Knorozov Yuriy V.( The scientist, linguist)
Comments for Knorozov Yuriy V.
Biography Knorozov Yuriy V.
(19.11.1922 - 30.03.1999)
This event was a scientific and cultural sensation not only in the Soviet Union, but around the world. Had never been in Mexico, Soviet scientists had done what could not be the world's leading scientists for years conducting field research! Without leaving the office, it is decrypted letter ancient Maya. As if apologizing, YV. Knorozov subsequently devised a defensive phrase: "I - armchair scientist. To work with the texts, there is no need to climb the pyramids. "
In fact, he very much wanted to be in Mexico. But this was impossible - he has too long been "restricted to leave.
That morning, 29 March 1955 he went to defend the candidate and did not know what all will end, allowing even the accusation of revisionism of Marxism and the arrest. The fact that F. Engels claimed that in pre-Columbian America, the state lacked. According to the same dogma, the phonetic letter could exist only in the event of the class of public entities. Statement as of possession ideytsev-Maya phonetic letters automatically disprove once two of "founder". Protection was held in Moscow and the next day become a legend. Speech by 33-year-old Yuri Knorozov the Scientific Council lasted exactly three and a half minutes, and resulted in the conferring of the title is not a candidate, and a doctor of historical sciences, which in the humanities are virtually no. Since then, the history of deciphering ancient writing systems began to fit between two names: Champollion (the famous French Egyptologist, who developed the basic principles of deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic writing) and Knorozov. His life, full of hardships, ironies, and even hoaxes, fully consistent with the legend of a brilliant personality.
My grandmother on his father Knorozov - the first People's Artist of Armenia, speaking under the stage name Marie Zabiela. My grandfather was a Russian. Yuriy V. was born near Kharkov in the family of Russian intellectuals, which highlights special. Here in 1941. was in the occupation of his mother, and this fact after the war for a long time closed its doors for graduate school and denied the possibility of going abroad. From the school tried to exclude him for "bad behavior, poor progress in some subjects and, most importantly, for the willful temper. We have many unique Knorozov irritated many already. He played the violin beautifully, beautifully painted and wrote romantic poems. Later, explaining his success in deciphering, he very seriously told me: "When I was not more than five years, the brothers hit me on the forehead croquet ball ... Vision restored, albeit with difficulty. Apparently, this was a kind of "Spellbound trauma". I can give a recommendation: Future Decoder hit on the head, but it is unclear how. You can experiment to take control group - and if someone will give tips, to how it should be! "- Happily smiling, he presented, apparently, I was conducting similar experiments on students.
In 1940. Yuri, fleeing from the Ukraine, joined the ISTFUK MSU. Specializing in the department of ethnography, he had a special interest in the shamanic practices. Detail interesting to understand his temperament as a scientist.
War censorial black pencil went according to plan young Knorozov, to embellish his biography legends - ridiculous that created him a lot of painful psychological problems. But these legends, he somehow maintained ..
He fought in parts of the communication and (according to records in the military card) met a victory for Moscow telephonist 158 Artillery Regiment, a reserve bid chief. Known, . that Knorozov not participated in the capture of Berlin, . nevertheless, . emerged later, according to the official (!) version, . namely from Berlin as a war trophy brought two crucial books, . supposedly rescued them from the flames of the burning library,
. In recent years,, . when the Soviet ideological machine was destroyed, . Yuriy V. tried to get rid of "stupid and absurd", . as he himself said, . legends and re-submit those distant events - the books were in boxes prepared for the evacuation of the German libraries, and from there were taken by Soviet officers,
. However, much remains unclear: first, . as, . eventually, . these books have got to KnorozovuN And secondly, . why the officer Telecommunications require such publication, . as the report of the cases in the Yucatan "XVI century Franciscan Friar Diego de Landa and" Codes of the Maya in the Guatemalan publication brothers VilyakortaN the Mayans, he had not engaged,
. The great scientist died, never revealed until the end of this hateful to him the secret. Who and why he promised molchatN But without these books of his sensational decoding they would not!
. After the war Knorozov caught the eye of art German researcher Paul Shellhasa titled "Deciphering the Mayan writing - an insoluble problem"
. This article is abruptly changed his research plans. "How is insoluble problemaN That created by one human mind, can not be solved by another!" Rushing into the sea mayyanistiki, he experienced a sharp deterioration in relations with him by the department head Professor S.P. Tolstova. Yes, that he refused to even give Knorozov formal recommendation to graduate. Fortunately, here, at the Department of Ethnography, worked as a professor Tokarev, was pleased to support the disgraced graduate. Nevertheless, according to Knorozov, the new leader was "absolutely did not believe in the success of deciphering Maya writing, because, following the Americans, believed that the letter is not a phonetic". Using his influence and connections in the scientific world, Tokarev made a student research assistant in the Museum of Ethnography of the Peoples of the USSR, that next to the Russian Museum in Leningrad. Settled Knorozov in the museum - in as long as a pencil case, room. From floor to ceiling room was crammed with books, drawing on the walls hung Maya hieroglyphs. From furniture - only a desk and a soldier's bunk. They say that even then under the table stood a pack bottles. The trouble, which had as a scientist all my life ...
Before him, many have tried to decipher the letter Maya. The first attempts date back to the XIX century. But the ancient hieroglyphics stubbornly kept their secrets. First Knorozov determined that it is considered a linguistic decipherment (transition to the exact phonetic reading of the characters) and how it differs from the interpretations and solving a secret cipher. Then he turned to staroispanskogo the Russian language "report about the affairs of the Yucatan". I immediately realized that the alphabet of 29 signs, written in the XVI century. Franciscan monk, is the key to deciphering the phonetic letters Maya. As a result of heavy laborious work in the early 50's Mayan texts have been read. The first publication of the results of decryption was published in 1952. This was followed by dissertation and world fame ...
But fate had not prepared a bouquet of roses to scatter them Knorozov feet.
In 1956, Mr.. the wave of international recognition of the researcher "released" at the International Congress of Americanists in Copenhagen. Since then until 1990. He has not traveled anywhere, not even knowing about those who came to him numerous invitations. This Yuriy V. bitterly joked about the "endless commissions for his removal to Mexico, all members are there already visited". Foreign scientists for some time perplexed by the failure of colleagues from the contacts, . but, . quickly understand the intricacies of Soviet mores, . themselves stretched to Leningrad, . With particular pride Knorozov talked about, . as the height of the Cold War, "American School recognized the principle of the proposed decoding,
. But he had no idea what a storm of hatred caused his success at the head of the American school mayyanistiki Eric Thompson! And "cold war" there was absolutely nothing to do with. Thompson, upon learning of the results of the young Soviet scientist immediately realized, "for whom stayed victory, and the thought of it was unbearable for him. In his message mayyanistu Michael Coe, full of wicked sarcasm, he called the American colleagues "witches flying on top of wild notes of the midnight sky on the orders of Yuri", and insisted that the decryption Knorozov untenable. Thompson concluded his message by saying: "Well, Mike, you will live until 2000. Put your message in this Introduction to the Maya hieroglyphs, and judge then whether I was right ... "Michael Coe kept the letter and the first day of 2000, after reading it, said:" Thompson was not right. Rights were Knorozov, and now we are dealing with the Maya, are knorozovistami.
In the early 60's Knorozov invited to participate in the drafting of the first computer program for machine processing of texts of Maya. Group of programmers from Novosibirsk met strange. After taking away all the materials Knorozov, they tried to create some kind, as it now would call, a database for the signs of manuscripts. It is constantly hinted at their cooperation with military authorities and stated that the deal "theory of decoding". After some time, "computer scientists" have announced that they have developed a theory of computer decryption, and the distance in 4 volumes under your name data Knorozov. The publication was signed in the Mayan language and presented to Khrushchev. From the perspective of professionals, announced the "machine decryption" was complete nonsense and no impression on the professionals are not made. Especially in 1963. published an excellent monograph Knorozov "Writing the Mayans'. However, this is a stupid mistake to put malosveduschey audience questioned the original results of decoding. Only after the publication in 1975. translation manuscripts came the recognition of the Maya: Knorozov awarded the State Prize of the USSR.
. He is interested Knorozov was remarkably broad - from deciphering ancient writing systems, linguistics and semiotics to the problems of the settlement of America, archaeoastronomy, shamanism, brain evolution and the theory of the collective
. He generously distributed scientific ideas in the hope that someone will complete their development. "I'm not an octopus," - he often repeated.
There great Mayan decoder was able to visit only in 1990, when he was invited by President Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo. The invitation coincided with defrosting diplomatic relations with Guatemala. Knorozov arranged visit to the main attractions of the country, awarded the gold medal of the President of Guatemala. Climbing alone on a pyramid Tikal, he stood there in silence for a long time ... It did not go without the usual surprises for him: the terrorists, having arranged for our car demonstrative surveillance, promised to blow up the delegation. Yuriy V. was satisfied.
Fate gave him almost at the end of the life of an amazing opportunity to live in the tropical jungles in the Caribbean Sea, next to his favorite Mayans. The students worked on the preparation for publication of his monograph, and Knorozov enjoy tropical nature, the national Mexican cuisine, watched the evening for the unseen stars. Sitting next to the president of Mexico at the Pavarotti concert in Chichen Itza, he says with a smile, what a great singer, much inferior Yucatan chorus, who had served Cantata on Kukulkane. His words "The Italians - technique, while yukatantsev - the soul" were repeated by many in Mexico ...
Knorozov always felt first and foremost a citizen of his country - no matter how called. Gryanuvshaya restructuring was perceived by him with enthusiasm, which was soon replaced by skepticism. "Again the rally," - he commented sarcastically public discussion at the institute, and Yeltsin's way as "cat Basilio" did not call. Unfortunately, skepticism Yuri Valentinovich justified: the last years no one "holding hands", but before the research scientist to the new authorities did not care.
Genius does not become 30 March 1999, Mr.. His death and burial of absurdity reminiscent of the death of Paganini. Knorozov died alone in the corridor of one of the city hospitals, where after a stroke, he developed pneumonia. Administration Kunstkamery decided not to provide the museum hall to bid farewell to him, and many people gathered in close the hospital morgue, where the number was billed several coffins. Knorozov liked Nevsky monastery, but they buried him in the new cemetery away from the city. St. Petersburg has become the criminal capital of Russia, and even the memory of the geniuses of the world level there seems to be nobody else is needed ...
PS. Scientific legacy YV. Knorozov carefully kept in Moscow. In the capital Rossii'skom gosudarstvennom University for the Humanities by the Mexican Embassy during the life of the great scientist established the Center for Mesoamerican Research, which now bears his name.