Roald Amundsen (Roald Amundsen)( Norwegian polar explorer and scholar.)
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Biography Roald Amundsen (Roald Amundsen)
(16.07.1872 - 18.06.1928)
In 1903 - 1906, respectively, Roald Amundsen first rounded the yacht North America. From West Greenland it by following the instructions in the book McClintock repeated first path unfortunate expedition of Franklin. From Barrow Strait, he headed south straits Peel and Franklin to the northern tip of King William. But, considering the disastrous mistake of Franklin, Amundsen rounded the island is not on the west and the east side - the Straits, James Ross and Ray - spent two and wintering in the harbor 'Joa', in the south-eastern coast of King William Island. From there, the fall of 1904 he inspected the boat the narrowest part of Simpson Strait, and in late summer of 1905 went directly to the west, along the coast of the mainland, leaving the north of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. He passed a series of shallow, dotted with islands, straits and bays, and finally met the whaling vessels, arriving from the Pacific Ocean to the north-west coast of Canada. Wintered here three times, Amundsen summer of 1906, passed through the Bering Strait into the Pacific Ocean and finished swimming in San Francisco, bringing considerable material on the geography, meteorology and ethnography of the surveyed banks.
. October 19, 1911 pole party of five people in four sledges pulled by 52 dogs, and set out to conquer the North Pole
. He wanted to enter the Arctic Ocean through the Bering Strait and repeat, only in the higher latitudes, the famous drift "Fram".
December 17, 1911 they reached a point where, according to their calculations, should have been at the South Pole. Here they found a tent and were divided into two groups, in turn, observed sextant altitude of the sun every hour around the clock.
December 18 Norwegians on the next blank in the old way back and after 39 days, returned safely to Framheym. Despite poor visibility, food stores, they found easy: arranging them, they prudently lay down a snow bricks houris perpendicular path to both sides of the warehouses and pointed them with bamboo poles. All travel Amundsen and his companions to the South Pole and back took 99 days. Here are the names of the discoverers of the South Pole: Oscar Visting, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, Olaf Byaland, Roald Amundsen.
By the time the Norwegians returned to the shore base "Fram" had already come for whale bay and took all the wintering party. 7 March 1912 from the city of Hobart in Tasmania Amundsen informed the world about his victory and safe return of the expedition.
May 21, 1925 both aircraft took off and headed to the North Pole. At the same flight were Ellsworth, Ditrihson and Omdal, on the other - Amundsen, Riiser-Larsen and Feucht. Approximately 1000 kilometers from Spitsbergen engine airplane Amundsen began to give intermittent. Fortunately, in this place in the ice were polynya. I had to go to the landing. We sat down relatively smoothly, except that the hydroplane stuck his nose into the ice at the end of the polynya. Saved by the fact that the polynya was covered with thin ice, which slowed the speed of the aircraft during landing. Second hydroplane also sat not far from the first, but upon landing he was severely damaged and has failed
Finally, on 15 June, at the 24 th day after the accident, frost, and they decided to fly. Take-off was required at least 1500 meters open water. But they managed to align the long strip of ice just over 500 meters. For this band was polynya width of about 5 meters, and more - a flat 150-meter ice floe. Ends at a high hummock. Thus, the bar for take-off was long, only about 700 meters.
"From the airplane threw everything but the essentials. Pilot replaced Riiser-Larsen. The other five barely fit in the cab. That launched the motor, and the plane began to move from their seats.
The next seconds were the most exciting of my entire life. Riiser-Larsen immediately gave full throttle. As the speed bumps of ice is becoming stronger, and the entire hydroplane so terribly apply bank from side to side, that I have often feared that he would break and somerset wing. We are rapidly approaching the end of the track start, but the shocks and aftershocks showed that we still have not come off the ice. With increasing speed, but still not separated from the ice, we were close to a small slope leading to the wormwood. We moved through the wormwood, fell flat on the ice floe on the other side and suddenly rose into the air ... "
Began the return flight. They flew, as the Amundsen, "with a next-door neighbor - Death. In the case of a forced landing on the ice, even if they survived, they waited for starvation. 8 hours 35 minutes flight jammed rudder actuators. But, fortunately, the plane was already flying over open water near the northern coast of Spitsbergen, and the pilot confidently put the car on the water and took it as a motor boat. Travelers are lucky to continue: soon they were approached by a small fishing boat captain who agreed to tow the plane to Kingsbey ... The expedition ended.
From Spitsbergen its members, together with the plane sailed on the ship. Meeting in Norway was solemn. In Osloforde, in the port of Horten, Amundsen's plane was brought down to water, air expedition members got into it, took off and landed in the harbor of Oslo. They were met by cheering crowds of thousands of people. It was July 5, 1925. It seemed that all the adversities Amundsen left behind. He again became a national hero.
In 1925, Ellsworth, after long negotiations bought the airship, called the "Norge" (Norway). The leaders of the expedition were Amundsen and Ellsworth. The creator of the airship Italian Umberto Nobile was invited for the post of captain. The team was composed of Italians and the Norwegians.
In 9 hours 55 minutes 11 May 1926, in calm clear weather, "Norge" headed north, to the pole. On board were 16 people. Everyone engaged in the business. Motors worked smoothly. Amundsen observing ice conditions. He saw the airship under the endless fields of ice with pressure ridges and recalled his last year's flight ended planting in 88 б╟ north latitude.
. After 15 hours and 30 minutes of flight, in 1 hour 20 minutes 12 May 1926, the airship was over the North Pole.
. In 8 hours 30 minutes, the airship came into the thick fog
. Began icing exterior metal parts. Plates of ice, we break a stream of air from the propellers, break through the shell of the apparatus. Holes had sealed there and then, on the move. May 13 left at the rate of travelers saw the land. It was the Alaskan coast, approximately in the vicinity of Point Barrow.
Returning travelers have been triumphant. They crossed the United States from west to east transcontinental express. At the stations they were greeted with flowers crowds. In New York, a solemn meeting was headed by Richard Bard, who has just returned from Svalbard to the homeland.
July 12, 1926 Amundsen and his friends arrived by boat in Norway, Bergen. Here they were met by a salute from the fortress guns. As winners, they drove through the streets of Bergen in the rain of flowers, to rapturous applause of the citizens. From Bergen to Oslo around the coast steamer on which they sailed, greeted the fleet of vessels decorated. Arriving in Oslo, they drove through the streets of the dammed-up people in the royal palace, where they had arranged a reception.
May 24, 1928 Nobile on Airship "Italia" reached the North Pole and two hours was over him. On the way back he crashed. June 18 from Bergen to rescue the crew of "Italy" flew Roald Amundsen. After June 20 when his plane disappeared. So, trying to save the polar explorers, died Amundsen, the greatest scope for research polar traveler