Hannibal( The greatest military leader, a sworn enemy of Rome and the last stronghold of Carthage)
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Hannibal - the son of Hamilcar Barca, one of the greatest generals and statesmen of antiquity, the sworn enemy of Rome and the last stronghold of Carthage, was born in 247 g. BC, was 9 years old when his father took him with him to Spain where I was searching for his fatherland compensation for losses incurred in Sicily.
. According to Polybius and other historians, . Hannibal himself told, . that before the administration of the campaign's father made him swear before the altar, . that all his life will be an implacable enemy of Rome, . and this oath Hannibal kept completely (so-called "Gannibalova Oath"),
. His outstanding skills, unusual conditions of his education in preparing him a worthy successor to his father, a worthy heir to his ideas, the genius and hatred.
. Growing up in a military camp, Hannibal nevertheless received a thorough education, and always cared about its replenishment
. So, when he was commander in chief, Hannibal learned from Spartan Zozila Greek language and mastered it before that it was government securities. Flexible and sturdy physique, Hannibal differed in running, was a skilled fighter and a courageous rider. His moderation in food and sleep, tireless in the campaigns, boundless courage and selfless bravery Hannibal has always set an example to his soldiers and their selfless care for them, bought their ardent love and
. Coin with the image of Hasdrubal
. boundless loyalty
. Their strategic talent he discovered while still at the 22 th year-old chief of cavalry at his in-law Hasdrubal, who, after the death of Hamilcar in 229, brought the main bosses in Spain. Hardly anyone else has managed to such an extent combine the deliberation with warmth, prudence with energy and perseverance in the pursuit of the target.
. A true son of his people, Hannibal imaginative deceit to achieve his goals, he resorted to the original and unexpected funds to various traps and tricks, and studied the nature of his opponents with unparalleled zeal
. With the help of systematic espionage Hannibal always recognized in a timely manner about the designs of the enemy, and even in Rome itself contained a permanent Spyware. His contemporaries tried to blacken the character of Hannibal, . he was accused of mendacity, . perfidy and treachery, . but dark and brutal in his conduct to be part must be attributed to minor commanders of his, . part finds its justification in the prevailing notions of international law,
. The military genius of Hannibal restored great talent political, . which he found in the steps he, . After the war, . reform of the Carthaginian government agencies and which brought him into exile unparalleled influence on the rulers of the eastern states.,
. Hannibal possessed the gift of authority over men, which was reflected in the infinite obedience, in which he was able to keep their different races and polyglot troops had never rebelled against Hannibal, even in the hardest times
. Such was this man who, after the death of Hasdrubal, who fell in 221 g. from the hand of an assassin, the Spanish army, elected as their leader and who decided to implement the designs of his father, no less brilliant. Funds for this were prepared perfectly.
Home II Punic War
. Without the support of the Carthaginian government, . even the secret of his counter, . Hamilcar in Spain created the new province, . rich mines which gave him the opportunity to stock up the treasury, . and dependent on it brought the community support troops and mercenaries, . as needed,
. Rome diplomats succeeded in 226 year contract with Gasdrubalom that the Carthaginians were not to move for Iberia (Ebro). But to the south-west of Iberia, in most of Spain for the Carthaginians to admit the full freedom of action. Hamilcar had left his son inherited a full treasury and a strong, accustomed to the victories of the army, for which the camp to serve his country, and patriotism replaced after the flag and utter devotion to their leader. Hannibal decided it was time to settle scores with Rome.
. But the cowardly Carthaginian Government, . Locked in a mercantile calculations, . not thought to get involved in designs of 26-year old boy-commander, . and Hannibal did not dare start a war is clearly contrary to the legitimate authorities, . but trying to disrupt peace of the Spanish colony Sagunto, . is under the auspices of Rome,
. Sagunttsy limited to those that brought the case to Rome. To resolve the affairs of the Roman Senate had sent commissioners to Spain. Sharp manners Hannibal thought to compel them to declare war, but the commissioners realized what was happening, kept silent and told in Rome on a storm was gathering. Rome began intensively arm.
Time passed, and Hannibal decided to act. He sent to Carthage the news that sagunttsy became closely Carthaginian subjects torboletov, and without waiting for an answer, opened hostilities. Impressions of this step in Carthage was like a thunderbolt; discussed for the extradition of a daring commander Rome.
. But perhaps because the government feared the Carthaginian army, even more than the Romans, perhaps because it was aware of the impossibility to make amends for what has been done, or at his usual hesitation it had decided to do nothing, ie
. not wage war and not interfere with its continuation. After the 8-month siege Saguntum fell in 218 g.
. The Roman ambassadors demanded the extradition of Carthage and Hannibal, . not received from the Carthaginian Senate nor satisfactory, . or negative response, . declared war, . which is called the Second Punic War, . that many ancient historians called "Gannibalovoy war.,
. Roman plan of engagement provided the usual in such cases the division of the army and navy between the two consuls of 218
. One of them was supposed to concentrate their forces in Sicily and, after crossing from there to Africa, to begin military action on the territory of the enemy, in close proximity to most of Carthage. The other consul was with his army to cross into Spain and tie up their forces Hannibal.
However, the vigorous response of Hannibal violated these calculations and pushed implementation of the strategic plan of the Romans for a few years. The genius of Hannibal told him that with Rome can be combated only in Italy. By ensuring Africa and in Spain, leaving his brother Hasdrubal with his army, he was 218 g. made from New Carthage with 80,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and 37 war elephants. In the battles between the Ebro and the Pyrenees, Hannibal lost 20,000 men, and to retain this newly conquered country he had left it with Gannon 10000 infantry and 1000 cavalry. The route of march lay along the southern coast of Spain and Gaul. From there, Hannibal went to Southern Gaul, and is skillfully evaded meeting with the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio, who thought to block his path to the valley of the Rhone. Romans, it became clear intention of Hannibal invade Italy from the north.
This forced the Romans to abandon the original plan of campaign. Two consular armies were sent north, to meet Hannibal.
Hannibal's troops crossing over Ron
Meanwhile, the Carthaginian commander came to the Alps. He had to overcome one of the difficulties of the campaign - to the army on the icy steep, narrow mountain roads, often through snowstorms, which, for the Carthaginians, never knew what snow and cold, were especially hard. According to research Uikgama and Crater, the pass that Hannibal made through the Small Saint Bernard. Others point to the Mont-Zhenevr, as well as the Mont-Cenis. Crossing the Alps lasted thirty-three days.
In late October, 218 g. Hannibal's army after five and a half months of heavy campaign, conducted in ceaseless battles with the mountaineers, went down into the valley of the Po River. But the losses it incurred during this time, were enormous, so that on arrival in Italy from Hannibal's hand had only 20,000 infantry and 6000 cavalry. Almost all war elephants killed. In Cisalpine Gaul, had just conquered the Romans, the Carthaginian military commander has to rest his exhausted army and greatly supplement its troops from the local tribes.
. The war in Italy.
. After capturing and destroying Turin, . Hannibal defeated the Romans near the River Ticino (Titsin), . then completely broke them on the river Trebia, . despite, . that the enemy was reinforced with considerable reinforcements, . hastily summoned from Sicily and Massilia.,
. After the first strikes enemies Hannibal settled into winter quarters in Cisalpine Gaul, and take care of his growing army of allied troops from the Gallic and other tribes
. At the opening of the campaign 217 g. two invading armies - Flamini and Servilia - were exhibited at the onset of ways Hannibal to Rome. For strategic reasons, decided not to attack the Carthaginian neither one nor the other, and, bypassing the left wing of the army Flamini, threaten its communications with Rome. To do this, Hannibal chose extremely difficult, but the shortest path - at Parma, and through Kluziumskie swamps, flooded at this time spreading of the Arno. Four days the army commander was in the water, lost all the elephants, most of the horses and pack animals, and Hannibal himself lost an inflammation of the eye. Once, when leaving the marshes, Carthaginian did a demonstration of motion to Rome, then Flamini, leaving his position, followed the army of Hannibal, but it did not comply with any military precautions. Using blunder of his enemy, Hannibal gave unparalleled ambushed by an army from Lake Trasimene.
. Coin with the image Flaminia
. When the main forces of the Romans sucked into the valley formed by the lake and surrounding hills, with all the hills on the conventional sign Hannibal Carthaginian troops began to descend.
. The deployed battle more like a massacre of the Romans, rather than the usual battle
. In the narrow valley of the Romans were unable to deploy its combat formations, and surrounded by the enemy, rushed in confusion. Many people rushed into the lake and drowned. Almost the whole army Fliminiya and he died in this battle.
Due to the terrible dangers to which wound up the fatherland, the Romans handed dictatorial powers Quintus Fabiyu Maxim (later nicknamed cunctator, ie. Slow). Fabius, well understood the situation, resorted to a new system of action, he avoided decisive battles, and tried to wear down the opponent campaigns and difficulties in food production. The slowness and caution him, however, did not like the Romans, and at the end of the dictatorship of Fabius in 216 BC. command of the army was entrusted to two Consuls: Gaius Terentius Varro and Lutsiyu Paul Emilia. Army, subordinate to them, was the largest since the founding of Rome (90 thousand infantry, 8100 cavalry and 1 thousand archers Siracusa).
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. At this time, Hannibal was in a very difficult situation: the troops were exhausted by continual transitions, suffered throughout the defect, but from Carthage, on the intrigues of hostile military leader of the Party, not to send reinforcements
. Of these difficulties Carthaginian was rescued recklessness Terentius Varro, who attacked the invaders at Cannes (in Puglia) in the area, convenient for the action other than Hannibal's Numidian cavalry. The Romans had before this battle, the army, which numbered 80 thousand infantry and 6 thousand horsemen. Hannibal's infantry consisted of only 40 thousand soldiers, but he had a quantitative and qualitative superiority in cavalry - 14 thousand horsemen. There, the Romans suffered a terrible defeat, most of their army was destroyed, and Paul Heinrich was killed.
Hannibal's victory at Cannes had a wide resonance. On the side of the Carthaginian commander began to move one after the other communities in Southern Italy. From the Romans no longer a big part Samniya, gross, much of Lucania.
Hannibal's successes have been evaluated and outside Italy. Macedonian king Philip V offered him the alliance and military aid. In Sicily, on the side of Hannibal crossed Syracuse. Romans risked losing the entire island.
Despite his victory, Hannibal could not now, as before, to attempt to capture Rome itself, as he had no means to correct the siege. He had to be satisfied that after the battle of Cannae most of the Roman allies in Italy, took up his cause and that Capua, the second city of the republic, it opened its gates. In this city, the commander gave a temporary rest their weary troops, . but the situation has improved little Hannibal, . because the rulers of Carthage, . exclusively engaged in their own selfish commercial interests, . missed opportunity finally to crush their traditional rivals - the Romans and did not have his military genius is almost no support,
. Fatal role played by short-sighted policy of Hannibal the Carthaginian government, . due is located in enemy territory Carthage army had regular communication with their metropolitan, . was devoid of sources of replenishment of material and manpower,
. For all the time Hannibal was sent in support of only 12 thousand infantry and 1500 cavalry. Rome meanwhile recovered, collected fresh troops, and the consul Marcellus at Nola scored the first victory over the Carthaginians. After a series of military actions on their way with varying success, Capua was taken by the Romans, and Hannibal had to take a purely defensive position.
. Receiving no assistance from the fatherland, . commander summoned from Spain, his brother, . Hasdrubal, . which (207) as a result of this set off with his troops in Italy, . but to connect with Hannibal could not, . as the Romans to take timely action, . to prevent this,
. Consul Claudius Nero defeated Hannibal at Grumentume, and then connect to another consul, Livy Sampatorom, defeated Hasdrubal. Upon learning of the fate that befell his brother (whose severed head was thrown into the Carthaginian camp), Hannibal retreated to Brutsium, where in 3 years endured the unequal struggle with their sworn enemies.
. Return to Carthage.
. After this time, Carthaginian military leader summoned the Senate to defend his native city, which threatened the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio who had endured the war in Africa
Coin with the image of Publius Cornelius Scipio
In 203, the Hannibal left Italy, sailed to the African coast, landed at Leptis and stationed his troops at Adrumete. Attempt to negotiate with the Romans had no success. Finally, at a distance of five transitions from Carthage, at Zama, followed by a decisive battle (202). Decisive role in the victory over Hannibal played Numidian cavalry, headed by the king Masinis, who defected to the Romans. Carthaginians were completely routed, and it ended 2 nd Punic War. In the year 201 BC. peace treaty was signed. His conditions were harsh and demeaning to the Carthaginians. They lost all their overseas possessions, including Spain. They were forbidden to go to war with neighboring tribes, even without the permission of the Roman Senate. Carthage paid an enormous indemnity of 10 thousand talents, and gave the Romans all their navy and war elephants.
. In the subsequent period of peace then commander Hannibal proved himself and the public man, taking up the post of praetor, . or head of the republic, . Hannibal led finances in order, . ensure that emergency pay heavy indemnities, . overlay winners, . and generally in a peaceful, . as in military, . time was at the height of his position.,
. Flight and death.
. The thought of resuming the struggle with Rome, however, did not leave him, and to gain greater chances of success, he entered into secret relations with the Syrian king Antiochus III
. Enemies of Hannibal was told in Rome, and the Romans demanded his extradition. Then the commander fled to Antioch (195) and managed to persuade him to take up arms against Rome, hoping to persuade his countrymen the same. But the Carthaginian Senate decisively rejected the conduct of war. The fleets of the Syrian and Phoenician were defeated by the Romans, and at the same time Cornelius Scipio defeated Antiochus at Magnesil. Antiochus III, defeated, was forced to seek peace, one of the conditions that the issuance of Hannibal.
The new requirement for the extradition of the Romans Hannibal forced him to flee (189). According to some sources, Hannibal at one time lived at the court of the Armenian king Artaksiya, founding the city of Artashat for him on the river. Arax, then on. Crete, where the king went to vifinskomu Pruziyu. Then he became the head of an alliance between Pruziem and neighboring rulers against the Roman ally, the king of Pergamum Evmena.
. In one of the naval battles Hannibal managed to draw Pergamon ships fled, abandoning their deck vessels with snakes
. Actions of Hannibal against the enemy were now victorious, but Pruzy changed him and entered into relations with the Roman Senate on the issue of his guest. Learning of this, 65-year-old Hannibal, to get rid of the shame of captivity after such a glorious life, took poison, which is always carried in a ring.
. So died the man, . As well as a brilliant warrior and ruler, . which, . however, . unable to stop the development of world history, . perhaps because, . that the ancient valor of Rome found in Carthage rival selfish, . unable to rise above the interests of the moment and look for a solid foundation of public life in the depths of the people, . not in mercantile calculations, oligarchy,
. By his own words of Hannibal: "Not Rome, but the Senate defeated Hannibal of Carthage". He was buried in Libisse on the European shore of the Bosphorus, is far from Carthage, who only 37 years old was destined to survive a great commander
. Ancient historians of the identity of Hannibal.
. There is a unique in vivo image of Hannibal's profile on a coin of Carthage, minted in 221, during his election as captain.
. The only coin with the image of Hannibal
. A short biography of Hannibal was the Roman historian Cornelius Nepos (1
. BC. e.). In the writings of Polybius, . Livy, . Appian, . describing the events of 2 nd Punic War, . Roman patriotism coupled with admiration to the greatest enemy of Rome, . that 'sixteen years fighting in Italy against Rome, . never led away troops from the battlefield '(Polybius, . kn,
. 19). Titus Livius (kn. XXI; 4, . 3 ff.) Telling, . that Hannibal 'equally patiently endured heat and cold, a measure of eating and drinking, he defined the natural requirement, . rather than pleasure; choose the time for waking and, . no distinction of day and night, many often seen, . he, . wrapped in a military cloak, . sleeping on the ground among the soldiers, . policeman on duty and on guard duty,
. It far outstripped the cavalry and infantry, the first into battle, leaving the last battle '. According to Cornelius Nepos, Hannibal was fluent in Greek and Latin languages and wrote in Greek a few books.
. In the writings of historians remained semi-legendary story about a meeting of Hannibal and Scipio, who arrived in 193 in Ephesus in the Roman embassy to Antiochus III
. Once during a conversation Scipio asked Hannibal whom he considered the greatest military leader. The great commander named Alexander of Macedon, Pyrrhus - king of Epirus, and a third place, behind them, adding later that, if he succeeded in defeating the Romans, he would consider himself above and Alexandra, and Pyrrhus, and all the other generals.