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Biography ARISTIDE (Aristides THE JUST)
(about 540-467 years., BC)
Alcibiades was the son of a rich and noble Athenian Wedges. His mother came from a well-known in the history of Athens kind Alcmaeonidae and accounted for a relative of the famous statesman Pericles. Father Alcibiades, Kleene, during the Greco-Persian wars distinguished himself in a sea battle with Artemis, fighting at Trier, equipped at his own expense. After the death of his father, who died in battle with Boeotians, Alcibiades remained in the hands of trustees - the famous Pericles and his brother. He was brought up in the house of Pericles Alcibiades. He met there with many outstanding people of that time: the philosopher Anaxagoras, the poet Sophocles, the famous Aspasia, the wife of Pericles, one of the most educated women of that time, and other. The boy received an excellent education and distinguished beauty, intelligence and exceptional abilities. Never before has the fate of not confer any so generously, as Alcibiades. But his character had a lot of contradictions: along with the good traits in him was a lot of bad. He was very ambitious, the state's interests and needs of other people were indifferent to him, he considered himself born to rule. Already in his childhood, he did not stop at nothing to achieve success. Once he had to fight with a boy, seeing that it was too sore, Alcibiades and bit his hand. "Shame!" - Cried the indignant enemy - do you bite, like a girl! " "No, - answered Alcibiades, - like a lion!" Once Alcibiades played on the street in the bone. It was just his turn to roll the dice, when he struck a cart, is rapidly approaching playing. Alcibiades cried the driver, so he stopped his horse and waited until the boys look how many points fell on abandoned them bones. Not paying attention to the boys, the driver did not even reined horses. Then, Alcibiades threw himself on the ground before the cart and shouted that he would rather allow themselves to crush than the bone. Frightened by the driver stopped, and only when the bones have been checked and are raised, the cart was able to continue their journey. Universal flattery and admiration for his talent, intelligence and beauty turned the head boy. He agreed that it all is permitted, and began to make provocative and unworthy of the noble human behavior, regardless of the consequences, if only to attract attention and get to talk about myself. Once Alcibiades told to cut off the tail of his big beautiful dog for only that talked about this in the people. Having met somehow familiar grammar (school teacher), he asked him for the works of Homer. When he said that he had no Homer's, Alcibiades gave him a slap. In general, Alcibiades is easy to let his hands in the course of the dispute, even with respectable people. Once he slapped at all Gipponiku rich man without any reason, just for fun. But the next morning, ashamed of his action, he came to Gipponiku and requested that he punished him with a whip. Gipponik, however, forgave him and later even gave his daughter to marry him. Becoming an adult, Alcibiades with their wealth could provide a huge stable of horses and participate in the competitions of the chariots at Olympia, during the famous Olympic. According to ancient Greek ideas, victory at the Olympics gave the right to power in the state. So many Greek rulers (tyrants) VII-VI centuries BC. e. tried hard to win at Olympia. This tyrants during his stay in Olympia, spent enormous sums of money to treat people and, . winning, . ordered the song of victory (anthem), the best poets of his time: Alcibiades managed to get to the Olympics once the first, . second and fourth awards (which ever is not excluded anyone on the share), . he, . imitating tyrants, . decided to surprise people with its generosity,
. He ordered a triumphal hymn of the famous poet Euripides, and the best artists of paintings depicting his victories. Many allied with Athens Greek states, had already divined his future high position in Athens, brought plenty of refreshments to suit them feast. The most remarkable event of his youth Alcibiades was his meeting and then a close friendship with the famous philosopher Socrates. Socrates was a great influence on the Athenian youth and soon became a mentor Alcibiades. In the campaign during the Peloponnesian War, Socrates lived with Alcibiades in the same tent and fighting alongside him in line, saved his life. Alcibiades, in turn, during the retreat several times defended Socrates from impending danger to. In the end, Alcibiades is so attached to Socrates, that he could not remain long without one of his wise friend and mentor. All were surprised that Alcibiades Reap and gymnastics, along with far superior to the age of Socrates. Socrates did not hesitate to openly denounce the shortcomings Alcibiades. He tried to distract his young friend to curry favor with his flatterers, carousing and rich idlers. However, despite the admiration of Socrates, Alcibiades was never able to get rid of bad habits. While in Athens in order to get fame and be elected to the highest public office, it was necessary to have the eloquence, be able to speak in the assembly. According to the great Athenian orator Demosthenes, Alcibiades was distinguished by a remarkable oratorical talent and knew how to conquer the people power of words. He possessed a rare ability to skillfully speak without preparation, never lost and always found a suitable expression. But often laughed at him because of what he lisped. Alcibiades was not a sincere follower of any of the contending political parties in Athens. He then belonged to one, then to the other party, seeking to use them for their own purposes. As a youth he dreamed of becoming a master of the Athenian state, and subsequently throughout Greece. Alcibiades despised people, and believed that democracy should be replaced by the power of a strong ruler. Once, coming to the house of Pericles, who for many years was the head of the Athenian state, Alcibiades arrived, he was compiling a report on its activities. "Is not it better, Pericles, - said Alcibiades, - to think about how to not give the Athenians a report". The Athenians at this time for 10 years waged a bitter war against the aristocracy of Sparta. During these years, died of the plague Pericles and fell in battle, another great leader of the Athenian democracy Cleon. Neither Athens nor Sparta were unable, however, to achieve a decisive superiority in war. On the advice of head of the party "moderates" Nikia Athenians made peace (421 g. BC), in which opponents of returning to the position they were before the war. Farmers in Athens sincere about peace, because they are all suffering from the onslaught of enemies, ruining their fields and vineyards. However, in the city of merchants, . artisans and sailors dreamed of continuing military action, . because during the war, they sex Chali large salary, . and if he wins the state had hoped that wealthy citizens would be able to increase the distribution of bread and money,
. Such was the situation in the country, when Alcibiades began his political activity. Highborn, influential friends and eloquence he opened the way to hold public office. However, the young man realized that opposed the war, noble people will not succeed in the assembly. So he joined the advocates war party of the urban population, whose leader was hyperbolas. The whole force of his powerful eloquence, he drew on it to persuade people to resume the war. Opponent was Nikij Alcibiades, who wanted peace and even an alliance with Sparta. Alcibiades fought Nikiema and his supporters all possible means, and won. In 420 g. He was elected the first strategy, and became the head of state. The new government decided to strike the enemy in the Peloponnese. Alcibiades could easily convince some Peloponnesian states (including the old enemy of Sparta, Argos) to enter into an alliance with Athens. In response, the Spartans with immediate made a trip to Argos. In Athens at this time to replace Alcibiades was elected Nikij who did not want or do not have time to provide adequate support for new allies. He allowed, however, the Athenian volunteers, led by Alcibiades to come to the aid of the insurgents against Sparta Peloponnesians. In the decisive battle of Mantinea (418 g. BC. e.) Spartans quickly won. Argostsy were forced once again to make peace with Sparta, and several Peloponnesian states was introduced aristocratic rule. The defeat of Mantinea led to the collapse of the party Alcibiades, a yearning for war. By the Athenian tradition, the leader of the party, defeated, ostracized. Exile Alcibiades seemed imminent. However, Alcibiades, in time evaluating the situation and anticipation of danger, managed to agree with Nikiema. Supporters of Alcibiades and Nicias were united, and the result expelled unexpectedly innocent Hyperbole. Injustice befell Hyperbole punishment was all so obvious that the custom of ostracism are now ridicule, and he went out of use. Alcibiades and Nikij were elected to the Board and planners have become heads of state. Having come to power again, Alcibiades showed remarkable abilities of a statesman and military leader. His whole way of life and deeds, he tried to show that he was an exceptional person who is to be ruler of the gods of their fellow citizens. He did not spare the money to buy gifts for the citizens and the state and theatrical. Glory to his ancestors, the power of his eloquence, beauty and courage of all this forced the Athenians to forgive his self-will and contempt for ancient customs. In the words of the great comic poet Aristophanes of Athens, "the people loved and hated Alcibiades, and did not want to do without him". Some insightful people had already guessed the nature Alcibiades and pointed people to his desire to autocracy. The same Aristophanes cites the opinion of the Athenians of Alcibiades: There is no need to raise the cub in town, And he grew up - make yourself heard, then there should be quickly rid of Alcibiades, until he seized power and did not destroy democracy. He lived in that time someone Timon of Athens gloomy man, aloof people. Contrary to their custom Timon after one of the most brilliant speeches Alcibiades was the People's Assembly, and told him: "You do well, that to succeed, for you grow a great evil to all people". Some people laughed at these words, while others criticized Timon, but some are forced to think deeply. And, indeed, Alcibiades soon brought a lot of evil country. Alcibiades planned to establish Athenian supremacy over all Greece and the adjacent countries. The first step to this, he believed the capture of Sicily, and then gradually Southern Italy, Carthage and Africa. Alcibiades vigorously undertook to convince the people to march immediately to Sicily: mastering its wealth, he thought to obtain funds to carry out future plans. He managed to turn a head of youth and sailors of the Athenian harbor of Piraeus, with stories of fabulous treasures of Sicily and the western. Supporters Alcibiades spreading all sorts of predictions (oracles) that the Athenians after the capture of Sicily is destined to be masters of the world. All day long crowds of people were discussing the market and to the barber (hairdresser), which gathered to hear news and talk, the future campaign, drew in the sand maps of Sicily, Africa, and Carthage. Many joined the army and the navy in the calculation of the rich booty. Vain Nikij and his supporters warned the Athenians of the campaign. They pointed to the large size of the territory of Sicily, the large number of its population, the difficulty of a hike and t. d. Many sensible citizens were also against hike. Thus, the philosopher Socrates and astronomer Meton not believe in success and did everything they could to dissuade citizens from useless and difficult expedition. Meton even pretended to be mad, setting fire to his house, and next morning appeared in the national assembly and asked to release his son from participating in the campaign on the occasion of this terrible misfortune. In the end, the Athenian popular assembly decided to send a large squadron of the army in Sicily. Strategists in the campaign were elected Alcibiades, and Nikij Lamah. Nikia chosen the strategy against his will, to a serious and prudent commander to restrain their young and ardent friends. Everything was ready to sail, when suddenly a mysterious accident happened, which completely changed the course of further developments. On the streets of Athens were so-called herms, rudely sculptured pillars with images of the god Hermes Road. The night before the departure of the squadron unknown persons damaged herms on the streets of Athens. The perpetrators of this act was considered Corinthians. They supposedly mutilated herms to compel the Athenians to postpone an expedition or even abandon the campaign against sirakuzyan, their countrymen. They expected that the defacement germ superstitious people take as a bad omen and postpone the expedition. Many saw in this act attack enemies of democracy or traitors to prevent the sending of the fleet. It began a strict investigation, which found yet another crime against religion. It was found that a group of Athenian youth during the feast was playing at home the mysteries of the goddess Demeter. There were rumors that this mockery of sacred rites of the mysteries involved Alcibiades and his friends. Some directly accused Alcibiades in defacement germ and mockery of the sacred rites. Alcibiades and his friends confused. However, sailors, ships, troops and allies declared that they were not to march without their leader. Alcibiades, counting on his influence in the national assembly, demanded an immediate investigation. Then his enemies, fearing that he was speaking to the people, will be able to justify, even for a trick. "No time now to decide such an important matter. Let Alcibiades, they said, is removed from the anchor, we wish him bon voyage, when the war is over, let him appear in court to justify the "National Assembly ordered him to go to sea, along with other strategies. In May, 415 g. BC. Fleet Alcibiades, sostryaschy of 134 triremes in 5000 with a detachment of heavily armed soldiers, finally set sail for Sicily. Along the shores of Italy Athenian squadron suffered the first setback: the majority of the Greek cities of southern Italy met with hostility of the Athenians. The emergence of a huge fleet has caused concern of the Western Greeks. They knew that the Athenians came not to help them, but to win the independent Greek city-states in Italy. Alcibiades took the city Regy and then landed in Sicily. After capturing the city skaters, he had already decided to proceed to the siege of Syracuse, when suddenly an unexpected event changed everything. The fact that in Athens after Alcibiades sailed with the fleet has changed the mood of national assembly is not in his favor. His enemies continued their attacks. "Defacement germ and insult the mysteries, they said, is only one aspect. This, the main objective of godless criminals to destroy democracy in Athens. Began mass arrests, torture and executions of suspected persons. Among those arrested was a man Andokides, an ardent opponent of democracy. He was suspected of defacement germ only because a huge germanium, which stood against the house in which he lived, remained intact. Sitting in jail, Andokides met a prisoner in the same case, whose name was Tim. Timaeus Andokides persuaded to make false accusation on himself and some of his comrades. "He - he said - who confessed to the crime and give associates receive forgiveness; outcome of the court is unknown, people are terribly bitter against all the opponents of democracy. All of us, probably waiting for the death sentence ". "It is better, continued Timaeus, to save his life even lie, to sacrifice a few suspicious characters, but to save from the people's anger many honest citizens". Convinced by the arguments Timea, Andokides made a false accusation on himself and others. He himself escaped punishment, but the innocent, whom he slandered, were executed. Stimulation of the national assembly, however, this has not stopped. The anger of the people now turned to Alcibiades. The upshot was that he was decided to send the ship "Salamis" and upon arrival immediately judge. Alcibiades could not obey and remain at the head of the fleet is fully devoted to him and the troops, but he preferred to pass the command, on the road to Athens, he escaped. Alcibiades was charged in absentia in the desecration and insult germ mysteries and sentenced to death. His property was confiscated, and by court order priests were to curse him as a traitor and defiler shrines. Learning of the verdict, Alcibiades cried out: "Oh, I'll prove to them that I am alive!" Now the hope of returning home was completely lost. Out of fear that it will be given to the Athenians, Alcibiades dared to betray. He asked the Spartans protection and asylum, promising to render them more useful as a friend, than did the harm, as an enemy. The Spartans agreed to accept him, and Alcibiades, in joyous mood had come to Sparta. First, he advised the Spartans to send a detachment to help sirakuzyanam, and then take and strengthen the important point in Attica Dhekelia, where they can systematically ravage the country. These councils Alcibiades have brought great misfortune to their homeland, Alcibiades became the location of the Spartans despite the fact that the people have always regarded with distrust of foreigners. Trying to imitate all spartan lifestyle, he let his long hair, bathed in cold water of mountain streams, and ate the famous Spartan black broth. The Spartans did not believe that this man used to the refined dishes were in Athens, he went perfumed, dressed in a precious mantle of Milesian cloth. Alcibiades had a special gift to attract people of different tribes, to comply to their customs and way of life. He could imitate and adapt equally as good and to bad. Thus, in Sparta, he was engaged in gymnastic exercises, was simple, serious, taciturn;. among the Ionians in Asia Minor, lived in luxury, searching for entertainment; Thrace drunk drunk, according to the custom of the Thracians, in Thessaly keen horse-riding, the court satrap Tissaphernes lived so lavishly and splendidly, that surprised even the Persians, who are accustomed to luxury. All these external changes have been Alcibiades only a mask, which he wore in order to please people and get them to the desired. Friendship Alcibiades with the Spartans did not last long. Tips Alcibiades benefited the enemy and Sparta now has edge. Sicilian expedition ended with a terrible defeat of the Athenians, the loss of the fleet and troops led by the strategy (see. biography Nikia). Despite the setbacks, the Athenians persisted war. The Spartans realized that his own strength alone they can not completely break the Athenian military power, and appealed for help to the Persians. Persian king signed a treaty with Sparta, promising to help the Spartans with money and military force. The Persian money Spartans waged war, paid salaries to mercenaries, built a large fleet, which began to challenge the Athenian dominance at sea. The government of Sparta no longer need the services of Alcibiades. One of the kings, Agis, Alcibiades personally offended, became a sworn enemy of his. Many influential and aristocratic Spartans regarded him with envy and suspicion. Then, Alcibiades, suspecting that the Spartans want to get rid of him, planned to run away from them. Soon introduced, and an occasion for this. Alcibiades sailed with the squadron to Ionia to help hiostsam and prone to falling away from Athens, almost all the Greek states of Ionia. At this point, he learned that the Spartans decided to kill him. Then he ran for governor of the Persian king, satrap Tissaphernes. It was a cunning, crafty man, and a sworn enemy of all Greeks. Satrap Alcibiades graciously accepted, and soon he became the most influential person direct his yard. Against amazing attraction Alcibiades no one could resist. Quarrel with the Spartans, Alcibiades now decided to harm them in every way. He advised Tissaphernes help reduce the Spartans to gradually weaken the two warring countries. "So, - he said - the Greeks and destroy each other and eventually become an obedient instrument in the hands of the Persian king". Sly satrap realized that councils Alcibiades will benefit Persia, and walked around under his direction. Soon, the Spartans and Athenians realized how much depends on the Alcibiades, and tried again to bring him to his side. Alcibiades knew perfectly well that the Athenians can not afford a simultaneous struggle against two such powerful enemies as Sparta and Persia. Therefore, he believed the only way for rapprochement between Athens and Persia. He seemed now an opportunity to reconcile with the Persians and Athens become a benefactor of the homeland. Meanwhile, in Athens, aristocrats and the rich, taking advantage of the absence of many citizens, defenders of democracy who served in the Navy sailors, decided to make a coup d'etat. The Athenian fleet was about this time in the island of Samos. Despite all the adversity, he still remained a formidable force. However, the Athenians feared Tissaphernes, who promised to bring to the aid of the Spartans 150 Phoenician triremes: it would give Sparta the preponderance of the sea. Learning of this, Alcibiades secretly entered into negotiations with the policies of the Athenian fleet at Samos, who sympathized with the aristocrats. Feigning a supporter of the aristocracy, he promised to reconcile them with Tissaphernes, "not from a desire to please the Athenian people, and the love of the aristocracy, which alone can still save the moribund state". Supporters of Alcibiades among the commanders of the Athenian fleet secretly from the sailors were sent to Athens one of his comrades. He was advised to influential citizens to destroy democracy, promising for it on behalf of Alcibiades friendship and alliance with Tissaphernes, they hoped that the Spartans supporters of the aristocratic system willing to take on the world with them than with the Democrats. Since it was established in Athens, the rule of 400 rich and influential citizens. When the sailors learned of this squadron of Samos, ardent supporters of democracy are in a rage with his strategists called Alcibiades, and asked him to become the head of the fleet and immediately sail to Piraeus for the destruction of tyranny. Alcibiades, however, believed that if he otplyvet to Athens, then immediately take possession of the enemy Ionney, the shores of the Hellespont and cut off Athens from the transportation of the Black Sea grain, then the war will be lost. In addition, it was necessary to prevent the accession of the Phoenician fleet to the Spartan fleet. Alcibiades took command of the Athenian fleet, quickly went to sea, and persuaded Tissaphernes not attach Phoenician squadron to Spartan Fleet. Soon the board "four" in Athens fell. Friends Alcibiades assisted by People's Party. The Athenians called Alcibiades now in the city, but he decided to return only the winner and the savior of the motherland. Learning that the Athenian fleet has the Spartans, he was on several ships immediately swam to the aid of fellow citizens and came to Abydos (the Hellespont) in the midst of the battle of the Athenians with the Spartans. Spartans, winning, began to pursue an Athenian squadron, then Alcibiades quickly attacked the Spartans and put them to flight. Athenians repelled their ships captured by enemies, a lot of Spartan ships sank and thirty captured. Intoxicated by their success, Alcibiades went to Tissaphernes to agree with him about the assistance of the Athenians. But the wily satrap ordered to seize him and thrown in jail in Sardis. A month later, Alcibiades escaped from prison and come back to the Athenian army. Near the town of Cyzicus Alcibiades found Spartan fleet. Alcibiades 40 ships attacked the Spartans. Ships grappled with each other, and the battle raged hot. At this time there were the main forces of the Athenians. Frightened by the Spartans fled, seeking safety on the shore. Then Alcibiades landed and joined the battle with the main forces of the Spartans and the Persians, under the command of former Spartan Mindara and satrap Pharnabazus. The Athenians won a decisive victory, valiantly fighting, Mindar fell, and Pharnabazus fled, all the enemy ships were captured. Spartan fleet was entirely destroyed, the Athenians regained their supremacy at sea. They took even Cyzicus (Cyzicus - a city in Phrygia, in Asia Minor) and ensure delivery of grain through the Hellespont. In the hands of the Athenians fell in lakonski short dispatch about the defeat of the Spartans: "Trough killed. Mindar killed. People are starving. We do not know what to do ". Now Alcibiades began to lead to obedience broke away from allies of Athens. Along with the Athenian strategist Frasillom he defeated a large army near Abydos satrap Pharnabazus and began to plunder his satraps. He then laid siege to the city Khalkedon (Khalkedon - a city in Bithynia (Asia Minor), at the entrance to the Bosphorus) Spartan garrison. To help the Spartans went satrap Pharnabazus. Alcibiades defeated enemies Spartan commander fell in battle, but Pharnabazus again managed to escape. After this, Alcibiades went against Byzantium and besieged the city. Spread the rumor that removes the siege, he went to sea with the whole fleet. Night he came back and landed the hoplites, the whole squadron came at this time to the bank; supporters of the Athenians in the city opened the gates of the harbor. At that time, were in the Peloponnesian city, Boeotian and Megara soldiers repulsed an attack assault and forced him to retreat to the ships, and then attacked the Athenians in the city. However, in the bloody battle Alcibiades again defeated, Byzantium was taken. Now Alcibiades with huge booty returned to Athens after eight years of exile as the victors and the savior of the motherland. He led a lot of enemy ships captured in battle. Its Trier were issued stern ornaments of enemy ships sunk. A huge crowd of people greeted him with garlands. With cheers from all over the people ran to look at him; old showed his young. But the joy of citizens marred sad memories of previous disasters and uncertainty about the future. Many people now think that the Sicilian expedition did not end there would be so sad if it was led by Alcibiades. When gathered in the national assembly, Alcibiades, with tears talking about his misfortunes. Then he tried to breathe in the Athenians hope of final victory over the enemies. His speech made a strong impression, and the national assembly elected him a strategist with unlimited powers for the war on land and at sea. In addition, it crowned with a golden wreath, returned confiscated property and solemnly removed the curse on him as a traitor. Alcibiades was on top of happiness. People are now just hoping for him, considered him a savior. Many supporters of Alcibiades urged him to destroy the people's assembly, remove the speaker-talkers, ruining the state, and become a tyrant. Then his opponents aristocrats tried as soon as possible to remove it from Athens. With a fleet of 100 tier Alcibiades sailed from Athens and attacked Andros. He smashed it androstsev and a Spartan squad, but the city could not take. The enemies of Alcibiades tried to exaggerate this small setback. But the people still believed in the Alcibiades, and considered that for him nothing is impossible. Expect immediate great victories: the conquest of Chios and the whole of Ionia. When they knew that things were moving, not so soon as we would like, many began to express discontent and blame Alcibiades of negligence. Alcibiades yet had no means to pay salaries to its sailors. He often had to leave the army and navy and for a long time to go to get money and food. During one of these expeditions Alcibiades went to the shores of Brown. The command of the fleet, he ordered strategist Antiochus. It was a great sailor, but a man arrogant and narrow-minded. We Notiya (Noty - a town in Asia Minor, not far from Ephesus) he met all the Spartan fleet under the command of Lysander, and, despite orders from Alcibiades to avoid a battle, came into the fight, was decisively defeated and he himself died. Upon receiving the news of the disaster, Alcibiades returned to the island of thing (where there was a whole Athenian fleet). He weighed anchor and took the ships against the Spartans. However Disandr escaped from the battle, knowing the art of war Alcibiades. At that time he served in the Athenian fleet somebody Frasibul, a personal enemy of Alcibiades. After the defeat at Notii Frasibul went to Athens. There he began to initiate assembly of the people against Alcibiades. He said that Alcibiades was guilty for the defeat because it gave the command over the fleet untalented people, and he is riding, collecting money, and had a good time, when the enemy behind him. National Assembly to believe this and other charges and as a sign of distrust towards Alcibiades chose other generals. Alcibiades learned of the decision of the national assembly, which was in Thrace to collect money. He was frightened and stopped all contact with the Athenian fleet. Then typing detachment of mercenaries, he led the war against the Thracian tribes at their own risk. Meanwhile Replaced Alcibiades strategists together the whole Athenian fleet and came to anchor in the Hellespont at Egospotamov. At dawn the Athenians usually approached Lysander's fleet at anchor at the other side of the strait have Lampsak. The Athenians called enemies to battle, and then returned back into total disarray. These actions of the Athenian navy said Alcibiades, who happened to be nearby. He once rode on horseback to the strategy, they said that they have chosen a disadvantageous position, and advised the Navy to transfer to another place. He told them further that they are vain allow the sailors to leave the long ships, and even pull out their boats in sight of the enemy on the shore. In response to these words of Alcibiades, one of the strategists roughly ordered him to leave and not to meddle in other people's business. Soon events have proven that Alcibiades was right: Lysander surprise attack on the Athenian fleet and completely destroyed it. Only 8 ships under the command of Conon had time to escape. There are no more Athenian fleet, further struggle was hopeless, and soon afterwards Athens acknowledged his defeat and surrendered. Now, the Spartans dominated the land and sea. Out of fear of them, Alcibiades went to Bithynia, but then decided to go to the Persian king Ahasuerus. Along the way he stopped in at the satrap of Phrygia Pharnabazus and lived with him in high esteem and respect. The Athenians meanwhile experienced a terrible misfortune, shame and humiliation. Now, when all is lost, the people with tears remembering their mistakes. The most terrible mistake of his Athenians believed that because of the small setbacks they have deprived the state of the cunning and the most talented leader. Still, many people thought that as long as Alcibiades lived, to Athens, there is still hope for salvation. The Spartans, however, Alcibiades was left alone in his exile. Just do not know how lost Alcibiades. Some say that Lysander sent to Pharnabazus messenger with a request to kill Alcibiades. Pharnabazus sent murderers in Thracian village, where he lived Alcibiades. The killers set fire to the house, and when Alcibiades jumped out of the flames, they pierced him with arrows. Others say that Alcibiades was assassinated at the instigation of the people Pharnabazus. His tomb was in place, Melissa (in Asia Minor, in Phrygia). Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered subsequently put on the grave of a marble statue.

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