ZELINSKAYA Nikolay( Soviet organic chemist, academician)
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Biography ZELINSKAYA Nikolay
(6.II 1861 - 31.VII 1953)
In dealing with the chemistry of oil, carried out numerous works on benzinizatsii through the cracking of petroleum residues (1920-1922 gg.), On "ketonizatsii naphthenes.
Soviet organic chemist, Academician (since 1929). Born in g. Tiraspol. He graduated from the Novorossiysk University in Odessa (1884). Since 1885. improve education in Germany: the University of Leipzig in I. Vislitsenusa and the University of GцTttingen in In. Meyer. In 1888-1892 he. worked in the Novorossiysk University in 1893. - Professor of Moscow University, who left in 1911. in protest against the reactionary policies of the tsarist government. In 1911-1917 he. - Director of the Central Chemical Laboratory of the Ministry of Finance in 1917. - Again at Moscow State University, along with 1935. - The Institute of Organic Chemistry, USSR Academy of Sciences, one of the organizers of which he was.
. Research related to several areas of organic chemistry - chemistry of alicyclic compounds, heterocyclic chemistry, organic catalysis, chemistry of protein and amino acids
Initially investigated isomerism of derivatives of thiophene and received (1887) a number of its homologues. Exploring stereoisomerism limit aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, . found (1891) ways of obtaining them cyclic five-and six-membered ketones, . of which, in turn received (1895-1900 gg.) a large number of homologs of cyclopentane and cyclohexane,
. Synthesized (1901-1907 gg.) Numerous hydrocarbons containing from 3 to 9 carbon atoms in the ring, which formed the basis of artificial simulation of petroleum and petroleum fractions. He put the beginning of a number of areas related to the study of mutual transformation of hydrocarbons
. Open (1910) phenomenon degidrogenizatsionnogo Catalysis, . consisting of an extremely selective effect of platinum and palladium in cyclohexane and aromatic hydrocarbons, and in perfect reversibility of the reactions of hydro-and dehydrogenation only depending on temperature,
Together with the engineer a. Kumantom created (1916) mask. Further work on degidrogenizatsionno-hydrogenation catalysis led to his discovery (1911) irreversible catalysis. In dealing with the chemistry of oil, carried out numerous works on benzinizatsii through the cracking of petroleum residues (1920-1922 gg.), On "ketonizatsii naphthenes". Received (1924), alicyclic ketones by catalytic acylation oil cyclanes. Carried out (1931-1937 gg.) Catalytic processes and pyrogenetic flavoring oils.
Together with H. S. Kozlov, the first time in the Soviet Union began (1932) work on obtaining chloroprene rubber. Synthesized hard naphthenic acid and alcohol. Developed (1936) Methods of desulphurisation sour oil. He is one of the founders of the theory of organic catalysis. Put forward the idea of deformation of reactant molecules in the process of adsorption on solid catalysts
. Together with his students discovered the reaction of selective catalytic hydrogenolysis of cyclopentane hydrocarbons (1934), . destructive hydrogenation, . Numerous isomerization (1925-1939 gg.), . including the mutual transformation of cycles in the direction of, . their narrow, . and expansion,
Experimentally proved the formation of methylene radicals as intermediates in organic catalysis.
He has made a significant contribution to the origin of oil reshenieproblemy. A supporter of the theory of organic origin of oil.
Also conducted research in the chemistry of amino acids and protein. Opened (1906) obtaining the reaction of Alpha-amino acids from aldehydes or ketones action of a mixture of potassium cyanide with ammonium chloride and subsequent hydrolysis produced Alfa-aminonitrilov. Synthesized a number of amino acids and oksiaminokislot.
A method for esters of amino acids from their mixtures, formed by the hydrolysis of proteins, as well as methods of separation of reaction products. Create a large school of organic chemists, which includes L. N. Nesmeyanov, B. A. Kazan, A. A. Balandin, H. I. Shuykin, A. F. Plate etc.
One of the organizers of the All-Union Chemical Society. D. I. Mendeleev and his Honorary Member (since 1941).
Hero of Socialist Labor (1945).
Prize. V. I. Lenin (1934), the USSR State Prize (1942, 1946, 1948.).
Name given Zelinsky (1953) Institute of Organic Chemistry, USSR Academy of Sciences.