NOLA Bushnel( Inventor Irova automata)
Comments for NOLA Bushnel
Biography NOLA Bushnel
'King Pong' - a nickname given Nolan media in Silicon Valley. This nickname stems from the fact that Nolan was a passionate player and a recognized king of games. During the game he showed a temper and enthusiasm of the child.
'Pong' was the brainchild of his passionate desire to create a gaming machine with the massively popular game. Nolan resorted to the name of 'Pong', because it is such a sound uttered video racket at impact lo-ball video. This name should also contain a hint of what the rules were based on the principle of ping-pong. Nickname 'King Pong' also paid tribute to Nolan, a recognized founder of the video game industry in America.
. Nolan - real freedom-humourist, who often <forgot> the way home, if he was playing well or the way he met a friendly lady
. He had a playful and frivolous temperament of the adolescent and, it seemed that only masquerades as a bearded, imposing (6 ft. 4 in.), middle-aged man. No different from children's love for games and Nolan boyish spirit were his guides on the way to the creation of the video game industry. It was his favorite thing (in accordance with the description of Horatio Aldzhera). Without a positive self-confidence Nolan would never have been able to attract loyal followers, with whom later carried out their innovative ideas.
'Pong' was Nolan's second attempt to enter the video game market. The first was a game called <Computer Space>, which failed miserably because of the complexity and cost. For the game accompanied by an instruction is too complicated for the average player videosalony. Ri Pong> he has provided simplicity makes it understandable to the novice. Launched in 1972, it became a hit in 1973 and 1974. 'Pong' changed the world of video games in many directions. It has changed the standards for gaming machines, has consolidated the seat reserved for video games in society, and attracted many customers. She became a pioneer in the mass market video games. 'Pong' has changed the nature videosalony games, home television (cartridge), computer (PC) games, and the recent games for adults ( 'Star Wars'), who play in the Pentagon and NASA.
. 'Pong' was not the first computer video game
. It all started with a home television game 'Odyssey Magnavoks'. Nevertheless, it was 'Pong' video game has become the first mass production. She made a real revolution and actually founded a new industry. 'Pong' is also the first video game has been recognized among experienced players and computer experts.
Ubiquitous machines like 'Pinball' dominated industry slot machines in the early 70's. They were large electromechanical machines, technologically inflexible, requiring intensive care and equipped with the imperfect system of image transmission. Electromechanical manufacturers, being interested in maintaining their positions in this kind of industry, refused to apply the technology, born out of their bowels. This myopic thinking industry leaders gave a chance to new firms, who saw the possibility of newly emerging new technologies, based on the use of microchips.
. Firms in Silicon Valley have been informed and understand the convenience of new technology based on integrated circuits
. This allowed them to become pioneers in the creation of electronic video games. At the same scenario was, and in other industries, experts have been amazed by the capacity of integrated circuits and the capacity to increase the amount of memory. Production calculators, electronic watches and phones went through the same metamorphosis that the gaming industry in the mid-1970. In 1971, the 'Intel' invented the microprocessor. This event coincided with the beginnings accidentally 'Atari', and technological breakthroughs in electronics was the catalyst for the development of the games industry.
. Video games have become stepson appeared Technology playing chips, which made it possible to put more and more memory in smaller carriers, called chips, which in turn became miniature
. Revolution in the microcosm of microcomputer technology has become a driving force in the development of video games, pocket calculators, electronic watches, personal computers and digital phones. All these products were created in the mid 70's, becoming the by-products of new technology. Those firms that could not adapt to the world of electronics, did not survive. Bushnel was an infant technology, and so he became the father of video games industry.
Bushnel and 'Atari' actually created a three-segment video games. The first belonged <Pong> - game for video parlors, which entered the market in 1972. Second, home televersion <Pong>, intended for home television. In 1974, the game sold only company who had exclusive rights <Sears>. The third segment occupied boot using the cartridge game system. This principle allows consumers to change the game and share them, and had something in common with a fad at one time the idea of change instead of a razor blade. Video-computer system has become the standard industry and dominate the market for domestic television appearances from 1977 to 1983. It was the forerunner of the current Games <Nintendo>, made the game cartridges compulsory subject in the lists of Christmas gifts for children.
. Professional Myopia
. First, in 1972, Nolan intended to sell the idea of the game 'Pong' firm 'Bella Midway'
. Initially, he saw his role as a designer of video games and intended to sell licenses for their production of such major manufacturers as 'Bella'. So began 'Atari'. Going to Chicago to demonstrate the 'Pong' executive managers 'Bella', Nolan was confident that they will see the potential of 'Pong' and buy a license. But he received the same support, which has Steve Jobs and his 'Apple Computer' just four years later. Experts have rejected his offer, making a bad conclusion: <Who will stand before the TV screen and play the game that does not involve any physical actions as "pinball" N "But this did not discourage Bushnelya. He put on his cloak svertehnologichny, flew home to Los Geytos and posted 'Pong' standing alone in a bar 'Andy Caps' in Sannivelli (Sun Valley). He wanted to show the world that suited his game.
Installing the game in 'Andy Caps', Nolan regarded this as a test the attractiveness of 'Pong' for youth. He wanted to prove that there would be no less interesting than the bulky Slots. If successful, the game was supposed to bring the amount needed to pay distribyuterskih investment within twelve - sixteen weeks. This meant that the 'Pong' was supposed to make 40-50 dollars. week. This would enable it to compete with the old slot machines. Owner 'Andy Caps' phoned him two days later and said: "Take away from here the damn game. It does not work and frustrating my clients. "
Nolan, armed with a variety of chips and testers, the necessary instruments in order to fix the game, but did not find any fault. At least he decided to check the receiving and storing coins. When he opened the box with coins, quarters scattered in different directions - all of them were 1200 pieces. 'Pong' was broken, because a success. Capacity for the money was intended for a maximum of 300 coins in a quarter, which was considered unprecedented collection and could not even one game. Nolan's enthusiasm was boundless. Experiments performed in the 'Andy Caps' has surpassed all expectations and made him forget about licensing and immediately seek exclusive rights to manufacture.
Initially, 'Atari' is a financial nightmare. Lack of financial resources was accompanied by an even greater shortage of production equipment and management experience. Nolan, hired on the production line of bikers, hippies, misfits and hooligans who possess at least the minimum qualifications. Walk through the plant site was like that to overcome the level of the game 'Star Wars'. Usual attire was tight T-shirts and sandals. From long-haired, casually dressed workers had the smell, reminiscent of the processing plant fertilizer. The mood was casual and crazy. Party with beer became regular, and start building some new details of a sufficient excuse to stop work on the day.
The spirit that prevailed in 'Atari', was a match kurazhlivomu temperament Nolan. Once, when elegantly dressed shoppers expressed a desire to see the plant, Bushnel had his motley servants hide in large packing cartons and not appear before the end of tour. In Silicon Valley 'Atari' earned a reputation as 'valley of miracles'. This reputation was as strong as Gestalt psychedelia, which in those days extended only about fifty miles north, in San Francisco. However, the demand for 'Pong' was so high that the 'Atari' and overcame the incompetence and inexperience, and lack of finance. She was one of the very small number of firms in Silicon Valley, is gaining momentum in these dark days of 1973 and 1974. She grew very quickly to escape from bankruptcy only by the enthusiasm. Bushnel introduced twelve or sixteen hour day and almost did not pay salaries.
First salon version of 'Pong' 'Atari' released in November 1972 and in 1973 a profit of $ 3.2 million. dol. In 1974 he sold eight thousand copies at the price of 1200 dollars., Revenue amounted to 9.6 million. dol. Best at the time saloon games brought to 45-60 dollars. week. And the average income <Pong> was about 200 dollars. week. This was a revolutionary change in a stagnant industry of gaming machines.
Video games have become a success and attracted many competitors, new distributors and new players. Because of the popularity of these games can be found on college campuses, airports and other locations, and their fate was so unlike the fate of the old arcade machines, which alone stood in the empty halls. Competitors multiplied faster than the game, and highly contributed to the expansion of the new market. Interestingly, 'Midway Bella' still has licensed the 'Pong' and actually released for 1973-74. more games than the 'Atari'.
'Atari' made a clamp new games: '<Super Pong', 'Grand Track' (The Great Way), 'Quadra Pong', 'Spacey Flight' (the space race) and 'Touch mi' (Touch to me). After some time, followed by 'Brikaut' (Flash), 'Sprint 2', 'find a driver' (Night Rider), 'LEMANS' and 'Grand Prix'. Bum videogames grew steadily and reached its peak in 1979. This was the year when the market appeared 'Space Enveyders' (Space Invaders). The timing was impeccable. Film 'Star Wars' was at the height of popularity, and 'Space Invaders' became the most massive game in history. And shook the world of video games more than any other game since the days of 'Pong'. 'Atari' to sell it in different ways: on the cartridge, directly as a video game and as a game for leisure.
Video games have become a favorite pastime for most American families. Fathers and children played together in a video hall and hotels. Location of games was chosen taking into account the fact that they are accessible to different groups of players - businesses, families, college students. New high-tech, sophisticated games have contributed to both intellectual and physical development. Researchers have shown that players improve coordination of movements. Times deserted gambling parlors have sunk into oblivion. Microprocessor technology has changed the way slot machines and expanded markets through the involvement of students (university centers ") and families (gaming halls in the traditional destination for families, for example, in a pizzeria).
Annual income <Atari> exceeded billion abroad in 1981. By the tenth anniversary in 1982, 'Atari' celebrated the achievement dvuhmilliardnogo income, becoming a leader among fast-growing companies. 'Atari' to hold 80 percent of the market and supplied 17 percent of games of American families. In 1981, when enthusiasm for video games has reached its peak, annual revenue amounted to 6 billion in Video Production. dol. that more than two times the cash fees Hollywood. That is twice the annual income of all combined casinos in Las Vegas, . three times more revenue from television demonstrations and fees from the sale of tickets to the games of professional basketball, . baseball and football, . four times more revenue from concert performances and CDs produced by rock stars,
. Seventy-five thousand person-years was conducted for video games in one, only this year. Dream psychology Bushnelya absorbed generation and made the game a pleasure.
As Wozniak, Jobs, Morita and Gates, Bushnel was a child of microprocessor technology. He was born in 1943 in Kliarfilde, Utah, and grew up in a family of Mormons, deeply admired by the European work ethic. His father was a bricklayer, had his case was utterly devoted to the work, brought in Nolan is the same attitude to work. His motto was: "a lot of work and many will be able to achieve". Nolan learned this lesson well. He was a great lover of solder, and in ten years fashioned a primitive radio. He repaired televisions, radios, washing machines and moonlighting in various places during his studies at school. After one day he lost in poker money intended to pay for college, he had to get a job in Legun Emyuzement Park (Laguna Entertainment). Nolan worked barkers, guessed the weight he played at the pitch with milk bottles. This experience has brought him to the passion for games, and helped to understand the mindset, desire and motivation of players. It is difficult to overestimate the impact that has had this early experience to his further success in the popularization of video games.
While studying in the university sector Nolan worked as a manager of games in the park <Laguna Entertainment>. In his own words, he was a poor student. At that time the nickname stuck to Bushnelyu <Yankee player>, pursued him and when he matured. Without a doubt, the game had to be his road to success. They have become the Achilles heel of his education, as well as to Akio Morita, the creator of 'Sony'. Every spare moment from work in the park, he spent over games. The games were to blame for the fact that Nolan received the lowest scores in the graduate faculty of Electronics, University of Utah (1968). After an unsuccessful attempt to get a job at Disney, he settled as an engineer - the designer 'Ampeks', located in Mountain View, California, - in the heart of Silicon Valley.
. Business and personal survival
. The first game was Nolan's 'Computer Space' (Computer Space), which he did, working as an engineer-designer in 'Ampeks'
. But it was a commercial failure. He concluded that this game was too complicated and the world is waiting for a simple game that does not require instruction. Those games, in which he and his friends played on the system computers, were accessible to engineers, but not the mass consumer. After analyzing the problem, he decided: "I must create a game whose rules are clear to everybody, something so simple that any drunk in a bar will be able to play it". 'Pong' match this criterion.
By this time, Nolan moved to the 'Nutting Associates', Mountain View. When the concept of 'Pong' was finally formed, it went from there and together with Ted Debney, a former engineer 'Ampeks' organized 'Atari' and started designing videogames. Then he offered the game 'Bailey Midway', Chicago. But they were not interested and did not believe that it has a market potential. Their poems were old-style slot machines with rackets, baskets, solenoids, relays and mechanical scoreboard. They were not impressive game, having no moving parts and does not fit into their idea of the consumer market.
And then Bushnel and Dabney made of 250 dollars. and began production of 'Pong'. The only capital they had brains. Unbending Bushnel began his journey, taking a loan and buy items. He managed to conclude contracts and made a couple of 'Wels Fargo Bank' credit line of $ 50000 USD. These investments and build 'Atari' up until in 1975. capitalist Don Valentino, a consortium of investors, has invested in her 600000 dollars. Until that time, 'Atari' survived only thanks to ingenuity of its creators.
In the 70 years in the industry parlor game dominated by machines with the game in the balls. These electromechanical devices to operate at a lowering of the coin, did not undergo any change for many years. High-tech video devices Bushnelya carried intellectual strain and focused on players of different generations.
Everything was new: the technology and the game itself, and the players, and the seats reserved for games. These new electronic games have been a byproduct of the microprocessor revolution, which established a precedent for the emergence of video games and video parlors industry.
. Bushnel, of course, was a true innovator, an end in itself which was to create, invent, and to make changes in life and as soon as his idea was accepted, he began to create the next big innovation
. For two years he nurtured in the head a new project - a home version of the game <Pong>, the second market innovation, which has promoted the game directly into the homes of Americans. The game captivated home TV screens. In 1975, 'Sears', received exclusive rights to market, sold 150,000 copies of the home version. At this time, Nolan's inventive mind has invented a new, boot using the cartridge game - Videokompyuternuyu system (VCS), presented in 1977.
. Videoconferencing has become a test case of a new type of game that allowed to evaluate its compliance with the requirements of visitors video parlors
. It was a harbinger of popular games videosalony 'PekMen' and 'Space Invaders', which produced both for home video, and Salons. It also paved the way for mass production of games such as tennis, auto racing, star wars and many other. A new segment: in the late 70's and early 80's were sold to hundreds of millions of cartridges. It is a miracle of marketing and 200 million. invested funds turned <Atari> in the company with an income of 2 billion. dol.
Bushnel sells his dream
'Atari' expanded faster than it allowed its finances. Once got an urgent need for large infusions of capital in order to continue to implement innovations Bushnelya. In 1976, the 'Atari' made video games, consumer electronics, had a view of the release of personal computers. Flexible mind Bushnelya searching for the most reasonable source of additional financing, and eventually Nolan decided not to joint-stock company and sell it.
First, the choice fell on Bushnelya 'Disney', his favorite company. But they are not interested. Next was the 'Em-C-Ai', which also rejected a proposal. 'Warner Kommyunikeyshns' at that time was quite wealthy company pursues an aggressive policy on the market. But they were not even in the list of potential buyers 'Atari'.
Nolan sold the 'Atari' 'Warner Kommyunikeyshns' in September 1976 for 28 million. dol. and the conditions of early guarantees of jobs to him and leading specialists to. Part of the deal was a further investment of 100 million. dol., to the inventive mind Bushnelya had the opportunity to create more. By that time, 'Warner' already acquired 'Mad' and several other risk-oriented diversified company, made from the same dough as the 'Atari'. Thus, 'Warren' not scared reputation 'Atari' as a company, which reigns free spirit. Sale enriched Nolan 15 million. dol. The first game of 'Pong' was created less than four years ago. 'Bella' did not see prospects for innovative invention of video games, and Nolan did everything himself - invested 250 USD. increase them in the sixty thousand times less than four years! These awards are waiting for innovators, dared to take risks.
. The second innovation Nolan - Family Entertainment
. In 1979, Nolan under pressure 'Warner', resigned and was appointed chairman of Pizza Time Fiat '.
. In 1977 Bushnel funded Pizza Time 'in the amount of 500000 USD
. By 'Warner', because 'Warner' did not want to engage in self-realization of yet another bizarre ideas Nolan. The first prototype of this fantastic idea was designed more for 'Atari' in 1977, but the 'Warner' believed that she had no future.
. Pizza Time 'grew faster than the' Atari ', and Nolan made this idea a lot more money than their time in' Atari '
. Pizza Time Fiat 'is a great restaurant that served pizza and where there was a whole arsenal of video games, various representations of computer animation, computer games room, children's playgrounds. Fur rat on the microchip and the mascot Chicken E. Cheese (Chuck E. Cheese). This costumed character delivered pizza at the party and danced with the children. Idea undamped enjoyed success in previously untapped segment of the market - families with young children from three to fifteen years. Revenues amounted to 1.25 million. dol. from each institution annually at 25 per cent of tax deductions.
In 70-ies there was no place where a mother, father and children could play, eat and have fun together. Traditional parks and zoos were seasonal and not always designed for adult family members.
Moreover, not every week the family was able to go there. <Pizza Time Fiat> offers a family atmosphere of a small restaurant, where they could eat and have fun, while spending only a small fraction of what would be worth visiting the park. These stores were located within or near shopping centers in each city market in the United States.
The idea of "Pizza Time" its origin is extraordinary success in Video -. It all began in 1977 with a single store in Saint-Dzhouz, but by 1983 these institutions were already 250. Revenues have grown from zero to 250 million. dol. Share Nolan's equity in April 1981 would amount to 48 million. dol. He became the double winner and favorite of Wall Street. However, this did not last long, for as long as Nolan's inventive mind is not turned into new long-term project.
Revenues Pizza Time Fiat 'become a means of implementing its commitment to creativity. He was infected with a disease most creative geniuses, who preferred to do, rather than operate. Nolan has organized various structural units in the corporate structure 'Pizza Time', . within which to make games ( 'Sep', . which competed with the 'Atari'), . cartoons ( 'Kadabraskop', . competed with 'Disney') and simulated a new concept of individual bars ( 'Zapps' competition with 'Tee-Gee-Ay Fraydiz'),
. Then he began to embody the idea of a miniature amusement park. All this was the improvement of the achievements Pizza Time 'and was financed from its resources.
. It is striking that while the reorganization of Pizza Time Fiat ', he created new lines of business, establishing a subsidiary company' Catalyst '(Catalyst)
. Attempting to create a vertically integrated conglomerate, was too burdensome for the resources 'Pizza Time'. Departments literally ate all cash and capital income from Pizza Time ', . and eventually the company came under the scope of article 11 of the Code, . was declared bankrupt and sold the largest competitor 'Show Biz Pizza Dallas' - one of the first franchisors 'Pizza Time'.,
. Characteristics of personal behavior
. Holan Bushnel - is extrovert, intuitive, thinking, empatichny type (ENME)
. According to Kersh (1984):
Person belonging to the type ENME wish to test their ingenuity in the world of people and things ... so figuratively approaches to social relations, psychology and technology. They warily monitor the incidence of new processes and always sensitive to new opportunities.
Bushnel - a typical extrovert, which receives most of the energy from the surrounding world. He holds innovation and taking strategic decisions, boundless trust your instincts. But the tactical decisions are rational and impersonal. Bushnel operates openly, spontaneously and in business and personal life. The ordering - not his path.
. A very important feature of personality Nolan Bushnelya is that <he never allows that "the path traversed by> blocking the road to an unknown new ways and attempts to find new innovative capabilities" (Landry, 1976).
. Kersh classifies such behavior as a key characteristic of personality type ENME:
. ENME more than all other types of resists traditional modes of
. They are characterized by looking for better ways, their attention is always directed to the development of new projects, new activities, new methods.
Kersh also notes that the personality of this type have the gift of persuasion. Nolan,. Like no other, consistent with this characterization, because in Silicon Valley, he had the reputation of this 'п╬я┤п╟я─п╬п╡п╟я┬п╨п╬п╧' and 'seller-tempter'. Bushnel corresponds to the image of 'nonconformist who prefers to outwit the system and win the game in whatever was'. Iconoclastic nature Bushnelya vividly expressed in his attitude to the counters, make a charge for parking a car. In 1982, in San Francisco, parked his Rolls-Royce, he said: "I do not think paying for the meter, Jen. This parking for the rich ". (Landry, 1983). Another bushnelizm: "Let's not allow the truth to block the path to this endeavor, Jen" (Landry, 1979).
Bushnel was an incorrigible optimist, which is often detrimental to their well-being. He so believed in his new endeavor, he could risk everything for the realization of their dreams. An example of its positive short-sightedness - undertaken in 1982, the production of household robots, associated with an excessive risk and costing him 8 million. dol. These were his own money. He passionately believed that the era of household robots. He tried to convince reporters that soon robots will replace domestic dogs and their owners will bring in the newspaper - and firmly believed in it myself. When the question arose whether household robots, he replied: "The wage-workers - it is expensive, and robots will not have to pay". In mid-1980 the project had been laid, bringing the loss of 15 million. dol.
Bushnel was obsessed player. He could bet on who will enter the next door. He could play for hours with their friends in <Chuck E. Cheese>, putting in $ 100. the game. He believed that business - is a game, and treat it as a game should. He did not attach any importance to awards in the game and business, primarily for Bushnelya was good to play.
"Atari" its name is also obliged to the competitive spirit and obsession with games. It was taken from the ancient Japanese game 'Go' and means: "I attack you," - which is tantamount to declaration of checkmate in chess. This clearly demonstrates the aggressive, tending to contest Bushnelya nature and his desire to play the center of his world.
. Tendency to pucky
. Nolan Bushnel is a gifted player like Turner and the great majority of entrepreneurs
. His home is a special game room, and, in addition, a variety of games in almost every room, as well as a cinema, ice room, tennis court, water slide, a field for a game of croquet, volleyball court and swimming pool. This set of toys for adults need to meet him as a whimsical children's need for fun and frivolity, and in order to entertain his seven children.
. 'Catalyst' (Catalyst) - an incubator, where Bushnel 'nurturing' new business idea was formed in 1982
. 'Catalyst' demonstrated his foresight and willingness to risk better than any other of its businesses. In some respects they are even superior to Ted Turner's desire for risk and speculation. The first of his ideas he implemented in the firm 'Endrobot'. She worked on the development and manufacture of household robots. Within three years this company has been invested 15 million. dol. The second firm - 'Timbertech> - created a computer for teaching young children. The next idea Bushnelya visited during his participation in the regatta 'Transpac Race' - from Los Angeles to Hawaii. He with the participation of several members of the team has developed a satellite navigation system for cars and commercial vehicles. Once again Nolan has organized another company called 'That way', to finalize and release to the market of the offspring of the space age.
. Nolan - an eternal child - created the company 'Akslon' and dedicated it to work the technology business for the production of toy talking animals
. Then he formed a company to produce machines for the retail trade, which, he believed, had become a separate kind of retail business, called Bi-Video. By creating a firm 'Magnum Mikroveyv', he felt himself in the business of commercial microwave link. Then, Nolan and his wife Nancy opened the restaurant 'The Lion and Compass' and club 'Bar and Grill Zappa'. In the mid-80's in full force developed the concept of a color image that prompted Nolan's inventive mind to create a new color computer named 'Ai-Er-Ou'. This computer is able to scan the color of skin and hair of the client and issue a personal preferred color scheme. Company 'Sep' Bushnel created as a manufacturer of games and competitor 'Atari' and other companies of this industry.
Bushnel was chairman and major investor in most of these firms, but not a very good job with this task. Om attracted foreign capital and has repeatedly put 'at stake' all his. Most of these enterprises were not able to recoup investment. Its ability to generate new ideas and integrate them given was similar passion for Bill Lear, and disregard for the threat of defeat is very similar to the tactics of Ted Turner.
. At forty Bushnel owned by the state, 80 million
. dol. and by the forty-five has lost most of it in various ventures. He continued to play this game with the same passion that these geniuses of entrepreneurship, as Lear, and Deloran Trump. Nolan made a fortune on games and lost it on games. Games began its essence, as well as the essence of Trump became a 'deal'. These great players have left a trace because of the conviction that business - the game, and they played it as if he had the money monopoly.
. Creative genius makes a bet based on his intuitive faith and win big - but if you make mistakes, then losing on a grand scale
. So it was in the 70's, when Nolan greatly underestimated the potential of the PC market. Steve Jobs during those turbulent days worked directly and indirectly on Nolan. Thus, Bushnel was one of the first, whom Jobs introduced in 1975, developed with Wozniak PC variant 'Apple I'. Nolan, a man who had a brilliant intuition, Jobs said that he sees the PC market outlook. This is a remarkable fact, often even brilliant visionaries may be short-sighted with respect to a foreign idea.
The success of self-confidence
Nolan Bushnel - perky optimist with high self-esteem. He overcame adversity and not let the ups and downs to shake his purpose. The game of business - it was a game of his mind, but the game brought him joy. He played in them boldly, with a positive emotional mood. Security was not part of his tactics. He played only in the attack.
Nolan - an extrovert with a cheerful disposition and an inventive mind, unable for a long time to get stuck on one subject. His philosophy is the pursuit of new opportunities, to some extent allows for a negative analogy between Nolan and Vincent Pale. Part for his tireless and cheerful spirit concealed hyperactive libido. As an example, may be the case that occurred in 1976 in New York City. At this point Bushnel just concluded with <Warner> contract for the sale <Atari> and received a deposit in the form of a check for 1 million. dol. against future 15 million. dol. In its constant habit, he spent most nights in the entertainment establishments in New York, had his eye on one of yuristok <Warner>. During these nocturnal adventures, he lost a check for a million dollar. His new employer probably would have been shocked if the chairman of the board of their new acquisitions would call with a request to suspend the receipt of one million dollars. But Nolan's check was only a small fraction of the losses, which, he believed, you have to pay to play 'game' is well. Life has always seemed self-assured father cornucopia of video games.
At the dawn of video games traditionalists tried to undermine their reputation, arguing that they harm the health and welfare of children. Local and federal authorities have begun to ban them under various pretexts. 'Hunting for Witches', passing through the entire history of mankind, from Galileo to Einstein, in the late 70's and early 80's touched and video games. Said that the games are like drugs, are the originators of the narrowness of outlook, crime and other signs of the times, which so frightened of parents. But, according to 'S. S. News and World Ripport ', there were people who sought to justify video games. Psychologist Patricia Greenfield conducted a study of their impact on players. She said that video games develop the cognitive skills necessary for learning, problem solving, creativity, and also for visual and spatial thinking. It found the increase in 'intellectual abilities of the students, who often play video games'. 'Popyular Saenz' (Popular Science) supported it, noting: "The old machine learning smack routine. Computer toys develop the skills of the users right thinking "(February 1990).
King Ponga, otherwise known as' P. T. Banoum Silicon Valley 'accused sverhoptimizme. The accusation is not unfounded. It was also recognized that he had little interest, and poorly suited to the daily operational management of the company. Nevertheless, Nolan was a talented innovator who, by unflinching self-confidence and high self-esteem has changed the concept of the game world. Peace, thanks to him, became more cheerful. His rise from zero to 2 billion. dol. was not too long, but it was very interesting and fun to play.