Muraveva Alexander G.( The wife of the Decembrist Nikita Mikhailovna Muraveva)
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Biography Muraveva Alexander G.
(1804 - 22 November 1832)
"In matters of friendship and love, she did not know the impossible ..." Ivan Leo
He asked her not Alexandrine, as it seemed, following the generally accepted rules of "secular modes", would have to call it. He invented for her a little bit strange name-Sashezi *- (* accent on the first syllable - the author) such as delicate and fragile, as she. That name rang in his mouth and gently, and a little complacent - sarcastically: He generally refers to the wife, as a brittle twigs or big kid, it was difficult to distinguish the brink. Since, however, treated it all and always.
From early childhood. It was there that some of the delicate angel, child, conquers once and for all!
. At the slightest indisposition her into bed, . If the draft slightly quivering her rounded shoulders, . even in the summer heat, . bustling in-law, . Ekaterina Feodorovna, . mother Nikita, . - The owner of a beautiful and rich, . known tradition and big noisy nights, . (* which used floor - Moscow - smart, . philosophical and simply "secular"-author) of an old mansion, . ordered melt in your living room a large fireplace, . throwing in his brother's fur perelinu or its Persian shawl, . maids began around of her with hot tea, . lemon extract and what else, . Mrs. bringing to dizziness and migraines, . that started it from their caring solicitude,
. She irritably waved his hands, drove all asking to leave, leave her alone, give a calm finish reading the book, dovyazat scarf for Nikita warm cap or small Izanke!
. Annoyance biting her lips, whispering to himself, this baby name invented for daughter
. Again, my mother would chide, and the priest scolded heard that she calls her daughter not to name that was received in holy baptism: Elizabeth. Elizabeth Nikitichna.
It seems, dear Nikita did was not bothered by the fact that firstborn girls were Katie and Izanka. Moreover, it is now once again expecting a child
. Itself was incredibly pleased to, . but notice, . surprised, . Alarmed by the views of some in-law, . a brother, . a family physician, . that come to visit every week and carefully examined it, . playfully scolding for excessive nervousness and anxiety, . which "does nothing and does not need a lady in her position." She must go sooner, . take medication, . assigned to them, . not measured steps room till midnight with knitting in hand, . awaiting the return of her husband! Here too it is quite unnecessary for her! So what, . that Nikita past few months later returned, . what was then agitated, . secretive, . long sits in the office, . burning various papers, . not allowing her to enter tudaN Mr. Murav'ev military man, . officer of the General Staff, . the service of the Emperor! "This, . madame, . must understand "- gently shaking his finger at the doctor,
. She understood, but did not like her that for the first three years of happy marriage and a cloudless bred by Nikita adored what - the mystery of her. No cardiac. Heavy, forbidding, a stone which served him in the soul, agitated, prevented from sleeping at night!
But how many did not try, doznatsya about them - nothing could. She said my mother, Katherine Feodorovna, she was approached to Nikita, but he immediately and reassured that nothing and no, just busy at work, and they - think of the eternal, these "ladies' fears, less the novels of Mrs. Radcliffe must read!
. Zahar's brother, came to visit, and laughed at all, questions turned into a joke, but then said that more health-concerned father, he could not recover from the blow
. It would not hurt Alexandrine and Nikita go to the estate to the old Count Grigory Ivanovich, to see him, perhaps, the last time. Yes, and my mother is requested.
. Alexander G. did not say a word, just looked imploringly at her husband, with his huge bright eyes and he was not solved immediately say definitely, nodded his head and went about packing order of things
. They left two days later.
My mother, Ekaterina Feodorovna, long cross, and Nikita and - especially-Alexander, anxiously peering into the eyes of son. In anticipation of the bad pang sensitive Sashezi: Maybe it was my mother that it izvestnoN Or pokazalosN drove away disturbing thoughts, whispering a prayer. On the road did not dare to stick to her husband with questions, he's worried about her, from this - was a bit gloomy and nervous, not in the spirit.
And how come in Orel manor parents (* with. Tagino, Orel province, the family estate of Count Chernyshev - author.) In the joyous bustle of meetings forgot all anxiety:
. Mother, . mixed up her tears with a smile, . showed daughter gifts for Christmas, . hoarded for the grandchildren, . and whispering, . that leaves no doctor old count no hope to correct! If only I could have lived up to Christmas! In this confusion and tumult were the last two weeks in November 1825: Before his arrest Nikita Muraviev, . his brother, Aleksandr Mikhailovich, . and brother of Alexandra GRIGORIEVNA, . Count Zakhar Chernyshev - members of the Northern Society of the Decembrists - remained a matter of weeks,
. In Taganrog died Emperor Alexander the First. Russia stood on the threshold of change. But no one knew what.
Thunder unexpectedly. December 17, 1825, was arrested the brother of Alexandra GRIGORIEVNA, . Count Zakhar Chernyshev, . house for the first time carried out a search, . searched manuscript, . finished a letter to each, . but found almost nothing, on the eve of a lot of papers have disappeared without a trace in the dust and ashes of the fireplace stoves: The parents were so overwhelmed, . they could not believe what is happening,
. Mother did not come for days of the chapel, putting bows in front of the icons, the father just took to his bed. And in the night from 19 to 20 December 1825, . were two officers of the General Staff, headed by the wing - and the adjutant on orders of the Emperor Nicholas, . taken and Nikita, . hastily, . to downright explanation and questioning of the Moscow General - Governor,
. Wing - Adjutant politely unfolded before Alexander Grigorievna lists of requirements, . but to understand in the official paper was nothing she could, . letters swam before his eyes: "Union of Welfare, . Northern Society, . criminal conspiracy, . Constitution, . destruction of royal family "- bits of phrases mingled in my head,
. My God, how dare it be accused of what Nikita is unimaginable horrors and crimes! She looked at her husband, tears. He unbuttoned his arms, silently handed it to one of the officers on duty, went to Alexandra and Grigorievna: knelt: "Forgive me, dear, I had to tell you right. Between us was not supposed to be secret. This is my punishment! ".. - She heard his voice. And his answer, as through the noise of water: "You have nothing to blame, my friend. It's just - that blooper. All settled, you'll see! My precious offender to be - can not! ". She vaguely remembered that lifted him to his knees, threw him on the shoulders of his coat in the front, crossed. It is what is said in French, . barely audible, . She unpacked - "Paper", . reassuring nod, . but did not know what the question was: Last, . that she had heard: my mother's muffled sobs, . saber saber blades, . spurs, and the creaking of sled runners: She came the next day in bed, . learned from my mother, . that arrest were due not only Zahar and Nikita, . and cousin of her husband, . Misha Lunin, . brilliant Guardsman, . Colonel, . and brother Alexander *, . (* brother H,
. M. Muraveva - author) and Sergei Ants - Apostle and many many friends and family.. In the capital, the Senate was rebellion, insurrection, troops refused to swear allegiance to the new sovereign: reign began with bloodshed. Menacingly started. Bad!
Hardly recovered from the shock, Alexander G. began hastily to gather in St. Petersburg, home, there mama, there is Nikita.. Children were taken from him. My mother, weeping quietly, not trying to keep, knew that - it is useless. In fragile pampered Sasha lurked such strength and rigidity that the object was to no avail!. She helped collect things, humbly hiding together with Alexandra Grigorevnoy at the bottom of the trunks which some papers out of the office-in-law, rolled into a tube, with an incomprehensible title "Draft Constitution". "Russian Truth". "Notes on the history of the State Rossiyskogo H. M. Karamzin ". The road from Tagino in St. Petersburg seemed to Alexandra Grigorievna longest for all of its 23-year-old life! She did not know that ahead of her waiting for another. Even longer.
. In St. Petersburg-in-law's house on the Fontanka, . (where she moved quickly after the arrest of his sons) just come to himself after the road, . tears and endless questioning and kisses, . after putting the girls in bed, . Alexander G. secluded in the office, . to write a few lines of Nikita, . now the prisoner of a single camera fortress: "Convicted of first-class, with deprivation of all ranks and human condition." How to believe in etoN How ponyatN!,
. He wrote to her from the fortress (the paper and ink him to be allowed - the author):
. "My good friend, do you remember how when I left saying, what can I fear not having done anything plohogoN The question then pierced my heart and I answered it
. Alas Yes, my angel, I am guilty - I am one of the leaders just an open society: the grief I have caused you and your whole family. All your cursing me. How many times since our marriage * (* 22 February 1822, Alexandra Grigorievna was 19 years-author), I would like to reveal to you this fatal secret: My angel, I fall at your feet, please forgive me. Throughout the world, I stayed only a mother and you.
Pray for me God, your soul is pure and you can return me the favor of heaven "(H. M. Ants - A. G. Muravyova. January 1826)
. In a letter to him, choking with tears and watching, that salty drops fall to the paper, she replied:
. "My good friend, my angel, your letter, it was for me a clap of thunder, you are - criminal, you are - guilty!" It does not fit in my poor head
. You ask me for forgiveness. Do not tell me so, you're breaking my heart. I have nothing to forgive you. During the three years that I was married, I have not lived in this world - I was in paradise. Happiness can not be eternal: Do not despair, this is a weakness unworthy of you. Do not be afraid of me, I vynesla.Ty reproach myself for having made me someone - something like a participant in such a criminal as you. I am the happiest of women. The letter which you wrote, shows all the greatness of your soul. You say that you have no one in the world is, except his mother and me. And two and even three of them soon your children why they zabyvatN! Must take care of yourself for them than for me. You can teach them, your life will be for them a great example, it would be useful to them and prevent falling into your mistakes. Do not lose courage, perhaps, you are still able to be useful to his sovereign and to correct the past "(A. G. Muraveva - H. M. Muraviev. January 1826)
Ekaterina Feodorovna, not sparing of money, too, acted: bribed the guards, guards, tried to bribe the commandant of the fortress of a bitch. It became even less growth, . Her eyes were sunken and dimmed with tears, . tormented at night long, . nervous cough, . but every day, . despite illness, . they Alexandra Grigorievna hired barge * (* dinghy - author), and a clock slipped through the channel along the walls of Saints Peter and Paul Ravelin,
. Sometimes Alexander pulled from the sleeve of a cambric handkerchief, and waved them in the hope that Nikita sees notices. Vain hope. Returning home, Mother Ekaterina Feodorovna, with renewed energy was taken to write a petition addressed to the Emperor, though she had a premonition of vain hopes and prayers.
Secretly, the heart, she knew that would never see or Nikita or Alexander!. But the pain of burying itself in the depths of the soul, it is hard writing a petition for a petition. In one of them had lines like: "Most Gracious Sovereign! Only despair, . which I am, . could give me the courage to ask Your Imperial Majesty, in such a happy birthday Most Gracious Majesty! Hear the voice of weeping and entreaties of the unhappy mother, . that crouches at your feet and burst into tears,
. Be divine mercy, forgive me astray the mind and heart, think about my father, who was a teacher of the Emperor * (* M. N. Ants was a trustee of the Moscow University and taught a course on the history of Alexander I and Nicholas himself for some time: - the author). Gracious sir! Save the unfortunate family from death, . all my life I will pray to the Creator to save your health, . snisposlat you all the best!,
. Your Imperial Majesty's loyal - Catherine Muraveva * (* Save the original spelling of the author.)
. The letter, written in the name-day, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, was left unanswered
. Like many others!
Both brothers were sent to Siberia, convicted of first-class, that is, to eternal servitude. Shortly before departure, Alexander G. gave her husband in the chamber, through the guard, a portrait - a watercolor copy of P. F. Sokolova. Since then, Nikita did not part with the portrait for a minute.
He wrote to his wife: "At the moment of greatest distress, enough for me to look at your portrait, and it supports me. I constantly think about you and love you with all my soul. Our mutual love is sufficient for our happiness. You said before I wrote that our well-being in ourselves. Sweetheart Sashezi, strengthen ourselves, not over much grief: Your letter and the letter mama, gives me the impression that what best friend every day, come talk to me. From time to time I reread my entire collection, which has now become quite large. My thoughts are not in prison, she had been among you, I think of you every hour, I guess what you say, I feel what you feel: "(Save the orthography and the author's style letters Sv.M..) July 10 1826. N. M. Ants was sentenced to twenty years hard labor. Decree of the Emperor from August 22, 1826 deadline, this was reduced to 15 years. A Dec. 10, 1826, six months later, the once brilliant officer, adjutant of General Staff of the Guards, a graduate of Moscow University, was sent to Siberia, shackled, like common criminals. Alexander G. was allowed to proceed to Siberia, her husband, an additional 12 October the same year. Several months passed before charges, saying farewell to family and friends. Ekaterina Feodorovna, mother of Nikita, restless, as always, organized in his house on the Fontanka something like a small staff, which is a relative of Comrade Nikita unfortunately, brought the letter, the money, parcels.
. The secret police even ucheredila spying Catherine Fyodorovna, . but in the reports of Benckendorff agents complained, . that the data are scarce, . too solitary life is the mother "state criminals, . brothers Muravyovs. "Until the end of her life she remained a devoted friend of the Decembrists, . 200 thousand gold rubles a year (a huge amount!) Of their income from estates allocated to the needs of the exiles, . sent drugs, . Books, . Products, . medical instruments for Dr. Wolf, . benefits to patients of the Decembrists, . overseas magazines, . warm clothes, . furniture - much, . necessary in the Siberian wilderness.,
. G. Alexander was leaving - she knew my heart - forever left on the hands-in-law of young children, even long-awaited son Michael, who was born after all the anxiety and unrest and rebellion trial Decembrists.
. Alexander G. rode behind her husband, sometimes even surpassing his
. Some just stayed in Moscow. Pushkin gave her, at the farewell party, which staged a home Muravyovs, the manuscript of the poem "In the depths of the Siberian ores". She glanced at the line and could not even cry - from aching hearts delight breath gasped, turned on the throat. Her head in a black lace shawl - his usual headgear - the Pushkin held out his hand, and when he brought it to his lips, then gently kissed her frizzy curls on his head. For them you - my appreciation, my admiration: - And you - my! You - holy woman. "I - only wife." - She said softly.
And all the way to the most Nerchinsk mines, riding, repeating to himself, like a prayer, incantation: "In the depths of the Siberian ores / / Store the proud patience:"
Patience really was - a proud. Or was takimN She humiliated to tears, . signing a renunciation of all rights of citizenship status, not only for myself, . but also for the future, . born in Siberia, . Children, . not crying, . when she saw his beloved Nikita for the first time, . shackled, . thin and pale - were working underground, . mined,
Do not drop slezinochki, when we had the bitter cold itself chop wood, carry water - hands froze on a yoke and the arc. Soldiers guarding the fortress, all eager to help her and waved her hands when she offered them money: "What are you lady, a great sin!"
. She thanks washed shirt, . darn them, . uncomplicated adorned with embroidery shawls, . baked bread and tarts, . who came with her maid Liza, . mastered all the wisdom of the culinary art, . cooked meals for her husband and his fellow prisoners were fed team of, . pool their savings,
. She wrote letters to relatives of the Decembrists - his own correspondence was strictly prohibited. These letters, with the minutest details of everyday life of prisoners, their thoughts, their mental state, for the family were the only connecting thread, with a distant, almost non-existent, Siberia
. She bore all sickness, loss, suffering and death of children - in silence.
. Buried in Siberia young daughters and Olenka Agafenu, . did not live a month, . mourned quietly and courageously death Lizanka, . Kathy and little Misha, . which died out there away from her, . in Russia, . from scarlet fever and Defteri, . despite all the efforts and dedication in-law, . Ekaterina Feodorovna.,
. The old lady, she just is not obsessed with grief, she wrote her Sashezi, beloved daughter named, gentle and supportive lines, words of encouragement and blessing to have born in Siberia, in his prison cell a little granddaughter, Sonia
. Her adored by all and is simply called Nonushkoy. The old woman did not see the adored granddaughter - age does not allow hope to meet. That she knew only by his grandmother and affectionate portrait of my mother's stories, but she loved - without a memory and a rag doll, which is contrived for her Nikolay Bestuzhev called Katya - in honor of her.
Alexander Grigorievna enough to say that - love. Her adored and revered.
As holy. Ladies-dekabristki, . came after her - Princess Trubetskaya, . Volkonskaia, . Baroness Rosen, . Alexander Yentaltseva, . Natalia Fonvizin, . Polina Annenkov, . left for her in his memoirs, . in his letters to relatives, . most enthusiastic, . most grateful epithets,
. They affectionately called her to himself, "Murashko". We tried once again to amuse, comfort, to please. Devotedly cared for her in the days of illness.
Ivan Yakushkin remembered that for a smile GRIGORIEVNA Alexandra Nikita, his brother Alexander, and all of them, prisoners of Petrovsky plant, were ready to pay anything!. And from the tears happen to a "revolt".
How to - then to Alexandra Grigorievna attached drunken guard officer, Ensign Dubinin - due to the fact that she spoke with her husband in the chamber in French. What then Dubinin not like the tone of remarks Alexandra GRIGORIEVNA, and French did not know. Muravyov grabbed by the arm, he demanded that she spoke only Russian, and added to its claim for abusive language. Frightened by Alexander G., bursting into tears, ran out into the corridor. The officer chased after her. What was on his mind, God knows!
Following, rattling chains, sped Nikita, pale with rage. More frightened for him than for myself, Alexander G. began to call for help. Basargin, . Yakushkin, . brother Muravyova, . Zakhar, . Bestuzhev, . Nicholas Lorer-almost all prisoners of the Petrovskii Plant, jumped out of their cells and, . Attacking the Ensign-guzzler, . in the hearts badly beaten! The scene by the noise and cries commandant Leparskaya added "heat": "treated" drunk a couple of slaps, . gave a dressing down Platz - Major, . his nephew, . permitted on the duty officer in such a, . long and profuse apologies to the tearful Muravyova, . convince her, . that henceforth this will never happen again!,
. None of the Decembrists at the time did not even think, than they themselves can turn this incident
. After all the ceremony could be accused of this rebellion, the assassination attempt on the life of an officer of the fortress: Things could have irreversible consequences. But the commandant Leparskaya about what happened in St. Petersburg did not communicate, just doubled the account in relation to prisoners and the "illustrious katorzhankam" - as they called in Peter's ladies.
So life went on, the smooth gauge. Rut convicts. Only saddles hair, drawn closer disease Alexander G. increasingly was ill, but took care of himself, despite the warnings of a skilled doctor Wolff. That really spoke to her, . if she will still pop up half-dressed into the cold, . carry heavy buckets of water, . firewood logs, . not sleep at night with the slightest indisposition Nonushki or priceless Nikita, . it will live long and if you do not think about yourself, . even thought it would, . what grief it can cause all your care! ",
Alexander G. nodded absently, trying to comply with the requirements of the day two - three, and then everything starts anew. Knowing that Nikita is going crazy with anxiety for her, hid his illness, as she could. Friends met with a cheerful smile, warm words, generously sharing the latter.
And. D Yakushkin recalled: "The distinctive feature of Alexandra GRIGORIEVNA was warmth of heart that blooms almost regardless of her own at all around her." "She was the embodiment of love!" - Admiration echoed N. V. Basargin.
He described the last days and Alexandra Grigorievna. It burned down in a few days of nervous fever, caused by the shock: a fire in the house Natalia Fonvizin.
The fire was small, and done a lot of confusion in. Alexander G., helping a friend, she has not recovered after a failed delivery and infant daughter died Agrafena, (born at the little girl died in 1832. The exact date has not been preserved, as the grave - the author) deadly chill, and it has not saved any efforts Wizard Wolf, selfless caring friends, boundless love of her husband ..
. Duchess Maria Nikolaevna Volkonskaya, Princess Ekaterina Ivanovna Trubetskaya, Pauline Anennkova, Natalia Fonvizin, Dr. Wolf himself Nikita ants would not leave her bed, not for a minute, replacing each other ..
. Alexander G. keenly aware that he was dying, but the thirst for life was strong - she was barely 28 years old
. But to fight the disease eroded the organism could not. On the night of 21 to 22 November 1832 by Alexander G. Murav'eva, nee Countess Chernysheva. died. Instead of his beloved daughter, who was fast asleep, she gently kissed her doll, affectionately farewell to all those who gathered at her bedside. Prison Priest, . reading the prayers for the prayer, . could hardly contain his tears, . and Princess Maria Volkonskaia, . - "Usually restrained to ice", . - Do not bear the horror of the farewell scene, . ran into the prison corridor and choked sobs there, . clutching his chest that same doll, . you just gave kiss Muravyova,
. One Nikita not fallen from my eyes no tears. He sat near the body of his wife all night, softly stroking her hands. Crying, he could not. Simply become completely gray. Per Night. He was thirty-six years.
A few days after the funeral, he began concentrating that - a draw in notebooks. He was assisted by Nicholas Bestuzhev. This was a project of the chapel. With the permission of prison authorities and with the help of soldiers, it was built on the grave of Alexander Muravyov a few months. To light a grave and an inextinguishable lamp. It burned another 37 years after her death, lighting the way for travelers, traveling from Chita to Petrovsky plant.
PS. At the tearful pleas-in-law Catherine Feodorovna to permit shifting graves bride in Russia followed the highest ban. "The extension of the body sister Mrs. Muravyova in Moscow could not be allowed to be."
Sonia Muraviova (Nonushka) left Siberia after his father's death in June 1843. She was placed in the Catherine Institute, under the name Nikitina. At this name has never responded. On the question of the Empress, patronize Institute and a frequent visitor there, why Sonia - Nonushka not call her "maman", like all girls, she continued quietly, but firmly replied: "My mother died. She was buried in Siberia. Her name was Alexander G. Muraveva.