Mithridates VI Eupator( famous in the history of the Ancient World Pontic monarch-general)
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Biography Mithridates VI Eupator
": I can not die from the poison because of my stupid actions predohranitnlnyh. Himself is terrible and all too common in the life of the kings of the poison - forces of infidelity, children and friends - I do not foresee myself, who foresees all poisons: and managed to avoid them ".
Reportedly Mithridates was born in the year 132 BC. Mithridates Evpator led his ancestry on the father of the Achaemenid, but from the mother - from the Seleucid. It was an energetic and capable man, who possessed enormous physical strength. He has not received systematic education, . nevertheless, . According to contemporaries, . knew 22 languages, . was familiar with the best representatives of the Hellenistic culture of his time, . wrote several works on natural history and was considered the patron of science and art,
. But he also characterized by superstition, treachery and cruelty. It was a typical Asian despot.
The fate of the famous in the history of the Ancient World Pontic monarch, military commander was not an easy. He could not immediately inherit legally belonged to his father's throne, because due to the machinations of the mother and guardian he went into hiding, fearing for their lives. Deprivation adolescence largely determined the firmness and determination of the nature and the belligerence of Mithridates VI Eupator.
In 113 BC. e. Mithridates and his supporters returned to Pontus, and claims its royal power over the country.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla - a Roman Consul
However, he managed to achieve only after the merciless massacre of enemies among the nobility Pont. In his court secret killings have become commonplace. Only after such a prologue accession to the aristocracy of the kingdom of Pontus recognized its full sovereign.
. His long reign of Mithridates VI Eupator began with a strong Pontic army, led by whom he intended to commit large gains
. Really, . at an early time of war, the king of Pontus, by force of arms to subjugate their neighbors Colchis, . turning it into Pontic satrapy, . and Little Armenia, . Chersonesos, . which was protected from the Scythian kingdom and part of the Scythian tribes settled in Tavria,
. Been concluded alliances with the free tribes of the Scythians, and Thracians bastarnami.
Bosporan king, the last representative of the dynasty Spartokidov, to relinquish power in favor of the Pontic king Mithridates Eupator. At that time there was a powerful kingdom Bosporan uprising of slaves and the poor under the leadership Savmaka, which managed to retain power within a year. The troops of Mithradates Eupator, led an expedition to the northern Black Sea region, put down an uprising of slaves in the Bosporan kingdom, which became part of Pontus.
. Now the Bosporus state located on the shores of the Black and Azov Seas and conducted lengthy, and not without success, the war with the powerful Ancient Rome
Gaius Marius - Roman general
Greek state and the Bosporus kingdom gave Mithradates Eupator considerable money, bread, fish and other food for his army. "Barbarous" peoples living north and east of the possessions of Pontus, regularly supplied the mercenaries in the imperial army.
Mithridates dreamed of creating a powerful state in all respects, capable of succeeding Hellenistic dynasties. His influence on the eastern borders of Rome, he claimed not only by force of arms, as subtle diplomacy and affirmative policy. So, he gave his daughter to the Armenian king Tigran and could hope for in case of need for troops-in-law. Mithridates Evpator managed to establish peaceful relations with the leaders of the nomadic Scythian tribes, which Pontiacs carried on a lively trade.
But on the way the governor Bosporus seen terrible obstacle - the Roman expansion to the East. Mithridates VI Evpator decided to assert its dominance not only in Asia Minor, but also in adjacent territories, primarily in Greece.
. The solution of this arduous task he began with the creation of powerful armed forces Bosporus - the Army and Navy
. Mithridates Evpator managed to gather a huge army for that time (according to ancient sources, greatly exaggerate its real strength) to 300 thousand people. Army has been hired and the royal treasury had more of a means by consistently collect taxes in Pontic state.
. According to ancient sources, the navy Mithradates numbered up to 400 warships, built by local shipbuilders
. Mithridates VI Eupator in the image of Hercules
. The creation of such armada was possible because among his subjects was a sufficient number of sailors of merchant ships and fishing, because fish, salted and milled form, was one of the major exports of the country
. A large number of ships allowed to carry on the southern Black Sea coast and thousands of troops to wage war against the powerful Roman fleet.
Spring 88 years before Mr.. e. king of Pontus invaded Roman Asia, and easily captured her. The conquest of the Roman province of Bithynia and Cappadocia was accompanied by a terrible massacre of the Romans who lived there and the Italians (the inhabitants of the peninsula are not citizens of the Eternal City). Indigenous peoples welcomed the arrival of their lands of Mithridates, who acted as the liberator of Asia Minor from the Roman domination. The rule of the Eternal City a heavy toll in Ancient Rome conquered nations, and they constantly rebelled against it.
Pontic ruler after a rather light for his victories in Asia, led his army and navy to the west. Pontiacs marched through Macedonia to Greece. In Rome, sounded the alarm, and were collected a large army under the command of the consul Sulla to repel the invasion army of Mithridates. However, erupted in the Eternal City of the struggles delayed campaign of the Roman army to the east, Greece.
During the first Mitridatovoy War (89-84 years BC. e). Pontiacs drove the Romans from Asia Minor and Greece, defeated in several battles such famous generals of ancient Rome as Cassius, manias Akvilд≈ and Oppy. King Mithridates repeatedly demonstrated in front of their opponents high generalship and became one of the most hated enemies of the Eternal City.
However, the first Mitridatova war began for Pontiacs defeat.
Gaius Julius Caesar, who defeated the son of Mithridates - Parnach
In 88 пЁп╬п╢я┐ royal army laid siege to the Asia Minor city of Cyzicus and unexpectedly found herself surrounded by the Romans under the command of Lucullus. But the commander did not decide on the general battle with Mithridates Evpatoria, although in numerous skirmishes with Pontiacs Roman (in their affidavits) troops inflicted considerable damage.
. At this time the consul Sulla successfully launched a military campaign in the east
. In the middle 87 years of his legions disembarked from the ships in Greece, has stood on the side of Mithridates before his arrival on the Greek land, and laid siege to Athens. Roman army, after much effort by the spring 76 years before Mr.. e. took the city, tried to throw off the yoke of the alien with Pontus.
In contrast to Asia Minor, Mithridates in Greece pursued military setbacks. Here he developed a strong opponent in the face of the ambitious commander Lucie Cornelius Sulla. In addition, the proximity of the Greek territory to the Apennines allowed Rome to constantly increase its military forces in Greece.
. The army of Mithridates under the command of Archelaus and Aristion, passed through Macedonia, Greece joined properly only when Athens was taken at a military alliance to which the Pontic king had placed great expectations
. Besides, now, in addition to Sulla, he was here, and another strong opponent who had come from Rome - mariantsev large army led by Gaius Valerius Flaccus, too, wanted the glory and spoils of war.
In 86 BC. e. Cornelius Sulla defeated the army of King Mithridates in two battles - at Chaeronea and Orhomene. The first of these the Roman general in command of 30-thousand well-trained and disciplined army. 90 thousandth of Pontus army, which had 90 war chariots, commanded the royal general Archelaus, who has not been able to use in battle outnumbered. In the Battle of Chaeronea general Sulla in the first world war the practice of using well-conceived system of field fortifications.
Coin depicting Mithradates VI Eupator
From mitridatovoy cavalry, he defended trenches, and from war chariots - palisades. Roman legions, to withstand the first onslaught of discordant ranks of the enemy, themselves went ahead and won a convincing victory.
When Orhomene opponents - Sulla and Archelaus - met again. Pontica cavalry at the beginning of the battle has dealt a heavy blow on lining up for the battle the Roman soldiers, and they pressed the. However experienced Sulla in such a critical situation showed his best side. He managed to withdraw the troops were getting for a retaliatory strike and smash the Pontic army.
Sam King Mithridates VI Eupator in the same year was defeated by Roman general Flavius pili in the battle of Miletopole. The victory of Roman arms was complete. After these defeats the army and the fleet of Pontus left the territory of Greece, which again took possession of the Romans. In the Eternal City with big festivities celebrating the victory.
Mithridates had hoped to gain a foothold in Asia Minor, thence to launch new military action against Rome, but events had overtaken him. In Greece, where there was mariantsev army under the command of Gaius Valerius Flaccus, the soldiers' mutiny broke. Commander was killed and his place was elected leader of the mutiny soldiers of Gaja pili. It has sole control of a strong fleet of Ancient Rome, replaced the weaker, although numerous, the Pontic fleet through the straits into the Black Sea.
. King Mithridates VI Eupator sought peace, which was concluded in August 85 years before Mr.
. e. in Dardania. Pontic monarch freed all his army occupied territories, especially in the area of Asia Minor, Ancient Rome and paid tribute to the size of two thousand talents. After the conclusion of peace Mithridates, as the loser, has managed to retain the basic ownership. However, his relations with the ruling circles of the eternal city remained extremely tense.
Second Mitridatova War (83-81 years BC. e.) was triggered by the Roman proconsul Licinius moray eels, and ambitious man who dreamed of becoming famous military career. However, Roman armies were defeated by Pontiacs. A fragile peace between Rome and the powerful kingdom of Pontus was violated because of the seemingly small military incident.
. Mithridates Evpator, well aware of the inevitability of a new military conflict with Rome, began vigorously to prepare for a new war with him.
. He, a brilliant diplomat of the Ancient World, against Rome managed to create a powerful military coalition, which included the Scythians, Sarmatians, Thracians, Germans, and troops Sertorij in Spain, the Armenian King Tigran II and Pirates (kilikiytsy) Mediterranean
. In addition, according to some sources, King Mithridates supported the slave uprising in Rome under the leadership of Spartacus.
In 75 BC. e. Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, bequeathed his kingdom to Rome.
Bust of Mithridates VI Eupator in the Louvre in France
But his tenure at the southern Black Sea coast of Asia Minor bordering on the Pontus kingdom. Mithridates presciently saw that this was primarily a military threat to its land holdings and their allies. Moreover, he himself claimed ownership of the king Nicomede. In 74 BC. e. its 120 thousandth army with the support of the local population dependent on the invading Roman Bithynia, and took it. At the same time the war broke out against the Romans, Cappadocia and Paphlagonia.
This third Mitridatova War (74-63 years BC. e.) walked with varying success. In ancient Rome, took seriously the events of Bithynia in Asia Minor and moved there numerous army and navy, who had previously cleared the Mediterranean of the pirates of Cilicia. Commander in the East, was appointed consul Lucius Licinius Lucullus, whose name is linked first significant military successes of the Roman arms in the new war against the Pontic kingdom.
Initially, the Romans suffered defeat. The town of Nikopol Roman general Domitius Calvin, having under his command a legion, and points in Asia Minor, auxiliary troops, faced with the Pontic army, led by the king's son Pharnaces. After the first onslaught of the enemy's Asian allies of the Romans fled from the battlefield, and only the resistance of the Roman legions did not let defeat to take on disastrous proportions.
Large-scale naval battle took place in 74 year at Chalcedon. Roman fleet under the command Rutilio Nudona the appearance of the Pontic Sea Fleet, tried to get out of the harbor and lining up in battle line. However Pontiacs pushed the Romans back to the fortified harbor of Chalcedon. It seemed that in this battle at sea and over.
However Pontiacs thought differently than their opponent. They destroyed the enemy's barricades at the entrance to the Chalcedonian harbor, which promptly broke their warships. During the violent clashes boarding all 70 ships of the Roman fleet commander Rutilio Nudona were destroyed.
Battle Tigranokerta in 69 g. BC. (Map of the project "Ancient World")
. It was a severe blow to the Roman sea power, which was one of the reasons for delaying the third Mithradates-ing the war.
. Following these events, the consul Lucullus inflicted troops king Mithridates Eupator several defeats, skillfully using the advantages of modern, well-trained and disciplined Roman army
. Mithridates was forced out by an opponent of Bithynia and Pontus. Lucullus forced him to flee to his brother-Armenian Tigran. Refusal to give in-law Roman Consul as a pretext for the war between Rome and Armenia.
Autumn 69 years before Mr.. e. 10-thousand Roman army under the command of Lucie Licinius Lucullus besieged city Tigranokert. The besiegers were attacked by 100-thousand Pontiacs army under the command of the Armenian king Tigran. But at the very beginning of the battle he could not take a hill, which would protect the position of his cavalry. This took the consul Lucullus, skillfully Pontic cavalry attacking from behind and smashed it. After that, Roman legions attacked the enemy infantry and also broke her. According to Roman sources, clearly exaggerate the victory of the Roman army in Tigranokerte, Pontiacs lost about 100 thousand people, themselves the victors - only five (5) man!
In the next 68 BC. e. winner Lucullus marched at the head of the Roman army in the capital of Armenia Artaksatu (Artashat), but his campaign was unsuccessful. Response Mithradates Eupator not long to wait - he went with his troops in the offensive, the Romans conquered Pontus and Armenia.
In the beginning 66 years before Mr.. e. command of the Roman army in the East was transferred to the commander Gneyu Pompeii. In the same year near the town of Nikopol took second in the history of the battle between the Romans and the troops of king Mithridates.
Gnaeus Pompey - Roman general
Pompey managed to dominate over the battlefield height, and Pontiacs had to sit marching camp under them. At night, the Roman legions suddenly attacked the sleeping Pontiacs and defeated them, turning the royal army to flight.
After this battle Mithridates was finally forced out of their possessions. He had to flee first to Colchis, and from there across the Black Sea to the capital city Panticapeum Bosporus (modern Kerch). There he decided to gather his strength and once again go to war against his hated Rome. However, support from the people and the troops escaped the Pontic king had not received.
Soon against Mithridates VI Eupator rebelled Greek cities of the Northern Black Sea and Azov Sea coast. The revolt against the sovereign and lifted the tsarist army led by his son Pharnaces. Then in 63 BC, King Mithridates committed suicide by throwing himself on the sword, not wanting to surrender to the enemy. (According to other sources, the Pontic king ordered the servant to stab himself with a sword.) He thus avoided the humiliation of the winners.
The outcome of the Third Mitridatovoy War was the transformation of Bithynia and Pontus in the Roman province. Following this general Pompey went over the head of the Roman army of thousands to the Armenian capital Artaksate and forced the king to plead Tigran vassal of Rome and abandon in his favor on all of its gains. The death of Mithradates Eupator led to a significant increase in holdings of ancient Rome in Asia Minor.