Voltaire returned to France, he wrote his first important philosophical work of the "Philosophical Letters", usually called "English letters"
. This book, published in 1734, marks the beginning of the French Enlightenment. In "English letters" Voltaire has submitted a description of approval from the British political system, the ideas of John Locke and other English thinkers. The book aroused the indignation of the French authorities, and Voltaire was again forced to leave Paris.
. Most of the next fifteen years he lived in CRIS in eastern France, where he was beloved Madame du Chatelet, a beautiful, educated wife of the Marquis
. In 1750, a year after her death, Voltaire went to Germany at the personal invitation of the Prussian king Frederick the Great. For three years he spent at the court of Frederick at Potsdam. First, Voltaire became friends with an educated, intelligent master, but in the end they quarreled, Yves 1753, Voltaire left Germany.
. Leaving this country, Voltaire settled in an estate near Geneva, where he was safe from the French and King of Prussia
. But his liberal views have made him dangerous even for Switzerland. In 1758 he moved to another estate, in Fernie, near the French-Swiss border, where he had two avenues for escape in case of regular trouble with the authorities. Voltaire lived there for twenty years, creating a literary and philosophical works, corresponding to European intellectual leaders, and taking visitors.
All these years the volume of his work is not diminished. He was a fantastically prolific writer. They say that all his works occupy more than 30 000 pages. They include the epic poem, lyrical poems, personal letters, pamphlets, novels, short stories, plays, serious books on history and philosophy.
Voltaire always strongly believed in religious tolerance. When he approached his seventieth, in France there were some particularly horrific cases of persecution of Protestants. Agitated and enraged Voltaire saints themselves intellectual struggle against religious fanaticism. He wrote a great number of political pamphlets, mocking religious strife. Also, he finished all his personal letters with the words: "Let us destroy a thing". By "known thing" Voltaire meant religious fanaticism.
In 1778, when he was eighty-three years, he returned to Paris for the premiere of his new play "Irena". The crowds applauded him as a "grand old man" of French Enlightenment. Hundreds of fans, including Benjamin Franklin, attended his. But soon the life of Voltaire came to an end. May 30, 1778 he died in Paris. Because of its frank secularism could not be buried in the city, according to Christian tradition, but thirteen years later, winning the French revolutionaries dug up the remains of a great man and buried him in the Pantheon in Paris
. Voltaire's works are so numerous that in a short article would be very difficult to transfer even large
. The main ideas propounded to them in life, more important than titles. One of the strongest belief of Voltaire was freedom of speech and press. Often ascribed to him the phrase: "I do not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it". Although he never said exactly those words, they accurately express his attitude toward the subject.
Another guiding principle of Voltaire was the belief in freedom of religion. Throughout his life, he strongly protested against religious violence and persecution. Although Voltaire believed in God, he protested against the many religious dogmas and constantly argued that organized religion was largely a fraud.
. Naturally, Voltaire never believed, though titled French aristocrats were smarter or better than himself, the philosopher and the students learned that the so-called "divine right of kings" - lunacy
. While Voltaire himself was far from a modern democracy (he preferred a strong, but the enlightened monarchy), the bulk of his ideas clearly contrary to any form of hierarchical governance. Consequently, it is not surprising that most followers of Voltaire came to accept democracy. His political and religious ideas were, therefore, the main course in the French Enlightenment, and a significant portion was drawn to the French Revolution of 1789.
. Voltaire himself was not a scientist, but was interested in science and was an ardent supporter of empirical views of Francis Bacon and John Locke
. He also was a serious and capable historian. One of his most important works was the world's history: "An essay about the customs and spirit of nations". This book differs from most previous works on the history in two aspects: first - Voltaire recognized, . that Europe is only a small part of the world, . and, . hence, . devoted much of his work of Asian history, the second - he shared the view, . that the history of culture in general is more important than the political history of,
. Thus, his book is more concerned with social and economic conditions, as well as the development of the arts, than kings and war started by them.
Voltaire was not originally a philosopher. To a large extent, he borrowed ideas from other people such as John Locke and Francis Bacon, the newly promulgated and popularized them. However, due to the works of Voltaire, more than anybody else, the idea of democracy, religious tolerance and intellectual freedom spread in France and in fact most of Europe. Although the French Enlightenment were other wonderful writers (Diderot, D'Alembert, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and others) would be fair to name Voltaire, the first leader of this movement. First of all, his unique literary style, prolonged work and a huge number of works have brought him far more numerous audience than other writers. Secondly, his ideas were typical of the Enlightenment. And third, ahead of all other Voltaire remarkable figures in time. Great work Montesquieu's "Spirit of Laws" appeared only in 1748, the first volume of the famous "Encyclopedia" - in 1751-m Rousseau's first essay was written in 1750. A "English letters" issued by Voltaire in 1734, and by the time he was sixteen years was famous for.
Proceedings of Voltaire, with the exception of a short novel "Candide", now read little. However, in the eighteenth century they were very popular, and, consequently, the author played a major role in changing the climate of opinion, eventually led to the French Revolution. His influence touched not only of France. These Americans, like Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and Benjamin Franklin were familiar with the works of Voltaire, and many of his ideas included in the American political tradition.
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