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Lysander (Lysander)

( gifted military leader and skillful diplomat in Ancient Greece)

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Biography Lysander (Lysander)
(died in 395 g. BC)
To the noble family spartanskou Heraclides belonged to many impoverished families. Lysander's father, a native of this kind, was a poor man. He gave his son a strict Spartan training and taught him honorably and with dignity endure poverty. Young Lysander stood an iron will, intellect, brilliant sposobnostyai and exceptional ambition. Early appeared before him, and bad sides of nature: the hypocrisy, cunning. He could flatter and care for people of high position, was ready to make any of the offenses and insults if it is profitable. Homeland Lysander, Sparta, for many years waged relentless war against the Athenian power for supremacy in Greece. Despite heavy losses on both sides, none of the opponents could not win a decisive victory. After the fatal expedition to Sicily (415 - 413 years. The war lasted. Marine power of Athens was not crushed. Spartan Ephor to achieve victory over the Athenians, they appealed for help to the Persians. Persian king gave the Spartans a lot of money for the maintenance of troops and the construction of the fleet. Lysander proved himself gifted military commander and a clever diplomat. He was appointed to command the fleet and, most importantly, to negotiate with the Persians on cash assistance. Having become the commander of the fleet, Lysander was a war plan, which was to shy away from battles with the enemy, if he has the edge, and always attack with overwhelming force. First of all, Lysander went with the squadron to Ephesus. Negotiations with the Persians ended a brilliant success: it has received from the governor of Lydia, Cyrus the Younger huge sums of money, and even collecting taxes on behalf of Cyrus to Asia Minor population. This money Lysander immediately raised the salaries of half the sailors of his fleet. Then he announced that if the Athenian sailors, mercenaries will be transferred to his service, they will receive the same. Just at this time, the Athenians had been delayed payment of salaries sailors. Athenian sailors, mercenaries were running across to the masses Lisandro, and in a short time the Athenian fleet remained almost without rowers. Athenian admiral Antiochus, against the orders of Alcibiades, inadvertently made a part of the fleet in the battle, and Lysander inflicted a decisive defeat at Notii (407 g. BC). The blame for the defeat of the Athenian popular assembly entrusted Alcibiades, and he was forced to go into exile. So Lysander rid of the most talented and dangerous enemy. Lysander gathered in Ephesus aristocratic circles of the representatives of the Union and the Greek cities of Asia Minor. He generously handed out money to organize aristocratic secret societies, which were to prepare the overthrow of democracy. In this way he acquired the location and dedication aristocrats. Meanwhile, the term command of Lysander has expired, and his place was sent from Sparta, another commander, Callicratidas. It was a narrow-minded, simple-minded and direct. Lysander was frustrated appointment Callicratidas and began to repair it all obstacles. So, he sent the remainder of the money to Cyrus the Younger, and then asked himself Callicratidas solicit money from Cyrus or obtain them by other means. The sailors, commanders and allies were also unhappy with the change of command. Callicratidas was in a quandary. Proud Spartan considered humiliating for him to beg for money from the Persians. Among the sailors emerged emotion: the money to pay their salaries, there was. Then the team had to reluctantly go to Sardis, to Cyrus the Younger. Upon arrival at the palace of Cyrus Callicratidas ordered to report that he, Spartan Callicratidas, wants to see the governor. One of the courtiers said to him: "Now, Cyrus is busy, he is now drinking, you'll have to wait". Callicratidas replied: "Well, I'll wait until he drinks". The Persians, the courtiers began to laugh at him, and angry Callicratidas left. The next day he again came to Cyrus, and again could not get reception. Then, realizing that Cyrus mocks him, enraged Callicratidas returned to Ephesus, cursing their fellow citizens (and especially Lysander), which became cringe before the "barbarians" and taught them brazenly refer to the Greeks. He vowed that upon his return to Sparta will make every effort to stop the fratricidal war. "Then, - he said - the Greeks will be again, as once, terrible barbarians and no longer will they have to beg for alms for the mutual destruction". Shortly after Callicratidas was defeated by the Athenians in a naval battle of Arginusae himself was killed in battle. Then the allies the Spartans, along with Cyrus the Younger was sent ambassadors to Sparta to request once again put at the head of the fleet Lisandra. However, ordinary seamen, although they were pleased with the generosity of Lysander, did not approve of his method of warfare. They criticized Lysander, saying that the noble Spartan, a descendant of Heracles is not proper to fight with cunning. In response Lysander said, laughing: "Where not fit the lion's skin, they should attach the fox," ie, where the force does not help, you need to use a trick. Spartan Ephor in favor of Cyrus the Younger and the allies agreed to again appoint Lisandra Fleet Commander (to circumvent the law, . forbidding twice appoint one and the same person for the highest office, . Assign a certain Arak, . in fact, commanded Lysander),
. Having the power again, Lysander began to destroy the democratic system in all the allied countries and put in power there aristocracy. However, it is not everywhere and always acted in violence and threats, most often used the same trick and pretense. Thus, in Miletus occurred bitter struggle of the people with the aristocracy. Lysander helped to destroy democracy and aristocracy to expel their opponents. Then, the aristocrats of the newly reconciled with the Democrats, then he openly expressed his joy at the reconciliation, secretly treating aristocrats sarcastically. Prompting the aristocracy to a new rebellion, he entered the army in the city and began to upbraid the hypocritical rebels in strife and even promised to punish. And the Tay, he secretly approved of the killing Democrats. Lysander did not skimp on the promises and vows, but never considered himself bound by them. "Children, - he said - can be deceiving toys, and adults - Oath". This was Lysander cunning, unscrupulous and duplicitous man. Cyrus the Younger, invited Lysander to Sardis. He promised him financial aid and fleet. Cyrus even asked him to collect tribute and management of the Greek cities of Asia Minor in his absence. Spartan commander now generously paid the sailors and returned with the squadron in the Hellespont. Here he took the city by storm Lampsak. Athenian squadron of one hundred and eighty triremes was anchored in the Thracian Chersonese. Upon learning of the capture of Lampsak, the Athenians marched to Egospotamam and stopped in front of Lampsak in sight of the Spartan fleet. Athenian fleet commanded by some strategists and between Filokl. This Filokl fame that has made the People's Assembly decision to chop off each prisoner Spartan thumb on his right hand to prevent him from owning a spear and sword. All that day aboard the hostile squadrons, nobody thought about the rest: all prepared for tomorrow for a decisive battle, the Athenians knew that their defeat would be tantamount to loss of the homeland, and so they decided to conquer or die. However, Lysander did not want to take an open battle, and thought of a trick. He ordered the sailors and the helmsman to be ready to begin the battle with the dawn, and the Army to remain on the shore. The next day at sunrise the Athenian fleet in full battle order was made against the Spartans. Nevertheless Lysander did not take the call, he ordered the best ships to remain calm and not to engage in battle. In the evening the Athenians retreated and went ashore; Lysander also allowed his sailors ashore. Next four days the Athenians continued their attempts to cause Lisandra an open battle, but to no avail. On the fifth day the Athenians began to carry out its normal motion going ashore, and landed in the morning on ships already in defiance of the enemy, thinking that he would not dare to attack them. Then Lysander gave a flagship ordered to attack the enemy simultaneously from land and sea. Navy Spartans quickly moved to the opposite shore of (its width is about 2 kilometers), and the army gradually occupied a dominant position over the bank. One of the Athenian strategists, catching sight of the shore approaching enemy fleet, ordered the sailors to immediately embark. But all the crews of ships were scattered along the shore, who peacefully sleeping in tents, who was preparing dinner. Because negligence strategists, none of the Athenians had not expected an attack, as strategists and ordinary sailors thought that Lysander did not dare to attack. Part of the Athenian ships were even pulled to shore. The battle lasted less than an hour. During this time, Lysander destroyed the entire Athenian fleet. Only eight triremes under the command of Conon managed to escape and went to the island of Cyprus. As a result of this battle, the Athenian sea power was finally broken: in Athens is now no longer had any fleet, no money, no sailors. All were taken prisoner by 3000 sailors, along with strategies. Lysander put the prisoners on ships and sailed back to Lampsak. Spartan Government and the council decided to execute all Allied prisoners of the Athenians. Lysander called for a prisoner Filokla strategist, and asked him: what punishment he deserves, . a motion in the Athenian popular assembly decision to chop off all the Spartan captives _ big toe of his right rukiN Filokl, . which did not break the misfortune, . Lisandro said: "Make haste executions of prisoners: it suffered the same fate to you, . if we won ", . and first went to the death,
. Following the execution of prisoners Lysander was to go around the coastal cities, everywhere destroying democracy, established aristocratic rule, led by the Spartan ruler. Immediately began a penalty and the expulsion of pro-democracy. To quickly capture Athens, Lysander thought of a trick. He announced that all Athenians were caught outside the city, will be immediately executed. He hoped that the influx of residents in Athens will there hunger and the city will not be able to withstand a long siege. Calculation Lisandra justified: in Athens soon came extremity. Then he sailed with the fleet to Piraeus and demanded the surrender of the city. Loser had to take serious and shameful conditions Spartans. The Athenians were to destroy its harbor of Piraeus and the long walls, return exiled aristocrats. Delian League destroyed, proud Athens lost all overseas possessions. At Athenians were only Attica and the island of Salamis. Lysander, seizing the remaining ships of the Athenians (defeated left only twelve small vessels), entered the city on the anniversary of the great victory of the Athenians over the Persians at Salamis. This was in 404 g. BC. The new government was based on the Spartan garrison, stationed in Athens. The Athenians had not yet been torn up long walls, and Lysander summoned a council allies, to decide whether to punish the Athenians for failure to surrender the city environment. Among allies, voices were heard demanding completely destroy Athens. Some even offered to demolish the city to the ground, people sold into slavery, and on the ground in Athens to arrange a pasture for cattle. However, the Spartans did not dare to destroy the great city. To humiliate the Athenians, Lysander ordered to demolish long wall, which was done to the sounds of flutes, with applause and shouts of joy gathered Spartan allies. The remains of the Athenian fleet had been burned. In Athens began violence, persecution and executions of supporters of democracy. The Athenian people, having experienced all the insults and humiliation, however, did not lose heart, and he harbored resentment and soon again turned against the Spartans and their henchmen - the Thirty Tyrants. Lysander sailed with the fleet Thrace. All the spoils of war and money in the bags he sent to Sparta in one of his assistants Gilippa. He previously won a great victory over the Athenians in Sicily and a man universally respected, he could not, however, resist the power of money and committed a shameful act. He decided to assign part of the money. For this, he ordered undo and remove the bags from each of a large sum of money. He did not know that in each bag was an inventory of the contents. Upon arrival in Sparta Gilipp hid the money under the tiled roof of his house. Eforie opened bags and found a print intact, but found in every great shortage. Were questioned servants Gilippa, . and one of them said, . that Gilippa in cherepichnike "lived many owls; that he wanted to say, . that under a tiled roof houses Gilippa hidden Athenian coins, . which were minted in the image of State Emblem of the owl of Athena,
. Executing searches found the money stolen and hidden Gilippom. Crime Gilippa made a strong impression on the Spartans. It was again prohibited from handling gold and silver coins, citizens should have been used only by a heavy iron coins in order to impede the accumulation of large sums in the hands of individual citizens. Another law allowed to spend the money brought Lisandro, only the needs of the state and threatened with death anyone who they will be found. However, all these measures could not stop the spread of luxury and wealth in Sparta. Influential citizens are not considered with restrictions and amassed in the hands of great wealth. Lysander himself, they say, did not take anything from the treasures he had brought enormous. Lysander with its stated in the majority of the Greek cities of rulers (garmostov) became the ruler of Greece. Crawler, flatterers, and all sorts of rogues declared him a god-savior, and brought him to the victim as a deity. Now fully manifested the terrible features of his character: inflexible, cold cruelty and perfidy. He was personally present at the execution of their enemies-Democrats. In the big city Miletus he vowed not to create lawlessness and promised to save the lives of all the Democrats, if they come out of the asylum. When, believing it promised, they came out, he ordered the execution of 800 people. Residents of some cities Lysander dispelled simply by giving their land and property to his supporters. Defamation and denunciations reigned everywhere, greed Spartan garmostov soon reached monstrous proportions and aroused general hatred against the Spartans. The name Spartan has been in Greece indicate a rapist, a murderer, tyrant. Lysander completely ceased to be even with its allies, the Persians: he robbed and wasted possession of the Persian satraps, and his top aides took enormous wealth. All sides flocked to Sparta complaints of looting, violence and lawlessness Lisandra. But Efor not pay any attention to this. Finally, the behavior Lisandra seemed dangerous, even by Efor: in his hands was concentrated the whole military force, and he could at any moment to seize power and become a tyrant. It was decided to withdraw Lysander to Sparta. The reason for the withdrawal of the complaint served as the Persian satrap Pharnabazus, possession of which Lysander devastated and plundered. Eforie Lisandro skitalu sent with orders to immediately return to their homeland. Receiving orders and fearing the consequences of complaints satrap Pharnabazus, Lysander immediately went to him hoping to eliminate misunderstandings by negotiation. When we meet Lysander asked satrap Efor write another letter, and take back all their complaints against him, however cunning and crafty Persian deceived experienced bouncer Lisandra. Pharnabazus graciously accepted and Lysander in his presence Efor wrote a letter, which should Spartan. However, sealing the letter and handing it Lisandro, clever satrap managed to replace it with another ready-made and quite different content. Upon arrival in Sparta Lysander went to Efor and handed the letter Pharnabazus in the certainty that there is contained a complete justification for it from all charges. Eforie read the letter, and Lysander realized that this time his tricked. A few days left Sparta Lysander if then, to make sacrifices in the temple of Zeus-Ammon. Eforie not dare to hold military commander and ask him to account. Spartan kings then took advantage of leaving Lisandra to undermine its influence. They condoned the uprising against the thirty tyrants of Athens, the expulsion of the tyrants and the restoration of democracy. After returning Lysander immediately opened the campaign to subdue the Athenians, but one of the kings, Pausanias, to go with Lisandro, admitted for the Athenians the right to choose their rulers and not allowed to crush the rebellion. Lysander was supposed to return to the alcohol with anything. Eforie nevertheless sided against the king Pausanias Lysander, but it was too late: the power now impossible to impose the Athenians hated rulers. However, the power of Lysander has not yet been completely undermined: he continued to arbitrarily dispose of many Greek city-states, relying still on the force. For example, argostsy who Lysander seized the land, came to him with a complaint. Lysander, pointing to his sword, said: "The best way to talks about the boundaries the one who has a sword". Meanwhile, the old king died Sparta Agis. Lysander, using their influence, proclaimed king Agesilaus, who had no legitimate rights to the throne. Expect to make Lysander Agesilaus his obedient instrument. He made the appointment of the commander Agesilaus the Spartan army in the war against Persia, as he was confident that he will command, and dispose of all the war as it was already used during the struggle with Athens. But Lisandro had to be disappointed in their hopes on new king Agesilaus. He was as ambitious as Lysander, and tolerated no rivals. The king took with him Lisaidra the campaign as an adviser and first surrounded it with honor and respect. Asia Minor Greeks, who knew before Lysander, and accustomed to see his chief, were in all cases refer to him, in addition to Agesilaus. Then Agesilaus decided to remove Lisandra from all important affairs and firmly take power into their own hands. In mockery of Lisandro Agesilaus instructed him to distribute the meat Allies. "Let these people are now caring for my meat distributor," said the king of the Ionian Greeks, who have provided honor Lisandro. Then Lysander decided to talk with Agesilaus, and they had a brief conversation. "You, Agesilaus, - said Lysander - bad know how to humiliate your friends". "Yes, - said Agesilaus, - when they want to be taller than me, moreover, that enhances my power, I am always ready to provide its share". Then Agesilaus gave Lisandro small order the Hellespont, and throughout the war, not to put him no more duties. Lysander returned to Sparta in severe irritation and resentment against Agesilaus and Ephor. He believed that his merits as a great military leader, has done so much for the Spartans, not sufficiently appreciated. In this mood Lysander decided to implement long-planned them to plan and become king of Sparta. He intended to hold a public meeting law on deprivation of the legitimate authority of kings and make new kings of the elected. Then, he thought, the Spartans elect him king, as the most powerful and great man in Sparta. To affect the superstitious Spartans, . Lysander began to spread all sorts of prophecies, . which spoke of him as the savior of Sparta throughout Greece, he even tried to win over the Delphic oracle, . he needed to get the prediction,
. The attempt to bribe the priests, diviners oracle of Zeus-Ammon in Egypt led to the fact that priests have sent ambassadors to Sparta exposing impropriety Lisandra. He brought to court, but judges did not dare to accuse the famous commander, and he was acquitted. Meanwhile, exhausted Spartan domination of the Greek states began to rise in the struggle for independence. After Athens, overthrew its thirty tyrants, against Sparta, Thebes made. Having led the troops against the Thebans, Lysander went with a large army in Boeotia through the region of Phocis, and appointed the king Pausanias, who came to his aid, meeting at the city Galiarta. But, coming to the city, he found there Pausanias and therefore did not dare to attack. Lisandra envoy, aiming to Pausanias, fell into the hands of Thebans, and they have taken steps to protect the city. After waiting a while Pausanias, Lysander decided to give battle enemies. By building his army, Lysander personally led him to attack. Thebans gave Lisandro closer to the walls, and then, suddenly opened the city gates, made a sortie. In the battle Lysander was killed. Besiegers Spartans after the death of the commander wanted to withdraw, but at this point from the rear they were attacked by the new units Thebans. The Spartans were attacked from two sides and suffered a complete defeat. Upon learning of the accident, hastened to Pausanias Galiartu, but they met the combined forces of Thebans and Athenians, decided not to enter into an unequal battle. Then Pausanias offered a truce to bury the enemy dead, and retreated. Such was the life of Lysander, by nature endowed with extraordinary ability, but use them not for the glory of the motherland, and for his personal and selfish purposes. Lysander was buried on the border with Boeotia, on the ground, friendly Spartans. In Sparta, to pay him homage, as a great commander.

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