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CAVENDISH, Henry (Henry Cavendish)

( English physicist and chemist)

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Biography CAVENDISH, Henry (Henry Cavendish)
(10.H 1731 - 24.II 1810)
Work in the field of chemistry related to air (gas) chemistry, one of the founders of which he is. Selected (1766) in pure carbon dioxide and hydrogen, by adopting the latest phlogiston, found the bulk of the air as a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Received nitrous oxide. Burning hydrogen obtained (1784) water by determining the ratio of the volume of interaction in this reaction gases (100:202).
English physicist and chemist, member of the Royal Society of London (since 1760). Born in Nice (France). He graduated from Cambridge University (1753). Scientific studies conducted in our own laboratory.
Work in the field of chemistry related to air (gas) chemistry, one of the founders of which he is. Selected (1766) in pure carbon dioxide and hydrogen, by adopting the latest phlogiston, found the bulk of the air as a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Received nitrous oxide. Burning hydrogen obtained (1784) water by determining the ratio of the volume of interaction in this reaction gases (100:202). The accuracy of his research was so great, . that allowed him in obtaining (1785) of nitrogen oxides by passing electric sparks through moist air to observe the presence of "deflogistirovannogo Air, . not more than 1 / 20 of total gas,
. This observation helped U. Ramzan and J. Rayleigh open (1894) the noble gas argon. His discovery explains from the perspective of the theory of phlogiston.
In the field of physics in many cases anticipated the later discovery. The law that forces the electric interaction is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges, was opened to them (1767) for ten years before the French physicist W. Coulomb.
Experimentally determined (1771) The impact of environment on the capacitance and identified (1771) value of dielectric constants of a number of substances. Defined (1798) forces of mutual attraction of bodies under the influence of gravity, and then calculated as the average density of Earth. On the work of Cavendish in the field of physics became known only in 1879. - After the English physicist J. Maxwell published his manuscript, there are up to that time in the archives.
Name Kavendsha called organized in 1871. Physical Laboratory at Cambridge University.
On materials of biographical reference book "Eminent chemists of the world" (by Volkov VA, etc.) - Moscow, "High School", 1991.
Strokes to the Portrait
Born in Nice on October 10, 1731, Henry Cavendish came from the famous Anglo-Norman type. Who lived in his youth in poverty and has a fairly modest income, after his death, he left an enormous wealth. It is known that his condition is not arisen as a result of any financial transactions. A letter from the bank, where Cavendish had a very small portion of their money. In this letter, the bank offered him a place there and the rest of the state, promising the most favorable conditions. Answer of Sir Henry was clear: "Make money, which I deposited in your bank, but the rest, stay away. If you do not know what to do with them, I'll take them willingly. And if you just once more I worry, I'll do it immediately ".

A favorite way to spend the money was for charitable activities Cavendish. Once, after learning that a student who helped him organize the library, was in a difficult financial situation, Cavendish immediately gave him a check for 10 thousand pounds - the amount at the time the overwhelming. Likewise, he did all his life - and, nevertheless, always had millions of pounds, as if possessed fabulous "fiat money". Some believe that these things have made him an inexhaustible wealth of successful studies of alchemy, but it is, of course, only an assumption.

In February 1753, Mr.. Cavendish finished the prestigious University of Cambridge. But, as one of the most eminent scientists of XVIII century, no degree he never received. One possible explanation: In those days, every graduate of Cambridge could not be faithless, and atheism Cavendish was well known. But the reason could be a.

It was, however, to explain another strange fact: Cavendish, who had, as already stated, no degree and has not published any scientific work was at the age of 29 years passed in the Royal Academy of Sciences.
In 1773, 20 years after the end of Cambridge, Cavendish, when he was at that time fabulously wealthy, settled in Klaphem Common, on the street, which today bears his name. It has since scientists began to behave towards others, . least, . strange: he could not bear, . when someone approached him, . and if he spoke to him on the street some stranger, . Cavendish silently turned away, . would call a cab, and immediately returned home,
Women in general, he believed some kind of people, which did not want to have anything in common. The house he was ordered to attach external stairs and told his servants to use only its. Those of them who dared to use the internal, he immediately fired.
They say such a case. Once Cavendish supper club of the Royal Scientific Society. At this time in the window opposite the house came a beautiful young woman and began to consider passing carriages. Many of those present in the club of men approached the window to get a better look at her. Having decided for some reason, that they admire the full moon, Cavendish had joined them, but realized his mistake, he immediately left the club, loud expressing his disgust with what is happening.

But once he did not hesitate to rush to the protection of women. Once, while in Klapheme, Cavendish saw the meadow woman trying to escape from the bull. He immediately rushed to the rescue, jumped between the woman and the animal and managed to drive away. Then, without waiting for thanks, he turned and silently left.

Since the manager of his home, he communicated only by correspondence. For example, in one of his memoranda he wrote: "I invited to dinner a few gentlemen, and would like to see each of them was served mutton ham. And since I do not know how many hams is a sheep, you shall ask of the deal with this ".

Talk to him was quite impossible, because he just turned his back to trying to do it and go. According to rumors, he still had a few friends, but no information about them is not available.

For 30 years, Cavendish led a life, details of which to this day almost unknown. He wore a purple, totally faded suit, a wig in the style of the XVII century, and always hid my face. In the village, he went on a carriage equipped with a counter of his own design, reminiscent of modern taxis.

One day he called his servant and declared: "Listen carefully to what I can tell you. I will soon die. When this happens, go to Lord George Cavendish and told him about ". The man muttered that no evil would then be to confess and take communion. "I have no idea what it was - replied Cavendish. - Bring You'd better lavender water, and more here did not show up until I die. "

. When the heirs acquainted with the documents left by the Cavendish, . was, . that the deceased owned a huge number of shares of the Bank of England - very bad even for a man, . not work in the life of a penny, . but, . At the same time constantly generously sorivshego money.,

. Will the same scholar contain a categorical requirement that a crypt with his coffin after the funeral was tightly bricked up, and outside there were no inscriptions to indicate who is buried in the crypt
. This was done. Cavendish was buried March 12, 1810 in the Cathedral in Derby. Neither the inspection body or autopsy did not produce. Not a single credible portrait of Cavendish also not preserved.
Most of the scientific work of Cavendish was not showing up until 1921, and even now, several boxes filled with manuscripts and instruments, whose purpose is not easily defined, remain unsolved. And what little is known, seems very unusual. Cavendish conducted scientific experiments, for centuries ahead of its time. For example, he calculated the deflection of light rays due to solar mass, for 200 years before Einstein, and his calculations almost coincide with the Einstein. He accurately calculate the mass of the planet and was able to provide light gases from the air. However The burden he had not cared nor about the publication of his works, nor of any recognition of the learned world.

In 1775, Mr.. He invited seven eminent scientists, designed to demonstrate to them the artificial electric skate, and gave each feel the electric charge, is absolutely identical to what the real skate paralyzes its victims. But after showing he outstripped his contemporaries Galvani and Volta, solemnly declared guests, it is this, show them a new force someday revolutionize the whole world.

Cavendish could determine the voltage, referring to the electrical circuit arm, indicating that its unusual physical qualities. Although modest in terms of modern science, the possibility of his laboratory, he was able to very accurately calculate the mass of the Earth. And all of these extraordinary, outstanding discoveries Cavendish made, based not even on the science of his time, and using the achievements of medieval alchemy, the language and symbols, which he owned.

. Cavendish was completely indifferent to the world around them and was never interested in taking place in this world events - even as substantial as the French Revolution or the Napoleonic wars that swept through Europe

Nevertheless, it is unlikely to explain his actions lawful usual eccentricity. And handing out money right and left, he was not at all a philanthropist. And his aversion to women, too, can not be explained. A contemporary of Cavendish, a scientist named Lovekraft, said of him: "His face - this is just a mask. Taking the essence of it is not a man ". But Cavendish is not an exception among the outstanding figures of the XVIII century - worked a whole galaxy of brilliant scientists, whose discoveries ahead of their time. So, . say, . Roger Boskovic published in 1736 a treatise, . where you can find references not only the theory of relativity, . but also about the areas of knowledge, . about which science knows almost nothing and to this day - for example, . Time travel or antigravity,
Among the outstanding scientists, clearly ahead of its time, Cavendish is not alone. His contemporaries of Saint-Germain, Boskovic, Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Priestley and Count Rumford, too, are in this series. We know that these people were familiar with each other and corresponded. Remember that Benjamin Franklin wrote to Joseph Priestley (and this was the end of XVIII century): "It is simply not on their own, when you imagine what forces would hold a person in a thousand years. He learns to deny the force of attraction large masses of matter, which would give them the absolute ease and allow them to move without the slightest effort. In agriculture, labor costs are much reduced, and yields increase. All of our diseases, including aging, will be defeated. And while human life could be extended indefinitely, even beyond those limits, which are known to us from the Bible ".
Between 1750 and 1800 year made many discoveries, which use the science of that day was simply not able. For example, English mathematician Keighley (Sau1eu) stated that in his opinion, would soon be invented an engine powerful enough to lift an object heavier than air in the air. Based on this assumption, he had already in 1800 drafted a plane. Around the same time introduced the concept of an artificial satellite, which is being launched from a giant cannon, circled around to our planet ...

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