Betty Graham( The inventor of Liquid paper - putty for typos)
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Biography Betty Graham
Liquid paper - cement for typos - without doubt one of the most legendary things of the past century. Remember: even some 20 years ago we scraped typos razors, overwrote eraser, each time worrying that the paper is not thinned and there were holes. And when he learned about liquid paper, we fenced off from the world of the Iron Curtain, once the putty included in the list of things that are asked to bring from abroad - together with chewing gum, jeans, and the plates favorite bands. Today it is a clerical miracle, which invented the ordinary bad American secretary Betty Graham, is in any office.
It was nothing remarkable American woman 50's - a small and well-fed. And the profession she had was the standard, almost the only opportunity for women in those years - years of great cars, suburban homes and wives who are homemakers. Betty Graham worked as a secretary ordinary. However, standing at the altar, it is hardly expected that someday return to the typewriter. She married for love, bore a son and lived a normal life at home - if it had not stopped loving her husband, not divorced and moved to another town, where again sat down at the hated machine. And being a man of quite ordinary, and she would have died in obscurity in modest-deserved retirement, if not for her rare talent to make and correct mistakes. Thanks to them, she became a millionaire, and her invention - liquid paper ( "liquid paper" or simply shading) is today in every office, equipped with the latest computers and printers.
. Divorce Betty with Captain Vorenus Nesmisom, with whom she lived a modest apartment in Houston, has been brewing for a long time
. In the morning, a neighbor regularly discussed the details of scandals among them, until finally what they have long said, has not been done. Family Nesmisov ceased to exist early January morning in 1950, when, after another night of scandal fatty Betty quick step out of the apartment. In one hand she held a small suitcase, and the other firmly dragged to a young child, Michael, who remains on the run dozhevyval morning buns. Neighbors heard the furious farewell outgoing wife of Captain Vorena: "This is a fatal mistake, and you it will never fix it!" In 1950, neither the captain nor Betty, or even gossips, neighbor could not assess the prophetic irony of these words. All seemed hopeless until banality.
Betty was left without food and shelter to the veritable pennies in his pocket the savings from the time of their life together from business expenses. First, she spent the night with friends, but then finally decided to break with the old life with this cursed town, where everything is a reminder of dashed hopes, and moved with her son in Dallas, located in the same Texas. First, there lived her distant relatives, and secondly, the money for a ticket to more distant edges Betty simply not there.
But Dallas was not a city of dreams. Lonely woman with a child find a job is not easy, even today, and even where it comes to the aid of the state, sometimes pays extra for employers if they hire so unprofitable for a company employee. And in the middle of the century it was almost impossible - when Betty arrived in Dallas, before the decree of 1964 on equal pay for male and female workers were still 14 years. But she did not have in stock is not something that 14 years, and 14 days - work is needed immediately. Calls to the announcement of the results is not given: some were dissatisfied with the skills of young mothers, . in others there was no vacancy, . others rudely asked for Betti her marital status and, . receiving a response, . politely summed up: "Thank you for your attention to our company",
. Betty shoveled pile of newspapers in search of the announcement of a suitable work was not yet in the newspaper "Dallas Daily" treasured note: "Requires the secretary to the notary. To be able to handle e. Pisz. mash. 55 wpm minimum.
It suited her - her experience was like. Even in the distant 41-m, just finished school, seventeen secretary Betty went to work to get rid of parental care. Parents could not be reconciled with too violent nature of her daughter, and family relations are not folded. Not much better shape at the Betty and the relationship with work, especially with an electric typewriter - a junior secretary Graham always had a lot of typos and a little patience. Typos she tried to correct with an eraser, but it ended up worn-holes in paper and catching up with their superiors, demanded documents from the perfect form. She was married to Nevis, Betty sort of forgot about their professional misfortune, but, being in Dallas at a broken trough, it had to start all over again. I must say the new place, it also worked properly: print the document in ten minutes, quarter of an hour spent in countless typos corrected. In the first week of Betty almost lost it when instead of lawful (legal) published in the proxy awful (awful). Since it was the wife of the Chief, there was a scandal. But then Betty was lucky - she has, fortunately, found defenders, and it remained in place for the typewriter.
Typewriter clicks and snapping weeks and months. Any text is still abundant misspellings. Before material abundance Betty was hopelessly far - earned barely enough for a meager life. She often stayed in the service in the evenings, so that her son Michael all day was left to himself. Once on the street he met a retired officer and immediately reached out to him. The officer talked to Michael for hours about the war, ships, aircraft carriers, about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which he witnessed. Michael listened to his mouth agape.
Alas, even honored naval officers sometimes make imprudent actions. Determined to please Michael, a senior comrade once presented him with a birthday little flares, which has long been lying in his attic. Precious gift, the boy exploded in his hands, seriously injuring the fingers. But as they say, no evil without good. Michael, inherited from the mother's love of the difficulties, he decided to train maimed fingers, playing the guitar - and soon fell in love with her without memory. In an A student, he has not turned, but stopped idly roamed the streets, and all the free time spent for the guitar, he began to write poems and put them to music. Then he was not the legendary Michael Nesmisom of the Monkees, but has already earned a rabid popularity in his own street.
A mother of a future rock star has continued to perform its daily print norm and beat the "opechatnuyu". And then one morning on the way to the service she saw two painter plastered paint graffiti. Then it dawned on Betty.
Economic store was still closed. In the morning Betty kept nervously glancing at his watch, and just five minutes to ten, rising from his job and disappeared for 15 minutes, returning with a jar of white latex paint and fine squirrel brush. The growling machines fell silent - Betty bated breath for the first time tried to cover up another error. Paint fell ill, spreading out the paper and leave ugly blobs of white pigment, but Betty did not retreat. She began to chemical, adding the paint is glue, then salt, then water. Other secretaries, heard about these experiments were to ask Betty mixture, calling it among a mistake out (vymarka).
Home kitchen Betty has become a laboratory-factory for the production of a miraculous mixture. Realizing that they had found a gold mine, Betty Graham began selling a white mixture of another office, who willingly took. In the seventeen years of kitchen experiments, she came mistake out to perfection, when replacing the water in the paint on the organic solvent, under the action of which does not erode the printed letters. The final product has had little in common with white paint for the walls. Demand for it grew so fast that Betty was not under force to produce it in the desired quantities.
Betty decided to offer his invention of the famous IBM, but there she was given from the gate turn rejecting the product, and the idea. Then she decided to start a "correctional institution" - a company for making putty, and received a patent for this mixture, cleverly renamed it liquid paper (wet paper). From the first days of existence, the company began to flourish. Everyone wanted to get to correct their mistakes. Orders poured from all sides. By 1975, Betty has 200 employees, they navypuskali 25 million. jars, seal, who famously sold in 31 countries. Any foreigner who came in those years in Russia, knew that the putty - the best a modest gift to an intellectual family. And in 1978 Graham had sold his business corporation Gillette for $ 47 million. This company and to this day produces invention Betty. Typewriters still not widely put into scrap. They are used by writers, students, lawyers. And a cool boss, hand-written note to the secretary or subordinates, too, can make a mistake - and his hand will attract a bottle with liquid paper ".
. For the inventor is no greater joy than to see that the invention of his conquered the world and ensure the future of his children
. Who died in prosperity and fame in 1980, Betty Graham experienced and this happiness. But his fortune she bequeathed the famous group today Monkees and its founder - a rock star Michael Nesmisu.