Kashgar Mahmood( The writer, a philosopher of the Middle Ages.)
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Biography Kashgar Mahmood
Mahmud Kashgari was born in 1029, died in 1101. Mahmoud, the offspring of the higher circles Qarakhanid know, and perhaps the most direct representative of the dynasty, a number of reasons and political persecution visited almost all the regions inhabited by Turks. In Baghdad, owned at the time of the Seljuk, the Kashgari ripe idea of the book, which would give an explanation of many aspects of the life of the Turkic people, their mentality, customs, distribution, and above all, language.
The famous book of Mahmud Kashgar "Sofa lugat Al-Turk" is a Turkic encyclopaedia in the full sense of the word. It was collected and compiled extensive historical-cultural, ethnographic and linguistic materials. "Divan" Kashgar - a monument of Turkic culture, depicting the ethical values and norms of behavior, the specific worldview of Turkic peoples in the XI century., Absorbed all the previous legacy of ancestors. In the book, along with the ancient Zoroastrian-shamanistic miropredstavleniem imprinted elements of a new ideology - Islam and its branches such as Sufism
. As a younger contemporary of Yusuf Balasaguni, . have experienced its effects, . especially, . views on the role and nature of language, . Kashghari entered into the study of languages, the comparative method and historical approach, . laying the foundations of, . what we now call Tц╪rkology,
. Predecessor Kashgari was born Farab Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Farabi (Jawhary), on whose work the Diwan al-adab fi Bayan lugat al-'Arabi "(" Collection of literary works as presented in the language of the Arabs ") and relied Biruni. Turkic names of medicines in Biruni and have Kashgari same. We Mahmoud along with a beautiful Arab-philological education is viewed and thorough knowledge of all areas of medieval Muslim science.
We can not give the best characteristics of the book, Mahmoud Kashgari, embodying in himself all his life experience and research, than his own words. "This book - writes Mahmood - I was in alphabetical order, adorned it with proverbs, sand grouse (rhymed prose), proverbs, poems, radjaz (vs. militant content), and excerpts from prose. I eased difficult, . clarified vague and worked for years: I fell into it from read them (the Turks) poems for, . to brief (readers) with their experience and knowledge, . and proverbs, . which they use as the wise sayings in the days of happiness and unhappiness with the, . that the narrator gave them to the transmitter, . transmitter and other,
. Along with these (words) I have collected in the book referred to objects and known (commonly used) words and, thus, the book rose to the high esteem and has achieved excellent superiority ". "Dictionary of Turkic dialects", dedicated to the Caliph al-Muqtada, was compiled by Mahmoud Kashgar in 1072-1074 he. Here he presented the main genres of Turkic folklore - the ritual and lyric songs, . fragments of the heroic epic, . historical traditions and legends (about the campaign of Alexander of Macedon in the area Turkic chigiley), . than 400 proverbs, . proverbs and sayings of oral,
Some idea of the views Kashghari give below excerpts from the book.
"The days of time to hurry, saps the strength of man, depriving the world of men ... This is because it (time), custom, except (that) here - equal inheritance (all). If the world, sight, release an arrow, bisecting the mountains ".
"My son, I leave you a legacy of instruction in virtue. Finding a good husband, should he (literally: look at him) "
"Nights (and) days of the world are (as) the wanderers. Togo, who will cross (their way), they are unnerving ".
"Things (and) property rights - its enemies. Collecting (accumulating) wealth, I think (it) neizvergsya flow of water - like a boulder, it rolls down its owner. All the men have soured because of the things. Seeing the property, they rush (to him), like the neck on the extraction. They keep their property, locked (it), do not enjoy crying from avarice, they collect (hoard) gold. Because of the property, not mindful of God, sons of (his) relatives are in fact stifle ".
"Strive for virtue, (a) purchasing (it), be not proud".
"Divan" ( "Dictionary") Mahmud Kashgar - the only monument of Turkic dialects of the early period, giving an idea of phonetic and morphological phenomena and the specificity of dialect forms. "Dictionary" contains the texts of oral poetry of the Turkic tribes and peoples of Central Asia, East Turkestan, Volga, Urals. Work Mahmoud Kashgari, written with the use of scientific methods of Arabic philology, is today the exceptional value for linguists, folklorists and literary critics.