Charles Babbage( Mathematics)
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Biography Charles Babbage
(26/12/1791 - 18/10/1871)
The first computer was invented in 1834: the wooden "drive", cardboard punch cards, "processor" in the gears and levers ...
Every morning, thousands of employees filled the streets of London close early XIX century. They hurried to their offices, to immerse yourself in a suffocating world of figures - the financial forecasts and reports on the collection of taxes, nautical astronomical tables and calendars. The power of "Queen of the seas" was based, including the army of anonymous calculators, patiently grinding myriad of numbers.
In 1812, Mr.. Charles Babbage was dozing on the open table of logarithms. A friend of the young mathematician was awakened by his cry: "What zamechtalsyaN", to which Babbage said:
. "... But all these tables can be computed using the machine!"
. In an era when steamships and locomotives have an exciting novelty, Charles Babbage decided to save people from the oppression of routine calculations
. He said: "I am aware that my statements can be regarded as something sverhutopicheskoe and that they cause in memory of philosophers of Laputa ..." (Laputa - flying island, created by Jonathan Swift. At Laputa lived sages, . its remarkable isolation from real life and lengthy pseudo-scientific reasoning.) And for sure - the ability to create automated computer doubted then not only philistines, . but many scientists.,
. CHARLES was born in 1791 in the family banker Benjamin Babbage
. Because it is unimportant health up to 11 years at home. Then he was sent to one of the best private schools in England, where Charles once won a rich library. Among other things, there were excellent books on mathematics ...
This science Babbage regarded with awe entire life. Sometimes it came to curiosities.
. Every minute a person dies,
. But every minute a person is born
. This fragment of a poem by Alfred Tennyson's poem led Babbage to send a letter to the poet, mathematician, which meticulously observed: "... It is well known that the said sum (population) is growing
. So I am taking the liberty to assume that in the next edition of your excellent poem the erroneous calculation will be corrected as follows:
. Every moment dies a man
. But 1,16 man is born ..
. Maybe it was a kind of humor BebbidzhaN His attitude to the subject generates the following addendum: "I could show you a more accurate figure of -1.167, but this, of course, would upset the rhythm of verse ..."
. Also recklessly he was interested in inventions
. For example, hitting the opera in "Don Juan", terminally bored, and after only five minutes away from the audience - to see how the mechanism is arranged scenes ...
. Babbage was trying to breathe life into a "pile" of shafts, gears and levers, which he called "Difference engine" not one year
. Initially, some scholars have identified a means Her Majesty's Treasury. But the study was delayed and missed the minister waiting. The scientist managed to build only certain parts of his car.
Failure to "Difference engine" does not discourage Babbage. Instead, he immediately "swung" a new, far more complex unit.
. In 1834, the first designer in the world decided to create a mechanical device, . capable not simply assume, . but control the course of my own work, . as a function of the projected program and the results of intermediate calculations! The ancestor of the computer was called his "analytical machine",
. Babbage came up with all the main parts, which now amount to your computer: drive for storing numbers, the arithmetic unit, the mechanism controlling the sequence of operations, input and output data. Before him, no one has yet tried to create a truly universal computer. Even assembled in a few years before, "adding machine" Blaise Pascal was, in fact, no more than complicated accounts.
Progress in computing in the car Babbage was determined with a punch card program. And the world's first computer programmer was Lady Ada Lovelace. Daughter of George Byron - she showed far greater interest in mathematics, rather than to poetry, and this looked like a Babbage. Ada was familiar with many scientists of his time, often took them at home, speaking not only as housewife but also as an active participant in scientific disputes.
. Babbage "infect" the idea of an Ada-programmable computing machine, and it was several programs for its unit
. Apply them and not have to, but the Lady Lovelace developed all the basic principles of programming, applied so far. Her name even named one of computer languages - Ada.
. Charles was willing to go to the most exotic adventures to garner funds for the construction of "analytical machine" "First, together with Lady Lovelace, Babbage invented the" win-win "system of betting on horse races
. However, Ada's mathematical talent is not helped: the inventors lost to the nines, and Lady Lovelace had to sell his ancestral pearls.
. Cheerful Babbage decided to write a novel in three volumes, hoping to rescue him 500 pounds, but quickly lost interest in the idea
. But turn on a new project - the money it would bring automatic ... for a game of tic-tac-toe, with whom Babbage intended to travel around the country. A friend of Charles dissuaded him from this scheme, claiming that this method can not extract from the prim British public to the desired amount. Automatic machine for noughts and crosses have not been created. As herself "Analytical Engine", but Babbage continued to work on it until the end of life.
. Shortly after the death of Babbage's magazine Punch wrote:
. Serve science, he suffered privations.
. Was a rock of his anxious and severe,
. He was elected an evil fate has been the target
. Quick strikes, rather than the gifts ...
. At the same time the British Committee on Science said about his invention: "We believe, . that such machines, . in addition to labor savings, . make it feasible, . that is too close to the limits of human potential ", . Why is this recognition does not appear in life izobretatelyaN,
. After the death of Babbage's son Henry was able to build on his father's drawings of the central node "analytical machine" - the arithmetic unit, . which in 1888 calculated the product of the number "pi" to the number of natural numbers from one to 32 with an accuracy up to 29 marks! Babbage's machine was operational, . but Charles did not see this.,