BORDEAUX Gail( Inventor)
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Biography BORDEAUX Gail
Gail Borden was the inventor. But not quite normal. Work of his life were thickening and canning. He himself talked about it this way: "I intend to put a potato in a pillbox, a tablespoon of pumpkin, the biggest watermelon in the gravy boat ... Turks made of acres of roses attar of roses ... I'm going to make attar of all! "So be it until the end of life let boil dry all sorts of products, not loans, he milk.
About people like Borden, and such things necessary to mankind, as condensed milk, is made up many legends. According to one of them, Gail Borden, returning home by sea to America with the London exhibition in 1851, found that sea-sickness prone to not only people but also cows. However, if people can still overcome himself and to work despite feeling unwell, then cows, suffering from rolling, resolutely refuse to give milk.
. Under the hungry children crying Borden wondered about whether it is possible to provide people with milk in extreme situations
. It was a difficult task, because the milk - the most ephemeral product. A well-known solution to this problem was the manufacture of cheese, but Borden set a goal to find a way to keep it whole milk. Save by condensation.
It came to light evaporated milk.
Thickening in general has been obsessed with Borden. Experiments with condensed milk was preceded by attempts to condense Borden coffee, tea, meat and other "useful dietary products.
The result was thickened and the whole life Borden. Extremely active and gifted man, he in his lifetime had done so much, that would be enough for a dozen ordinary lives.
Gail Borden was born in the central part of New York. Later the family Bordenov in search of a better life yielded to the West. Upon reaching adulthood, Borden had gone to school to work as a mathematics teacher (it was in Mississippi), but, after a quarrel with the administration, resigned. Then he learned independently of the topography, and in 1829 the famous founder of Texas Stephen Fuller Austin, in whose honor was named the first capital of the state, appointed him the official surveyor. And in 1835, when the state needed a newspaper, a tireless Borden, along with a friend founded the daily "Telegraph and Texas Register notices.
. This was the tenth newspaper, based in Texas, but the first that has managed to stay afloat longer than two years
. However, the usual troubles Provincial Newspapers - boring news, pathetic materials, subscribers, which can not be found and who do not pay when they are in - forced Borden to seek additional work. And he became the official printer of the Texas Republic. The Texas Declaration of Independence was first printed on his machine.
A year later, Borden moved to the island of Galveston, where he worked as a tax collector, helped break new streets, the city sold the land and t. d. and t. n.
But the main thing - he invented. Invent that benefits and profits. His "moving bathing pavilion" allowed local ladies to swim where they want. His wedding gift to his wife had made their own dinner table with a rotating center, through which food could be delivered to any consumer.
. In addition, he constructed a ship, set in motion not a screw or paddle wheels, a transmission belt for the entire length of the keel, fitted with blades
. The most remarkable invention Borden was his "amphibious vehicle" - a van equipped with a sail for settlers. It could move both on land and at sea. When Borden demonstrated apparatus countrymen, the ship sailed from the coast into the Gulf. But, unfortunately, there was turned, and the passengers fell into the water. A remarkable project has been closed.
"I reject the idea only in favor of better ideas," - said Borden. Rejecting the "amphibious vehicle", he started a condensation products.
The case, which forced Borden to address this problem, once shook America. In November 1846, 87 persons were in a strong snowstorm in the Sierra Nevada and were forced to live in complete isolation for several weeks, until help arrived. Survived only 47 people - they ate the rest. For practically minded Borden this case has become not only an occasion for reflection on the validity of moral laws in extreme conditions, . but forced to think about the special needs of his countrymen - the inhabitants of the country's displaced, . people, . forever on the move.,
. "It is necessary and, therefore, will be in demand concentrated, compact products" - understood Borden
. In 1850, Borden published his book in which he outlined the whole philosophy of condensation, and simultaneously promoted just invented a "meat biscuit," a modern analogue of the sublimate. Borden spent six years and almost all his fortune - $ 60 000 - for product promotion. However influential suppliers of fresh meat to the army made a fair competition unrealistic. There were other problems. Many complained that bordenovsky biscuit ugly in appearance and taste absolutely pres. Borden himself admitted that he knows how to properly prepare the biscuit alone.
But before the meat biscuit was defeated, Borden had time to make an invention that has become indispensable to people and glorified his inventor. He learned how to condense milk.
Fortunately, Borden did not know that in Europe have repeatedly tried to thicken the milk. The results were so unsuccessful, that the idea rejected. But uninformed Borden was full of enthusiasm.
At first he tried to simply boil the milk in an open pan on a sand bath heated by charcoal, and then add brown sugar. The resulting liquid can truly be stored for months without going bad, but was subsistence dark and smelled of molasses. Unusable product was obvious.
After several months of reflection Borden decided to coagulate the milk in a vacuum pan. But here it was waiting for the failure: heated, burnt milk. Smart people strongly advised Bordenu throw an empty scheme.
Almost two years Borden led an unsuccessful battle with the milk, until he accidentally saw the cook grease the pan, so food does not take a strong liking. Doing the same operation before the evaporation of milk, Borden received a substance known to every inhabitant of the planet is now called "evaporated milk.
. Bordenovsky way of cooking condensed milk was so simple that to convince the members of the patent commission in Washington that actually invented something new, it has proved difficult
. His authorship Bordenu had to prove accessible bureaucrats language - armed with stacks of charts and written explanations and the set of recommendations. By adding these shares to a certain amount, Borden eventually persuaded officials of the patent committee that invented a fundamentally new method: evaporation of milk in a vacuum.
. Condensed milk immediately garnered the commercial success
. As stated in another legend, the search for companions who are ready to invest in the production of condensed milk capital, Borden spent five minutes and five cents. As if in a fairy tale, accidental ally Bordeaux, who treated the inventor of the road with her milk, was rich grocery wholesaler and owner of a large network of stores in New York. Enchanted taste of the product, he immediately offered Bordenu contract.
In 1858 in the village a hundred miles north of New York opened its first plant in the world for the production of condensed milk. Advertising a new product said: "It's just a rustic fresh milk, from which all the water has evaporated and no added. When you add water, one quart of product turns into 2.5 quarts of milk, equal in fat content cream, 5 quarts of milk fat or 7 quarts of milk is usually well. Sale for 25 cents a quart.
Bordenovskoe condensed milk appeared on the New York market is very timely. New York suffered from breast plague ". Newspapers were filled with reports of "killings of milk". Milk sold in the city, called slop, because it gave the cows grazing on fields where waste is dumped and poured sewage. Manure and milk transported in the same cars.
New Yorkers, and only said that dirty milk is the cause of high infant mortality. This milk is practically did not contain fat, but to hide the unattractive blue color, stained. The newspapers reported that sick cows held props that once milked before death. One of the officials of breast service called urban "milk-garbage" "Vesuvius, spouting an unbearable stench and disgusting.
New product - condensed milk - completely changed the situation. With the proposed Bordenom net product sales of milk in New York has increased several times
Anticipating the modern struggle for money, Borden introduced at its factory high standards of cleanliness. It sends its inspectors to farms with detailed instructions. The plant did not take milk from cows that calved in the last 12 days, demanding that before milking the cow's udder was washed with warm water, cowsheds were clean and the manure was kept far away from milking. In addition, the plant received only chilled milk.
Of course, this caused additional difficulties in the life of farmers. But they received a guaranteed buyer. In other words, Borden turned the dairy farmer to the wholesaler, who no longer had to peddle milk, churn butter and make cheese. Farmer, who concluded a contract with Bordenom and supplied milk of the relevant standard, could take all the goods at the factory and receive a check from the company.
Milk, Borden Company has implemented and other technical innovations. In 1875, a year after the death of Borden, she started selling fresh whole milk. Milk allotted in large jugs and poured into dishes buyer. This method of selling milk was, of course, is not very hygienic. And in 1885, Borden Company under the leadership of Borden, Jr., began to produce milk in bottles. But it was another ten years before bacteriological analysis has become an integral part of the production of milk and began to be widely used pasteurization.
. "Do your sermon short, to express thoughts concisely", - the once Borden priest galvestonskoy Church
. In his book, he wrote: "The world is changing. In the direction of compression. Even now, lovers do not write poetry or something like that and other nonsense. They concentrate all that they want to say, I think, in a kiss. There was a time when people spent hours on food. Napoleon, it has never been more than twenty minutes. I'm the manager for fifteen. People almost lost the ability to spend time to waste. "
He was absolutely right. Now it is quite clear.