Henry IV of Navarre( The King of France)
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Biography Henry IV of Navarre
Mother of Henry, a consistent supporter of Calvin, did everything to bring up her son from a solid Protestant. But in the face of his father, the young Prince had a very different example. He did not stay a supporter of the Geneva case, and returned to Catholicism after he entered the service of the French king in the position of lieutenant general and commander of the Protestant appealed to the court. Henry then for the first time changed its denomination, but after the death of King Antoine returned to his mother's religion. He matured in the years when France shocked the first religious war. Fierce battles were followed by relatively long periods of peace, during which the young bearnets had the opportunity to become acquainted with the court life in Paris. Intelligent, lively and practical, Henry learned a lot from these observations. The family of Valois, as well has had time to study it. After signing in 1570, Mr.. Peace in Saint-Germain Catherine de Medici began to work on the marriage of his daughter Margaret with the King of Navarre. This marriage, in her view, was to reconcile the two parties and put an end to the bloody unrest. The case initially went wrong a long time, but then still come to a successful end - in August 1572, Mr.. long-awaited marriage took place. As you know, he did not live up to expectations.
Six days after the wedding Catholics treacherously attacked the Huguenots, who confidently gathered in Paris for the wedding festivities, and carried them on the night of St. Bartholomew's brutal massacre. All the suite of Henry, having offices in the Louvre, was broken, but he himself, promising to move to Catholicism to escape the common fate. The next four years Henry has lived in Paris for the position of the prisoner.
Outwardly, he seemed resigned to his fate, but in reality not abandon the thought of escape. In February 1576, under the pretext of hunting trips in Senlis, Henry with a small retinue of his followers rode away on the way to the Place Vendome and Alencon, where he made his way in Anjou. Soon, he renounced Catholicism, the third time took Calvinism and from that time for many years to become the leader of the French Huguenots. Together with his brother Henry III, Francois, he began military action against King Henry III, resulted in an advantageous peace in Beaulieu.
. Henry's wife, Marguerite, whom he never liked, two more years lived without a husband in Paris, changing one lover after another
. King of Navarre, however, did not concede her many amorous adventures. He was altogether Loving and had in my life relationship with a lot of women from different social classes. Thus, during the Paris years of captivity, he was fascinated by the maid of honor of Catherine de 'Medici, Charlotte de Beaune-Samblanse (known as Madame de Owls). In 1578, Mr.. Catherine de Medici brought Marguerite to Gascony and eighteen months to visit her son in law. Between the two courtyards, apparently, there was a full reconciliation. Henry carried away while maid of honor Margarita Francisca de Montmorency-Fosse (Fossezoy), and to 1582 g. his chosen one for many years was d'Anduen Diana, Countess of Gramont, dubbed Fine Korizandoyu. It was the first of the famous Henry's favorites.
Catherine de Medici
According to contemporaries, Korizanda, beauty and intelligence, has many other virtues, among them the courage and selflessness. In the absence of his wife (with 1580 g. Margaret lived in Paris) Korizanda played the role of Queen of Navarre in the yard. In 1586, Mr.. But Turenne and d'Aubigny, his loyal and tough friends, who were able to speak plainly unpleasant truth, hardly dissuaded him from this rash step. And, indeed, to 1589, Mr.. passion for the King Korizande cooled.
At this time the civil war reached its highest bitterness. Irreconcilable Catholics united in the League, headed by Henry and his brothers Gizom. Under the guise of religious struggle Ligist began to plot against Henry III, tried to oust him from the throne. With every passing month the king felt in Paris, all uncomfortable. Finally, in May 1588, Mr.. He fled to Chartres, and in November his bodyguards suddenly attacked and stabbed Henry Guise it directly to the Cabinet of King. After this desperate deed between Henry III and the Parisians there could be no reconciliation. The head of the League became the younger brother of the murdered Guise, Duke of Mayan. Henry began to seek support from the King of Navarre and, because he did not have their children formally recognized him in April 1589, Mr.. his successor. Both Henry joined his forces and advanced on Paris. The siege was in full swing when the August 1 fanatic ClцLment stabbed the king with a dagger.
Huguenots, besieging Paris, the same day declared Henry of Navarre King of France.
Henry III - King of France
But the leaders of the Catholic part of the besieging army certainly did not dare to admit it. They announced the King of Navarre the legal heir of Henry III, but with the condition of the adoption of Catholicism. Parisians elected a uncle King Henry IV, the old Cardinal Charles of Bourbon, but in fact the rebels continued to administer the Duke of Mayan. Own forces for the siege of Paris by Henry was. So he retreated to Normandy, and four years waging war between the banks of the Seine and the Loire. First he approached Daeppu. Duke Mayan pursued him at the head of a large army. Henry took a strong position among the three rivers near the castle Arkskogo. Within two weeks, there were continuous confrontations, on September 21 got into a hot battle in which the king showed himself a brave warrior and led Duke to back down, even though the latter had three times more energy. Henry moved to Paris. October 21 Huguenots took possession of the five suburbs on the left bank of the Seine and ransacked their. This success Henry has limited. He retreated to the Tour, which became his temporary residence. The following months were very important for the King. Even before he announced that the Huguenots did not get him any new rights, except those that were identified under a contract with the former king, and that he was ready to give all religious disputes to ecclesiastical courts of the cathedral. As for the Huguenots, and for Catholics it was acceptable conditions. The new king had an attractive appearance and pleasant character. On the battlefield, he charmed with his bravery, but in peacetime, attracted his wit and his good nature, sometimes feigned, but always courteous. Statesmen of both parties increasingly convinced of his correspondence and from its mode of action, . that Henry gifted insight and clear mind, . hates the party intrigue, and can "one hand to strike, . while the other distributes alms ", . different ideas of nobility and strength of character,
Elizabeth I - Queen of England
French people, weary long decades of civil wars, he seemed just the man who will be able to restore domestic tranquility.
In the spring of 1590, Mr.. Henry went to Dre. Duke Mayan, wanting to release this castle from a siege, came under Ivry in battle with the King. According to Martin, Henry rushed into battle with the courage of a medieval knight. In a short time the army of the Duke was dispersed, and the royal troops chased her until night. Henry destroyed all the infantry Catholics, until 1000 cavalry and captured the greater part of their artillery. The head of the League ran without a retinue of Mantes. This battle was a foregone conclusion the outcome of the war. Duke did not dare to return to Paris. The old Cardinal de Bourbon died soon, and the Catholics there was no one who could take his place. However, fighting continued for several years. Henry went up to Paris and began a new siege. Soon the city became a raging hunger. If it were not for outside help, the townspeople would have this time to surrender. But the Spanish King Philip II, closely following the progress of affairs in France, moved to help all Catholics niderlandskuyu army. In August, Duke of Parma in Paris brought food and forced the king to lift the siege. In 1591, Mr.. Henry has received considerable financial assistance from the Queen Elizabeth, won and became mercenaries everywhere oppressed Catholics. Were taken Mantes, tents and Noyon.
In Manta, King first saw Gabriel d'Etre, which made for a few years of his new mistress. However, they write that Henry did not immediately obtained from her reciprocity. Noticing courtship King, Gabriel left the mantle in Picardy, in the castle Kevr. Despite the war and the fact that the forest surrounding the Kevr, was filled with enemy pickets, in love with Henry, with five companions rode her after.
"Swimming girls" (Gabriel d'Etre right)
Dressed as a peasant with a bundle of straw on his head, he again appeared before his mistress, but she contemptuously drove him away. Then Henry changed tactics and arranged marriage to an elderly widower Gabrielle de Liancourt, who was later removed under the pretext of. Gabriel finally surrendered, but was for the king is not very faithful friend.
Meanwhile, the war continued. In 1592, Mr. Heinrich besieged Rouen, who was considered one of the strongholds of the Catholic League. To save the capital of Normandy, Duke of Parma for the second time invaded France from the Netherlands. However, until a decisive battle with the Spaniards again did not reach. Henry stepped back from Rouen, but retained a strong position in other places. It was obvious that military means no single party can not win. In 1593, Mr.. Duke Mayan convened in Paris from the States General to elect a new king-Catholic. From the beginning of the MPs were in a quandary: Henry was the only legitimate claimant to the throne.
Contrast it could only daughter of Philip II, Isabella (by her mother, she accounted for her granddaughter to Henry II). Among the deputies of the Infanta had many supporters, but even the most zealous of them realized that to put at the head of the French woman, and besides, Spaniard, will not be easy. Meanwhile, Henry hastened to cut the ground from under their enemies, declaring July 23 to convert to Catholicism.
Philip II - King of Spain
Presumably, he took this step not without hesitation, even though they hardly were religious in nature. He was quite sober politician and freethinker sufficiently ingrained that, choosing between issues of faith and political benefits, prefer the first second. At the reproaches of his followers King, apparently jokingly, but actually quite seriously replied that "the crown of France is the Catholic liturgy" (or in another translation: "Paris is the Messiah"). And it was his sincere opinion. Doubtful other considerations: Will he make more of a change of religion, whether he will remain faithful to former supporters of the Huguenots, and ready to be reconciled with the old enemies Ligist.
He did not have long to wait for an answer to these questions. July 25, King for the first time attended a Catholic service in the church at Saint-Denis, after which the bishop Burzhsky solemnly announced his return to the bosom of the Roman Church. As soon as this became known in the capital, many Parisians, despite the prohibition of the Duke of Mayan, rushed to St. Denis to welcome their king. Huguenots, though blamed Henry for a change of religion, continued to keep his side, knowing that the king never starts against them religious persecution. Duke Mayan vainly urged his supporters to arms and urged them not to believe "Fake treatment" King. Nobody wanted to listen. Cities and nobles gradually ceased to struggle, some voluntarily, while others are selling their loyalty to the more or less favorable terms.
Entry of Henry IV of Navarre in Paris March 22, 1594
So Henry took over his kingdom "in parts and shreds," according to Sully. He joined in January 1594, Mr.. in Mo, which was delivered him to the commandant of the city of Vitry. Then he got Orleans and Bourges from La Shatrah and Aix in Provence from the local parliament. In February, the city of Lyons surrendered their policies. In Chartres, Henry was solemnly anointed by the old custom of the French kings and 22 March without a fight went to Paris. At the same time were completed negotiations for the surrender of Rouen. Laon, Amiens and other cities in Picardy is the cradle of the League, one after another opened its gates. Charles Guise, nephew of the Duke of Mayan, gave Henry Champagne. Each of these contracts cost the king many concessions in the form of distribution of honorary distinctions, political rights and in particular sums. Henry generously handing out titles, grant a pension, paid a foreign debt, preferring material costs bloodshed. But where the negotiations did not give the expected result, the king blew to arms. In July 1595, Mr.. the battle of Fontenay Frances, he defeated his old enemy, the Duke of Mayen-sky and away from him Burgundy. But then he concluded a very tolerable agreement, trying to spare his political and religious feelings: wherever possible, the king tried to be above personal animosities. In September, Pope Clement VIII, fearing that a French Church did not come out from under its influence, withdrew from the Church's excommunication of Henry and concluded a formal peace. But the war continued with the Spanish king, stubbornly refused to recognize the right of Henry to the French crown. In 1595, Mr.. Spaniards took Cambrai, in 1596, Mr.. - Calais, and finally, in 1597, Mr.. - Amiens. But despite these successes, Philip still had no hope depose Henry. Money for the continuation of the war he was not, and in May 1598, Mr.. Spanish king agreed to peace. All he conquered provinces were returned to France.
Bust of Henry IV of Navarre
The last bastion of Ligist remained Brittany captured by Duke Merker. Henry himself spoke out against him and forced into submission.
Outcome religious wars in France, summed up the Edict of Nantes, signed by the King in April 1598, Mr.. This was an important act, claiming to base public policy of religious tolerance. Although free of teaching and worship for the Huguenots were in the civil rights, they were completely equal footing with the Catholics and gained access to all state public office. The reform worship was still forbidden in Paris. However, it was allowed everywhere, where it was introduced earlier, namely: in each administrative district, in the castles of the nobles and even the homes of simple nobility. All edicts and court verdicts against the Huguenots during the religious persecution, were declared invalid. In La Rochelle, Montauban and Nц-mes, the Huguenots were allowed to keep their garrisons. They were able to collect the Congress on political and religious issues, and to have its representatives at the court and the State Council. As might be expected, and Catholics, and Protestants were initially dissatisfied edict, assuming that the opposing party has received too many concessions. King had to spend much more forces before the edict became the basis of the religious world.
All of these turbulent years, Gabriel was the main favorite of the King. During the second siege of Paris, she was a small pavilion on the heights of Montmartre, and in June 1594, Mr.. Coucy castle near Lyon gave birth to son Henry Caesar. Having entered the Paris King legitimized the child and declared that begins divorce from Marguerite de Valois. Obviously, he was going to marry later Gabrieli.
Louis XIII - the son of Henry IV of Navarre
In March 1595, Mr.. Sultana was granted in marquees Monceau, and in 1597, Mr.. - In the Duchesse de Beaufort. According to Mattei, King reported Gabrieli all strife and intrigue, opened it with all their mental wounds, and she always knew how to comfort the cause of his suffering. Over the years Tabor she bore Henry a daughter Catherina Henrietta and son Alexander. But Gabriel has not lived up to the divorce of King. She died suddenly in April 1599. (as we thought then, from the poison). When the unhappy Henry learned about this tragedy, he had a nervous attack, and he took to his bed.
However, the king could not long indulge in grief. Seven months after the death of Gabrielle, he received a formal divorce from Margaret, and soon I was immediately concerned about two matters of the heart: matchmaking for Maria de Medici and courting Henrietta d'Antrag. Of all the king's favorites turned out to be the most prudent. Before answering Henry reciprocate, Henrietta demanded from him a formal written agreement: the king had promised to join with her in a lawful marriage, as soon as she gives birth to a son. In addition, Harriet has received from it for the first night of a hundred thousand francs. Soon the mistress became pregnant. Henry, have already agreed to the marriage with Maria de 'Medici, was in a quandary. He granted Henrietta in marquees Verneuil, promised to marry her prince blood Neverskogo Duke, but she stubbornly refused to return it to this document and threatened scandal. In July 1600 g. Henrietta gave birth to a dead girl, and this misfortune relieved the king from the need to fulfill its promise. Sultana lowered her tone became more pliant. King continued to feed her tender feelings.
Meanwhile, in December 1600 g. celebrated the wedding of Henry and Maria de 'Medici. In January, Henry's wife is bored, and he returned to the embrace of Henrietta. In 1601, Mr.. both ladies gave birth to the king's sons: the queen - the Dauphin Louis (later Louis XIII), Sultana - Gaston Henry (later Duke of Verneuil). The next year the picture was repeated: Maria de 'Medici had a daughter Elizabeth, Henrietta - Angelica. This idyllic relationship is not destroyed even a conspiracy against the king, erected in 1604, in which the most active role was played by his father's favorite old d'Antrag. The conspirators had planned to lure Henry to the Marquise Verneuil, kill him, and the King to proclaim her son Gaston. D'Antraga court sentenced to death, and his daughter - to life imprisonment in a monastery, but the king allowed the old man to retire to his estate, and Henrietta declared innocent.
Statue of Henry IV of Navarre
He again made friends with a favorite, though already well aware of its evil and scandalous character. Marquise shamelessly exploited the royal generosity, begging for every kindness, money and estates. She is constantly trying to humiliate the Queen Mary and completely at odds with her husband.
Only a new hobby Henry relieved him from this shameful connection. In January 1609, Mr.. the ballet, yc triplets Maria de 'Medici, Henry's daughter was carried away fourteen Connetable Montmorency Margarita. As usual, the king tried to issue a new lover before marriage and chose her as his wife the Prince de Conde. But as soon as the Prince entered the law husband, he has to protect all the forces of Margarita King. In November 1609, Mr.. he decided to flee to Flanders. Angry King began to work on the dissolution of their marriage. At this time, he vigorously preparing for war with Austria. But both companies have remained inconclusive because of the tragic death of Henry. May 14, 1610, Mr.. King of the coach went to the arsenal of new tools for inspection. The day was hot, and the windows were lowered skin. On the narrow winding streets and rows of the Iron King crew had to stop to let hay. At that moment a man sprang to the wheel, stuck his head out the window and stabbed in the chest with a dagger Henry. Death was instantaneous, and Henry did not manage to emit a single groan. Sitting with him in a carriage in the first minute did not even notice his death. The assassin, a fanatic Catholic Ravaylyak not, however, managed to escape, was captured by guards and two weeks later executed.