Rosset-Smirnov Alexander( The mistress of the famous literary and artistic salon. From brilliant 'Notes' and 'Autobiography'.)
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Biography Rosset-Smirnov Alexander
(March 6, 1809 - June 7, 1882)
The famous socialite beauty. Maid of honor to the Imperial Court. Hostess of the famous literary and artistic salon. From brilliant "Notes" and "Autobiography".
By facing her poem A. S. Pushkin's "The anxiety colorful and barren", M. Lermontov, "Without you want to tell you a lot". Gogol spent her his legendary book "Selected Passages from Correspondence with Friends." Remarkable for its sharp, sarcastic wit. Inspiration for the image of Irina in the novel IS. Turgenev's "Smoke".
Of the poems dedicated to her, could, if desired, to make a poetry collection. Which only names, famed Russian literature, would not meet in its pages: Zhukovsky, Vyazemsky, Tumansky, Pushkin, Lermontov, A. Khomjakov AND Myatlev, S. Sobolewski!: List intriguing and impressive.
Could not help recall the ironic Pushkin:
"Black-eyed Rossetti *
In samovlastnostnoy beauty
All the heart was captivated by these
Those, those, those those those those. "
(Pushkin. "Madrigal AO. Rosset. ")
What is captivated celebrities Russia, and their hardened hearts of the storms in the romantic, mysterious beauty RossetN
(* Rossetti - the ancient pronunciation of the names in Italian fashion. Alexander Levinton was on the southern dark and called her a Spaniard, then an Italian. - Author) And where did this willful beauty
The whole point of confusing multiple bloodlines, temperament and character. Judge for yourself. Father Alexander Osipovna was a Frenchman by birth. Pupil Marine Institute, Osip (Joseph) I. Rosset still in early youth entered the Russian service, where he became commandant of the port of Odessa, head of the quarantine * (* the current route - author) and the commander of a flotilla of rowing. Married Osip Ivanovich Rosset in the 16 - year old Nadezhda Ivanovna Lorer * (* Sister Decembrist H. And Lorer - author) - and at that father was of German descent and his mother - a Georgian. YA. P. Polonsky, educator son Smirnova, poet and writer, wrote later:
. From Rosset she inherited the French vivacity, . susceptibility to all and wit, . from Lorer - graceful habit, . love of order and taste in music, from Georgian ancestors - laziness, . ardent imagination, . deep religious feeling, . eastern beauty and ease of treatment ",
. Characteristics of this turned out to be true and accurate, despite the fact that life circumstances and fate have taught Alexander Levinton its bitter lessons. Since early childhood. Her father died young, Nadezhda Ivanovna remarried, and the girl gave to the development of his grandmother, Catherine Yevseyevna Tsitsianov, owner of a modest little estate Gramakleya - Vodin near Nikolaev (Ukraine). They spent an wonderful years of childhood, left a bright trace in the soul. Later Alexander Levinton wrote: "If Gogol was to describe Gramakleyu, . I do not know, . what could he say about her special, . unless it, . that the entrance to the village was the key of the coldest and silvery water, . so that the river, . which runs around the garden, . It was a dark, . deep and rolled so slowly through the reeds, . that seemed to be fixed. "(A,
. O. Smirnova. Autobiography. Quoted from the edition: In. Kunin. Friends of Pushkin t. 2.)
On thin, very vospriimchuvuyu nature girl lives in the village had a profound moral influence, and more determined in its nature. Later, she wrote: "I am sure, . that the mood of the soul, . mindset, . inclinations, . not yet established in the habit, . depend on the first childhood impressions: I never liked the garden, . and love field, . disliked Salon, . and loved Priyutnoe room, . where a fairly straightforward say something, . they think, . ie, . horrible "(Ibid.,
. Page 521.)
. In a letter to Gogol, Alexander Levinton bitterly confessed years later: "I can not forget either the steppes, . nor those stellar nights, . No cry of quail, . no cranes on the roof, . no songs boatmen: "It is impossible not to notice, . reading through hundreds of years, these lines, . how masterfully owns Alexander Levinton Russian literary language, . as it is juicy and expressive, . can say, . hidden poetic! Language proficiency at a level in the 19th century it was rare for a woman, . more so - a high-ranking fashionable ladies, . What is Alexander Levinton and in his youth - as maid of honor Court and in his mature years, . chamberlain's wife * (* - the highest rank in the court of Imperial Russia, . meet the grade of general - major in the army,
. - Author) can be, . this quality, . moreover and innate intelligence, . courtesy, . genuine aristocratic manners, . likes, . however, . not all, . long been attracted to the beauty of its many wonderful Russian people, . not only the aristocrats, . but the Democrats and commoners, . Slavophiles and Westerners "revolutionary rebels" and secular lions,
. In her house to meet and talk peacefully and Aksakov Turgenev, Dostoevsky, and I. Polonsky:. With all she had found a common language was wonderfully hospitable and gracious. That her "bewitch" simplicity also took back to the happy "gramakleevskom" childhood.
His education started at home, Alexander Rosset successfully continued in the Catherine St. Petersburg Institute of Nobles, where the teacher of Russian literature was Pyotr Pletnev, a famous scientist, a friend of Pushkin. Pletnev - and then introduced the young Rosset with new creations of his friend: "Caucasian captive", "Bakhchisarai fountain, the first chapters of" Eugene Onegin ". Friendly relations with P. A. Alexander Pletnev Osipovna preserved forever - she corresponded with him, until his death professor - sent from abroad, new books, worried about his health:. July 19, 1831 Pletnev asked Alexander Pushkin: "Thanking Rossetti for her friendship to me. Her anxiety about my fate touched me not to shutku.Ya not know how to explain himself, . than I deserved so much from her participation, but be grateful for it and know how very loyal. "Pushkin replied:" Rossetti see often, and she loves you, and we often talk about you "(Pushkin - P.A,
. Pletnev. August 3. 1831.) Frequent visits Alexandra Osipovna Pushkin, . familiar with her from the winter of 1828 -29, . were due to, . that both of them were neighbors in Tsarskoe Selo, . where Alexander lived Levinton, . Court as maid of honor (her she was in October 1826, . and Alexander Pushkin, . a man had recently achieved a happy family life,
. Rosset and newlyweds Pushkin often met, rode together in a wheelchair, take long walks. Alexander Levinton was only three years older than 19 - year old Natalia Nikolaevna and made friends with her very. Day leagues, he came to them Kamennoostrovsky summer residence, and together with Natalie, they casually chatted in the living room, drinking tea and waiting, when Pushkin would call them up in his sunny office. There, he often read the two of them had just written the stanza tales, poems, and asked their opinions. Natalia usually modestly silent or playfully waved her hand, promising to say later, when she considers. Alexander Rosset usually expressed at once, and her view was extraordinary, and even fun. Thus, preserved memory memoir about how amused Pushkin statement Rosset poetry "Approaching a Izhora:" They have arms akimbo, and if you want to dance! "
. Pushkin long and contagious laugh, and then delighted by the fact that Alexander just caught the rhythm of the verse in size, made a subtle compliment to her mind.
. Um Alexandra Osipovna simultaneously attracted to and repelled by men of
. I created it many problems and in communicating and in family life. The marriage of Alexandra Osipovna Rosset and Nikolai Mikhailovich Smirnov, held January 11, 1832 could hardly be called a happy. And at the end of life, they even tried to disperse!
Nikolai Mikhailovich, man by nature a kind and intelligent, distinguished irascible temper, tantrums, and often arranged in any scandals, the most trifling about. Alexandra Levinton, with all its discretion, secularism, it was difficult ladits husband, she sometimes gave the will of the natural sarcasm: then in this bitterly repented.
However, in the marital wars were frequent truce. Being hospitable hostess Alexandra Levinton, when tolerably feel well suited receptions, tea parties and balls. Yes, and position to oblige. Nikolay rose to high rank: Chamberlain was, . Kaluga, . and then Peterbugskim, . Governor (in 1850 - 60 years) observed only, . that often he was too sad and dispel his melancholy could really only fun and lively voice of his wife and children laugh,
In this melancholy, perhaps, had its origins: the death of her first child in 1833, family problems with relatives, * (* Smirnov had a lot to help four brothers Alexandra Osipovna and family of her uncle on his mother, the Decembrist H. Lorer, exiled to the Caucasus. This led to the latent discontent with the court and led to some discomfort in the career of H. M. Smirnova, as a public official - the author.), Obstructed labor Alexandra Osipovna summer 1834. Then she gave birth to a lovely twins, but she barely survived.
Having problems with health, Alexandra Levinton've talked to received treatment abroad. Pushkin rarely seen, even once jokingly threatened him that "his record in the category of aliens who were ordered not to take" (Pushkin - NN Pushkina. August 1834). In March 1835 Smirnov was once again abroad. From Berlin Alexander P. Vyazemsky Levinton reported that subscribes to the "Contemporary", hoping for a taste of Pushkin "and promising to deliver it to the journal material on Berlin's literary news. The first issue of "Contemporary pleased her" Sidecar "and Gogol's" Journey to Arzerum Pushkin's what she wrote Vyazemsky May 4, 1836. This was her last letter, where she talked about living Pushkin. The news of the death of a friend found Alexander Osipovna in Paris. They sat at the dinner table - Gogol, Sobolewski, Andrei Karamzin, who else - that of mutual acquaintances: Along with the expected coffee, Andrei Karamzin handed a letter. Those with the permission of the hostess, opened it, read it and pale. His mother informed him of the death of Pushkin. Not believing himself Andrey read the shocking lines aloud. Alexander Levinton, always restrained, quite self-possessed, gasped and burst into sobs. Jolly "coffee" evening turned into a memorial funeral. Everyone had something to remember: Alexander Pushkin Levinton certainly remembered gift morocco album with more leaves and inlaid buckles, . who gave her the poet in March 1832, . taking with her a firm promise to write "historical notes", . and giving it a lovely poem, . line which she had so often repeated by heart:,
. "The anxiety colorful and barren
. Great light and courtyard.
. I kept look cool,
. A simple heart, the mind is free,
. And a noble flame of truth ..
. And as a child, was good;
. Laughed at the foolish crowd,
. They were tried sensibly and light.
. And jokes anger, very black,
. Write directly without corrections "
. Pushkin. "The anxiety lemming: 1832
. It is possible that his "Notes" and "Autobiography" by Alexander Levinton and took a write only in memory of his brilliant friend:
. In her letter to Vyazemsky in March 1837 is the line: "A lot of things I would have to inform you about Pushkin, . about people and affairs, but in words, . because I am afraid written communications. "Mysterious words, . not true liN Court maid of honor and the wife of Lord Chamberlain knew too much: so many, . it is not big enough to contain not a single biography, and not in some memoirs,
. And ahead of Alexander Osipovna Rosset - Smirnov still waiting for a long, . long succession of years, . brilliant singles with the best people century, . and sorrow of parting with them, . mental depression and Hobbies, . heated debate and coldness of attention: and sorrows, . sorrows, . grief: Black loneliness,
. As in any human zhizni.Kogda became too difficult, Alexandra Levinton took out secluded places of albums with yellowed leaves and long pondered in already faded from the time line:
. "Without you want to tell you a lot
. When you - I hear you want;
. But the silence you stare sternly, --
. And I am silent in embarrassment. "
. Lermontov "K A. O. Osipova "
These lines Michel wrote alone in her living room, going one morning to visit, and not finding it. Quiet gone, leaving not closed Album: chilled her heart from the brilliant simplicity of these lines, when returning, read: Nothing not dare to thank. Michelle was proud and shy. That unless a letter of recommendation uncle Nicholas IvanovichuN But it was not spared. Bullets spared Caucasians, and Russian - pity does not recognize. A dark scarf and tears - is this outcome for the grief she has experienced, having received news of the death Poeta.N Not at all. But why talk lishneeN When - that, long ago, she wrote: "I pause to those who do not understand me"
They are such over the years, became more. And she grew older, though still a lot of reading, for everyone to follow, easily learned Greek, than shocked and amazed his opponent - an admirer of James Polonsky.
But more and more frequently, with illness and loss, she withdraws into himself.
Her overcome with a strange, nagging, feeling of depression and anxiety. Only occasionally allowed myself to "shake the old days" and then, from the brightness and expressiveness of her speeches, evaluations, and at times, and incisive criticism, in the living room all the admiration was frozen and caught her every word. It was she, that, the former "Donna Sol," (an expression of the poem P. Viazemsky), which enthusiastically dedicated poems, those who with her and been considered a legend. And she, herself a living legend, is gradually disappearing under the protection of their shadows, too, becoming a shadow
. June 7, 1882 the newspaper "Moscow News ran a funeral notice in the box:" The body of the deceased on June 7 this year in Paris, the widow of a privy councilor Iosifovna Alexandra Smirnova has to be brought to Moscow on September 8 day buried in the Donskoy Monastery on Sept. 9 at 11 am,
. Relatives and friends are invited to this day to honor the memory of the deceased. "
PS. The legendary "Notes" Alexandra Osipovna was a strange posthumous fate.. Her dochOlga Nikolaevna almost completely falsified their texts, using the similarity of handwritings. The complex textual processing is made possible only in twenties of the twentieth century. "Notes, diaries, memoirs AO Smirnov," and her "Autobiography" appeared in print in the original form in 1929 -31 years. Most have since not republished. Represents a bibliographic rarity. Modern reader incompletely known.