Frederick I Barbarossa( The King of Germany B12 century)
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Biography Frederick I Barbarossa
Frederick was the son of Frederick the one-eyed, Duke of Swabia, and the nephew of Emperor Conrad III. Friedrich was born in late 1122 in the town of Hohenstaufen. In 1147, Mr.. after the death of his father, he became the Duke of Swabian. Soon, he took part in the Second Crusade, during which thanks to their bravery and valor has won universal respect. Returning to Germany, the sick Emperor (his uncle), recommended that the princes to elect his successor, Frederick. He died in February 1152, and already on March 4 Frederick won the vacant throne. The new king was young and physically very strong person, mentally alert, pleasant and even charming conversationalist, an excellent knight, greedy for fame and difficult enterprise, honest and generous monarch, kind and firm in the faith, Christian. But these advantages do not cover the deficiencies of conventional, however, in those days Monarchs. Thus, in moments of anger Frederick is extremely harsh, and could not stand to cope with and sometimes to achieve its objective was ready to bloody brutality. Love of power it was immeasurable, but he never dreamed of unusual plants and stormy progress. All, for which he took, and thought it was really. Therefore, success is often accompanied him even in the most complex enterprises. And although the main dream of his life - to revive the former power of Charlemagne's empire - remained unfulfilled, he has done a lot on this path.
. Frederick Barbarossa created many for his time, a European army, the main force that are heavy, chained in steel armor knight's cavalry, and perfected its organization
Louis VII and Conrad III of the Second Crusade
He is recognized as a classic of medieval martial arts. Germanic chivalry when it became for many other national organizations in Europe knight example.
Preparation of the German knights, as well as all other European, began with childhood. Service pazhom squire or a gentleman for 10 - 12 years was the best for the future knight practical school. After the expiration of such service was made a solemn dedication in the knights.
. Frederick Barbarossa, as well as other militant rulers of medieval Europe, demanded that the German knights mastery of all seven knightly arts
. These are: horseback riding, swimming, archery, boxing match, falconry, game of chess, and the addition of poems.
. Sam Germanic king, and together with him and his German knights to hone their martial art in constant internecine wars of the feudal
. In war, a worthy occupation for themselves the Knights believed only hunting and tournaments, to which Frederick Barbarossa had a particular passion.
. One of the medieval writers gave this description of chivalry tournaments: "Knight could not shine in the war, if he is not prepared for this at tournaments
. He needs to see how the flow of his blood as he crunched his teeth under the punch. He needs to be thrown to the ground to feel the weight of the body of his enemy. Only in this way he can enter into a serious war with the hope to be a winner. "
Germanic knightly troops is a closed caste. On this occasion Delbryukk in his "History of military art, said:" If the king, giving grace to the peasant, makes him a knight, and at the same time with dignity fan of his chivalrous and knightly law, then, he breaks the law. Even on such a knight, a peasant will not ever. "
Frederick Barbarossa religiously adhered to the feudal rights to the title of knight. In his decree, the right to joust with all its attributes had only the one who was a knight by birth.
Frederick I Barbarossa (the image in Frayzingskom cathedral after 1166)
Band, knights belt and golden spurs could only be a knight. These items are popular decorations of the German knights, whom they encouraged the king.
. In 1152 Frederick I Barbarossa became Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, which included numerous state and the modern Germanic Austria, who played the title role in the Empire
. By the time Frederick all available measures, and especially the military, strengthened the royal authority on German soil. Similarly, measures it in short periods, and strengthened his own imperial power throughout the Holy Roman Empire.
. After becoming emperor, Frederick Barbarossa began to pursue an aggressive, an aggressive policy that meets the interests of Germanic feudal
. He sought to subordinate its authority in the rich city-states of Lombardy in northern Italy.
Hardly taking power, Friedrich began to prepare to march to Italy. Germanic case detained him for two years. Finally, in October 1154, Mr.. German troops crossed the Alps. At this time, Pope Adrian IV led a bitter struggle with the Roman nobility, which in 1143, Mr.. formed the Senate and captured the city management in their hands. Because of the unrest broke out my father had to leave his residence and moved to Viterbo. The Senate proposed to Frederick to get the crown from the hands of the Romans themselves, . but the king replied haughtily, . arrived in Italy not to, . to plead for a temporary grace troubled people, . but as Prince, . determined to get, . if necessary, . force of arms, . fathers legacy,
. On the night of 17 to 18 June the Germans occupied all the approaches to St Peter's Cathedral. Adrian solemnly crowned here Frederick imperial crown. But by evening the Romans marched from the Capitol to the attack neighborhoods of St. Peter. The whole evening was the bloody battle, and the attack was repulsed by the townspeople.
Pope Alexander III
The next morning, June 19, the emperor and the pope left the eternal city, in which both the present and not included. Seeing that nothing was impossible, Frederick in September he returned to Germany. Since that time, his thoughts were constantly turned towards Italy. He already knew, and during the coronation was finally convinced that this country over the past decade has become virtually independent of the empire and to approving the German domination, had to win it again. At this time Frederick carefully prepared for the invasion. In 1158, Mr.. he spoke in his second Italian campaign. The main goal of his was the capture of Milan, as well as from the time of Conrad II, this city used to demonstrate its independence and remained the main bulwark of all the opponents of the empire in Lombardy. To play safe Frederick tried to bring to hike all the German princes, and gathered a huge army. Big advantage in power will put his plans a smooth start. In August Milan was besieged and had surrendered on September 1. Milanese had to pay a huge tribute, to give hostages, to renounce the right to mint coins and collect tolls. In downtown Frederick erected a castle and put his garrison. This bloodless and easy victory was impressed at the Lombards. Collecting the ramp Ronkale, Frederick brought to the attention of the Italians are the principles on which he wanted to arrange now manage their possessions beyond the Alps. Public roads, navigable rivers with their tributaries, ports and harbors were to pass under the control of imperial officials, and taxes and coinage became longer the exclusive prerogative of the imperial power.
Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (X century)
However, the Emperor sternly demanded of their vassals conscription and threatened to take away all mined Indomitable. Usobnye war were strictly forbidden.
New edicts are most infringed upon the rights and freedoms Lombard cities which have become by this time almost completely independent of their feudal lords. From their side Friedrich and I met very strong resistance. Genoese said that Frederick would give only what he can claim your property. In January 1159, Mr.. Milanese rebelled again, unhappy with the fact that the Emperor I tried to adopt here at the mercy of their henchmen. They were supported by residents cream and Brescia. Meanwhile, Frederick, relying on its first success, has already sent over the Alps most of the allied forces. The remaining forces for a new siege of Milan bsho insufficient. In July 1159, Mr.. Emperor went up to the cream and six months of hard besieging them. Capturing, finally, in January of 1160 g. This small fortress, Frederick ordered the destruction of its foundations. For other difficulties added to quarrel with the Papacy. After the death of Adrian IV opponents Frederick elected Pope Alexander III, and his supporters - Victor IV. The emperor convened at Pavia church council, which declared deposed Alexander. Alexander was not embarrassed by this and in turn excommunicated Barbarossa from the church, and his subjects released from the oath. But first he wanted a foothold in Italy. Convening vassals of Germany and Italy, Frederick in May 1161, Mr.. second time besieged Milan. A year later, in March 1162, the city surrendered unconditionally at the mercy of the conqueror. Frederick ordered all residents to leave the city with the property that they could carry, and settle in four cities unfortified.
Frederick Barbarossa and his sons, King Henry VI (on the right hand) and Duke Frederick Schwabsky (miniature XII century)
The city was completely destroyed. Once the main enemy was crushed to surrender Piacenza, Brescia and other cities. The emperor ordered the residents to disassemble the city walls, to pay tribute and to the governor - Podesta.
Not for long, traveled to Germany, Frederick the fall of 1163, Mr.. returned to Lombardy and prepared to march on Rome. However, new difficulties have stopped him. Venice, Verona, Vicenza and Padua united in anti-German league. In April, died Victor IV. Elected in his place Paschal III was far less supporters than Alexander III. The emperor tried to attack the Verona, but he bsho too few forces for serious war. In autumn 1164, Mr.. he went to Germany, where he hoped to build a new army. Things again detained him for eighteen months. Only in the spring of 1165, Mr.. Frederick with a great army crossed the Alps and headed straight for Rome. June 24 the Germans besieged the castle of St. Angelo and occupied the whole left bank of the Tiber. Alexander III took refuge in the castle Frangipani near the Colosseum. Frederick offered both fathers to avoid bloodshed to cease his dignity and hold new elections. Alexander declined, and it hurt him badly in the eyes of the townspeople. Known for their volatile Romans turned against the pope, and he had to flee to Beneventum. The emperor triumphantly entered the city, and on June 30 was enthroned in the temple of St. Paschal Petrd. However, Frederick did not leave his supporters even the shadow of the power they enjoyed before his dad. The Senate and the prefect of the city began to subordinate Xia himself emperor, who thus took control by Rome in their hands. It seemed as if Frederick had reached the limits of their desires. But unforeseen circumstances mixed it with all plans: In August the German army began a cruel plague.
Frederick I Barbarossa (miniature end of XII century)
That died were so many that Frederick hastily withdrew its troops in northern Italy. Here he is with dismay found that the position of his enemies increased. By a previously joined the league Cremona, Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua, as well as residents of Milan, quickly rebuilt their city. Unfortunately, Frederick was no army, and he had to watch helplessly from Pavia, a revolt erupted. December 1, 1167, Mr.. Sixteen rebels cities joined the Lombard League. They vowed not to conclude a separate peace and wage war until until the return of all privileges and freedoms, what possessed under the former emperors. In early 1168, Mr.. Frederick decided to sneak into Germany. On the way to Susa his almost captured, and he had to flee, dressed in strange clothes.
At this time the emperor held in Germany for seven years, busy with pressing affairs and strengthen their power. In 1173, Mr.. He announced his decision to return to Italy and to lead the army in the campaign against the Lombard League. In order not to depend on the princes, who have often left him without the soldiers in the most critical moment, he recruited a lot of Brabant mercenaries. In September 1174, Mr.. Friedrich is the fifth time crossed the Alps, and in October the besieged Alessandria. Lombards stubbornly defended. In April next year, has not tasted success, Frederick began to negotiate and disbanded soldiers, whom he could not pay. But lasted almost a year consulting either led nowhere, because the parties' positions were too different. It was necessary to once again prepare for war.
Bronze figure of a lion in Braunschweig, established by Henry the Lion in 1166. as a symbol of his power
The emperor invited Chiavenna his cousin, the powerful Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, Henry the Lion of the tribe of Welf, and asked him for help. Henry the Lion refused, as very vulnerable Friedrich. With great difficulty, he scored a few thousand soldiers in Italy and moved with them to Milan. May 20, 1176, Mr.. adversaries met under the Legnano. German knights in their custom rushed into a powerful attack, broke through the operation of the Lombard cavalry, and she fled in disarray. But when the Germans attacked the builder of a square of infantry, attack them drowned. Meanwhile, Lombard horsemen met army of Brescia, rushing to their aid, returned to the battlefield and suddenly attacked the Germans from the flank. Friedrich with fervor and courage threw himself into the most landfill, but was knocked out of the saddle. Immediately the rumor about his supposed death resounded to the troops. Leaving behind their weapons, knights fled from the battlefield and took refuge in Pavia.
. After this defeat, Frederick had to soften its stance and agree to major concessions: he agreed to recognize Alexander III, the only legitimate pope, he returned to the prefecture of Rome, and agreed to accept the margrave of Tuscany his fief
. In return, the pope took from him his excommunication. Made peace with his father, Frederick returned to Lombard Cases. But the agreement with the rebels cities could not. In July 1177, Mr.. Venice Frederick has signed a truce with them for six years and the summer of 1178, Mr.. went to Burgundy, where in Arles, was crowned as king of Burgundy. In Germany, he took the first occasion on which to begin to harass Henry the Lion. At the Congress in Speyer Bishop Halbershtadtsky Ulrich complained that the Duke took Lena, owned by his diocese. In January 1179 Henry was summoned to the royal tribunal to deal with this issue, but refused to come. In June, he arrived at Congress in Magdeburg. This allowed him to start against the other process: Frederick accused him of rebellion. At the congress in Wц+rzburg in January 1180, Mr.. powerful Welf was sentenced to deprivation of all his fiefs. East Saxony was transferred to Count Bernhard Anhaltskomu.
Manuel Comnenus - Emperor of Byzantium
From western Saxon lands Frederick formed the new Duchy of Westphalia, which left a. Bavaria was given to Count Otto von Wittelsbach. From her also was taken away Styrian mark, turned into a duchy. In 1180, Mr.. Caesar led troops in Saxony, Brunswick and took besieged Lubeck. In the summer of 1181, Mr.. Henry Leo realized that his game is up. In November, he came to Congress in Erfurt and rushed to the feet of Frederick. Barbarossa forgave him, returned Brunswick, but pinned all other ownership Welf. In addition, Duke was supposed to retire three years in exile. The conflict with the Lombards also gradually settled. In 1183, Mr.. Constanta was signed peace with the Lombard League. Cities recognized the emperor as their suzerain, and Frederick agreed to preserve their ancient liberties, including such important as the right to build capacity and to organize the league. For the Emperor left the city the right to invest the consuls, his trial was considered the highest authority. In 1184, Mr.. Frederick acknowledged the royal title of William of Sicily, who agreed to give his aunt Constance's son Frederick, Henry. (At that time nobody could imagine that this marriage in the future will bring Hohenstaufen Sicily.)
. The coronation of French King Philip II Augustus
. Italy, making peace and establishing peace throughout the empire, Barbarossa began preparations for a crusade
. In March 1188, Mr.. at the congress in Mainz, he solemnly took the cross.
. Remembering the failure of the previous campaign, Frederick preparing for a new venture with great care and actually managed to gather under its banner color of the German knights.
. In world history in 1189 marked the beginning of the Third Crusade to the Holy Land
. He led the three most important European monarch - Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, the French King Philip II of France and the English King Richard the Lionheart. They all had their own armies and constantly at odds with each other, claiming the supreme command and the glory of the winner.
Initially, the number of participants of the Third Crusade was almost 100 thousand people. At the time of his absence, he handed the management of state to his son Henry and spring 1189, Mr.. made from Ratisbonne on the Danube. Successfully passing Hungary, Serbia and Bulgaria, the Crusaders in the summer came to Byzantium. Frederick I Barbarossa led his troops through the territory of the Byzantine Empire by Land (French and English crusaders traveled to Palestine by sea) - the road was explored as early as the First and Second Crusades. In Asia Minor, he had time and again to repel the attacks of the Muslim cavalry light. Like the last time between the Germans and the Greeks soon misunderstanding. The envoys of the Emperor Isaac Angel demanded Barbarossa hostages and commitment that he will relinquish part of future gains.
Image of Frederick Barbarossa during the First World War
Frederick sent ambassadors to the emperor, whom the angel ordered jailed. When notifying Frederick broke off the negotiations and led his army to Constantinople, delivering everything in its path devastation. In late November, the Crusaders took Adrianople. Only after that Isaac came to him in negotiations, and in January 1190, Mr.. bsho agreement. Frederick had promised not to pass through Constantinople, the Byzantine emperor for what Germans provided food and promised to send them across the Strait. Hike through Asia Minor was also very difficult. But on the way to Palestine, the army suffered heavy losses in clashes with Muslim troops of the Sultan Saladin (Salah ad-Din). May 18 Crusaders stormed Konya. However, to reach the Holy Land germanskomu commander was not able. June 10 the army, accompanied by the Armenian conductors, came to the river Selif. In crossing through it, the emperor was unable to cope with his horse, he took fright and stumbled. Frederick fell into the water, the flow picked up and carried him. When the emperor was dragged from the water, he was already dead. After his death the German army began to disintegrate even before arrival at their destination - he simply did not have a decent leader.
. When Frederick I Barbarossa medieval Holy Roman Empire reached its greatest prosperity and military power
. However, it remained within the fragmented and in fact she had no prospects for a long existence.
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