KHARITON Julius B.( physicist)
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Biography KHARITON Julius B.
(February 27, 1904 - December 1996)
. - Julius B., and when you first saw this "mushroom", and the inking of a hurricane, and blinded birds, and the light which is brighter than many suns, that's when there was no thought of you: "Lord, what is it we've done emN! "
. After training at Cambridge in Rutherford, after the first studies of chain reactions with Semenov Chariton both vanished, nor hearing, nor the spirit of
. However, he was not famous then, and few have noticed. But those who have noticed ...
Julius B. Chariton, son of the famous St. Petersburg journalist, was born February 27, 1904. His mother played in the Moscow Art Theater Mytilene in the "Bluebird" Meterlinga lived nervously at the two houses, then the mother went to Germany for treatment, went there and stayed married forever. My father was a liberal who has worked in the newspaper "Speech", for "objectionable" publications were placed in his "Crosses", and after the revolution, was elected director of the House of Journalists in Leningrad. However, he was a liberal present, the Bolsheviks did not like it, too, went to Riga, published the newspaper "Today", but even there in 1940, the Bolsheviks it got put away and a liberal in the gulag. In the late 40th - early 50's, the Julius B. often met with Lavrenty Beria, whose reference is all the concentration camps of the Soviet Union, and could ask the fate of his father. But asked. He said that he understood how it then might have a negative impact o.s on his work. That's such a mysterious man was Julius B. ...
This kid was interested in everything: history, physiology, physics. In the end, won phys-ka. Governess-Estonians had taught him the German language. And the main language of science in those years was a German. Jumping through the class, he graduated from high school in 15 years, but in the Institute of Technology did not take him just because he was not 16. In 1920 he entered the Polytechnic Institute, and met with Nikolai Semyonov, who led exercises in physics. "The most important event of my life - said Chariton - Semenov was a phrase:" come and see me this evening ... "Vecherkom Semenov told him:" Joffe-organizes Physico-Technical Institute. There will be my lab. I invite you ... "
- In 1928, returning from England, from Rutherford in Berlin - Julius B. remembered - I was surprised how lightly the Germans refer to Hitler. Then I realized that we must deal with explosives, and general defense issues. I have studied the processes and dynamics of the detonation of an explosion and found the limit at which the reaction will have time to occur before the substance is blown ... Semenov had a fantastic insight. Before 1939, . even before the discovery of uranium fission, . He felt something, . said, . that a nuclear explosion is possible, . and in 1940 his young co-nickname Dubovitskii Semenova took a letter outlining the principle of the atomic bomb in the management of the Commissariat of the oil industry,
. Why neftyanoyN Where it was necessary then to carry such pismoN I do not know. There he was, and lost ..
Chariton continued with explosives, when in 1943, Igor Kurchatov, told him about the atomic bomb. Together with Yakov Zeldovich, they tried to determine the critical mass of uranium-235. Received about 10 kilograms. (Americans also wrote that the bomb should be 12 kilograms ekaosmiya). They were wrong and 5 times, but it was this error to give them confidence: You can make a bomb! Work turned in a city surrounded by barbed wire, which was called Arzamas-16 ". In parallel, the scouts from the Lubyanka Kurchatov supplying materials from its foreign residents. The name of Klaus Fuchs did not even know Kurchatov. He read his material, . seemingly all, . what did the Americans was logical, . and, . still, . Kurchatov did not give up the idea, . it may be some treacherous spy game, . the path, . given the unknown like-minded foreign-com, . zavedet our physicists to a standstill,
. Therefore, all data of Fuchs test and retest. And so no less, Chariton believes that Fuchs has saved at least one year of work on our bomb.
All of these cases was in charge of Beria. He made no secret that in case of failure of the atomic project, all the physicists sent to prison or be shot openly called them "stand-ins": mechanic Alexey Ilyushin, Mikhail Lavrent'ev mathematics, physics Abram Alikhanova. Before testing the atomic bomb Kurchatov and Chariton called Stalin. Chariton, reported on the readiness. Stalin asked:
- Is it possible to make bombs instead of one, two, even more slabyhN
- Can not, - said Chariton. - Technically, this is not realistic.
Even after Stalin's death, they realized that it is possible. Actually all the years working on nuclear weapons was in three areas: 1) to reduce the weight of the charge, 2) increase its capacity and 3) improve the reliability. No information about the hydrogen bomb, "Arzamas-16" did not have. Our hydrogen bomb did Andrei Sakharov in 1953. Chariton believed that this weapon, it was two years later, when she was thrown from the plane. It was the equivalent of 3 million tons of TNT. Chariton believed that there was no need to explode a hydrogen bomb at 50 megatons the New Earth. In principle, by which time the bomb was all quite clear ...
Shortly before his death Julius B. flown to the U.S. to treat the eye, but American journalists he missed. Decade of secrecy have left their mark on the manner of communication Chariton: any answer he goeth before a long pause. Secrecy, however, did not prevent Julia Borisovich become an active promoter of the Soros Foundation in our country. When this activity was completely undeserved came under attack from reactionaries, Distinguished Professor of the Fund's cultural initiative Chariton wrote a letter to the State Duma and secured his discussion.
. Even Stalin forbade Kurchatov to fly
. Chariton also used to train. For him, built a special car with the hall in the cabinet, bedroom and a compartment for guests, a kitchen, a cook. Once we returned with him from the "Arzamas-16" in Moscow in this car. Chariton stood at the window, looking at the dawn of Moscow suburbs.
. - Julius B., and when you first saw this "mushroom", and the inking of a hurricane, and blinded birds, and the light which is brighter than many suns, that's when there was no thought of you: "Lord, what is it we've done emN! " - I asked.
. He still stared out the window, then said, without turning:
. - So in fact it was necessary, Jaroslav - and silent
. Perhaps he's right. But this is so scary ...
Julius B. Chariton died in December of 1996, a 93-year life of eating. They say that long century Lord sends the righteous.