Childhood and youth Bismarck
(Eduard Leopold von Schц╤nhausen) was born April 1, 1815 the family estate Schц╤nhausen in Brandenburg, north-west of Berlin, . the third son of a Prussian landowner Ferdinand von Bismarck-Schц
╤nhausen and Wilhelmine Mencken, . at birth was given the name of Otto
. Manor Schц╤nhausen located in the heart of the province of Brandenburg, occupies a special place in the history of early Germany
. To the west of the estate five miles river Elbe, the main water - transport artery in Northern Germany. Manor Schц╤nhausen in the hands of the family Bismarck
All three generations of this family served the rulers of Brandenburg on the peaceful and military career. Otto
in his youth Bismarck
considered cadets, the descendants of the Knights of conquerors who founded the first German settlement in the vast lands east of the Elbe with a small Slavic population. Juncker, belonged to the nobility, but that concerned the wealth, influence and social status, they did not go to any comparison with the aristocracy of Western Europe and the Habsburg possessions. Bismarck
, of course, did not belong among the big landlords, and they were happy and that could boast of noble birth - their lineage was traced up to the reign of Charlemagne.
Wilhelmina, mother of Otto
, was from a family of public servants and belonged to middle class. Such marriages in the XIX century it became more and more, when the educated middle classes, and the old aristocracy began to connect the new elite.
At the insistence of Wilhelmina Bernhard, elder brother, and Otto
had been sent to school Plamana in Berlin, where Otto
studied from 1822 to 1827. In 12 years, Otto
left school and went to the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium, where he studied for three years. In 1830, Otto
went to school "in gray monastery, where he felt freer than in previous schools. Neither mathematics nor the history of the ancient world, nor the achievements of the new Germanic culture had not attracted the attention of the young cadets. Most of Otto
was interested in politics past, the history of war and rivalry between different countries.
After high school, Otto
10 May 1832 at age 17 enrolled in the University of Gottingen, where he studied law. When he was a student earned a reputation as a fighter and revelers, differed in dueling matches. Otto
played for money on the cards and drank a great deal. In September 1833, Otto
moved to the New Metropolitan University in Berlin, where life was cheaper. To be more precise, the University of Bismarck
, only the number, because almost did not attend the lectures, and enjoyed the services of tutors who visited him before the exams. In 1835 he received a diploma and was soon enlisted to work in the Berlin Municipal Court. In 1837, Otto
was appointed assessor in Aachen, a year later - the same office in Potsdam. There he joined the Guards regiment of Chasseurs. In autumn 1838 he moved to Bismarck
, Greifswald, where in addition to the performance of their military duties he studied methods of breeding animals in Eldenskoy Academy. Bismarck
1 January 1839 the mother died, Otto
, Wilhelmina. Death of the mother has not made a strong impression on Otto
: only much later came to him a true assessment of its qualities. However, this event allowed for a certain period of urgent problem - what he should do after the end of military service. Otto
Bernhard helped his brother run the economy in the Pomeranian estates, and their father returned to Schц╤nhausen. Cash loss of his father, along with an innate aversion to the life of a Prussian bureaucrat forced Bismarck
in September 1839 to retire and take the lead of family holdings in Pomerania. In private conversations, Otto
explained this by saying that his temperament was not suited for the position of subordinate. He could not stand on a no superiors: "My pride requires me to command, and not to execute someone else's orders". Otto
, as his father, decided to "live and die in the village". Otto
himself had studied accounting, chemistry, agriculture. His brother, Bernhard, almost did not participate in the management of estates. Bismarck
was shrewd and practical, the landowner, earned respect for its neighbors as a theoretical knowledge of agriculture, and practical successes. The value of estates has increased by more than one third in nine years, during which they managed Otto
, and three years of the nine fell widespread agricultural crisis. Yet, Otto
could not simply be a landowner.
Johann von Puttkamer - wife of Otto
He shocked his neighbors, the cadets that went around on their meadows and forests on its huge stallion Caleb, not worrying about who the land belonged. Just as he did in relation to the daughters of neighboring farmers. Later, in a fit of remorse, Bismarck
, admitted that in those years he did not shied away from any sin, running her friendship with the bad company of any kind ". Sometimes at night Otto
gamble away all that could save months of painstaking economic. Much of what he was doing was pointless. Thus, the Bismarck
was wont to notify friends of their arrival by shooting into the ceiling, and once he came into the living room and a neighbor brought him on a leash like a dog, a scared fox, and then a loud hunting cries let her go. During stormy temper neighbors called him "mad Bismarck
In the estate Bismarck
continued his education, taking the works of Hegel, Kant, Spinoza, David Friedrich Strauss and Feuerbach. Otto
well studied English literature, as well as England and her case took Bismarck
more than any other country. Intellectually "mad Bismarck
far superior to their neighbors - cadets.
In mid 1841, Otto
wanted to marry Ottoline
von Puttkamer, daughter of a wealthy Junker. But her mother refused him, and to unwind, Otto
went to travel, visiting England and France. This leave Bismarck
helped to dispel the boredom of rural life in Pomerania. Bismarck
became more sociable and made many friends.
Parish of Bismarck
After his father's death in 1845 the family property was divided, and Bismarck
was the manor Schц╤nhausen and Kniphof in Pomerania. In 1847 he married Johanna von Puttkamer, a distant relative of the girl, for whom he courted in 1841. Among his new friends in Pomerania were Ernst Leopold von Gerlach and his brother, who not only were headed Pomeranian pietists, but part of a group of court advisers.
Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795-1861), King of Prussia from 1840, from the Hohenzollern dynasty Bismarck
, student Gerlach, became known for his conservative positions in the constitutional struggle in Prussia in the years 1848-1850. From the "mad Junker Bismarck
became a" mad deputy "of the Berlin State Parliament. Counteracting the liberals, Bismarck
contributed to the creation of various political organizations and newspapers, including "New Prussian newspaper" ( "Neue Preussische Zeitung"). He was a deputy of the parliament's lower house of Prussia in 1849 and Erfurt Parliament in 1850, . as opposed federation Germanic countries (Austria, with or without), . because he believed, . that this association will strengthen the wave of revolutionary movement,
. In his speech Olmyutsskoy Bismarck
defended King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, capitulated to Austria and Russia. Pleased monarch wrote about Bismarck
: "fervent royalist. Use later.
In May 1851 the king appointed Bismarck
's Prussia in the Union representative in the Diet Frankfurt. There Bismarck
almost immediately came to the conclusion that the purpose of Prussia can not be Germany confederation with the dominant position of Austria and the war with Austria was inevitable, if a dominant position in the united Germany will Prussia. As Bismarck
has evolved in the study of diplomacy and the art of government, he increasingly distanced himself from the views of the king and his camarilla. For its part, and the king began to lose confidence in the Bismarck
. In 1859 the king's brother William, the then regent, Bismarck
dismissed from his duties and sent an envoy to St. Petersburg. There Bismarck
became friendly with Russia's Foreign Minister Prince п░.п°. Gorchakov, who contributed to Bismarck
in his efforts to the diplomatic isolation of Austria first, and then France. Otto
- Minister-President of Prussia. His diplomacy.
In 1862 Bismarck
was sent ambassador to France at the court of Napoleon III. Soon he was recalled by King William I to resolve the contradictions on the issue of military spending, which vigorously debated in the lower house of parliament.
William I of Hohenzollern (1797-1888), King of Prussia from 1861. and Germany's emperor from 1871.
In September of that year became head of government, and later - the Minister-President and Foreign Minister of Prussia
. Militant Conservative, . Bismarck
declared the liberal majority of the Parliament, . consisted of representatives of the middle class, . that the government will continue to collect taxes, . consistent with the old budget, . for parliament because of internal contradictions will not be able to adopt a new budget,
. (This policy continued in the years 1863-1866, . which enabled Bismarck
to military reform.) At a meeting of the Parliamentary Committee on September 29 Bismarck
, emphasized: "The great questions of time will be decided not by speeches and majority resolutions - it was a mistake in 1848 and 1949, . - But by blood and iron ",
. Since the upper and lower houses of parliament have been unable to develop a unified strategy on national defense, government, according to Bismarck
, should take the initiative and forcing the parliament to agree with his decisions.
Alexander II the Liberator (1818-81), the Emperor of Russia since 1855
By restricting the press, Bismarck
has taken serious measures to suppress opposition.
For their part, liberals harshly criticized Bismarck
's support for the proposal of Russia Emperor Alexander II in suppressing the Polish uprising of 1863-1864 (Convention Alvenslebena 1863). During the next decade policy of Bismarck
led to three wars: the war with Denmark in 1864, . after which were annexed to Prussia Schleswig, . Holstein (Holstein) and Lauenburg, Austria in 1866, and France (Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871 years).,
. April 9, 1866, . the next day after the signing of Bismarck
's secret agreement for a military alliance with Italy in case of an attack on Austria, . He introduced his project germanskogo Bundestag parliament and universal suffrage by secret ballot for the male population,
. After the decisive battle at Ketiggretse (Garden), . in which the Germans troops defeated the Austrian, . Bismarck
managed to get out of annexationist claims of William I and the Prussian generals, . wishing to join in Vienna and demanded major territorial acquisitions, . and invited the Austrian Honorary Peace (Peace of Prague 1866),
did not let William I "put Austria on the knees" by occupying Vienna. The future chancellor insisted on relatively easy terms of peace for Austria in order to ensure its neutrality in a future conflict of Prussia and France, which each year was inevitable. Austria was excluded from Germanskogo Union, joined in Venice Italy, Hanover, Nassau, Hesse-Kasel, Frankfurt, Schleswig and Holstein were ceded to Prussia.
One of the most important consequences of the Austro-Prussian war was the formation of the North-Germanskogo Union, which along with Prussia was to have about 30 states. All of them, according to the constitution adopted in 1867, formed a single territory with common to all the laws and institutions. Foreign and military policy of the Union was in fact handed over to the Prussian king, who declared him president. From the South Germanic nations was soon signed customs and military agreement. These steps clearly showed that Germany was rapidly moving towards its unification under the leadership of Prussia.
Outside North Germanskogo Union left the southern German states, Bavaria, Wuerttemberg and Baden. France did everything possible to prevent the Bismarck
to include these lands in the North-Germanskogo Union. Napoleon III did not want to see on their eastern borders of a united Germany. Bismarck
realized that without the war, this problem can not be resolved.
Moltke (the Elder) Helmut Karl (1800-91), Earl (1870), Germanic, General Field Marshal (1871) and military theorist. Since 1858 Head of Prussia, in 1871-88 germanskogo General Staff, Commander in Chief actually in the wars with Denmark, Austria and France
In the next three years, the secret diplomacy of Bismarck
was directed against France. In Berlin, Bismarck
introduced a bill in Parliament, which exempts it from liability for unconstitutional actions, which was approved by the liberals. The French and Prussian interests clashed time and again on different issues. In France at that time were strong militant antigermanskie mood. They are a Bismarck
Emergence of "Ems Dispatch" was caused by the scandalous events surrounding the nomination of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern (nephew of William I) on the Spanish throne, vacant since the revolution in Spain in 1868. Bismarck
correctly calculated that France would never agree to such a scenario, in the case of Leopold's reign in Spain begins to brandish weapons and to make bellicose statements about North Germanskogo Union, that sooner or later end in war. Therefore, he strongly promoted the candidacy of Leopold, asserting, however, Europe is that Germanic government had not involved the claims of Hohenzollern to the Spanish throne. In its circulars, and later in the memoirs of Bismarck
in every way trying to distance itself from its involvement in the plot, claiming that the nomination of Prince Leopold on the Spanish throne was "family" affair of Hohenzollern. In fact, Bismarck
, and came to his aid the War Minister Roon and Moltke, chief of staff spent a lot of force to persuade stubborn Wilhelm I support the candidacy of Leopold. July 6, 1870 Minister of Foreign Affairs of France, Duc de Gramont exclaimed: "That will not happen, we are sure of that ... Otherwise, we were able to perform their duty without showing any weakness or hesitation ". Following this statement, Prince Leopold, without any consultation with the King and Bismarck
announced that he renounces claim to the Spanish throne.
This step is not included in the plans of Bismarck
. Refusal Leopold broke his calculations the fact that France itself would unleash a war against North Germanskogo Union. It was fundamentally important for the Bismarck
, is seeking the neutrality of the leading European countries in a future war, he later succeeded largely due to the fact that the aggressor was just France. It is difficult to judge, . as Bismarck
was sincere in his memoirs, . when he wrote about, . that upon receiving news of Leopold's refusal to take the Spanish throne, my first thought was to resign "(Bismarck
Wilhelm I just filed resignation, . using them as a means of pressure on the king, . that without his Chancellor nothing in politics does not mean), . However, it looks more authentic evidence of his memoir, . referring to the same time: "The war I was at that time felt the need to, . shy away from that with honor we could not ",
was thinking, what other ways are there to provoke France into declaring war, the French themselves have given to this excellent opportunity. July 13, 1870 to a rest on the waters of Ems Wilhelm I in the morning said the French ambassador Benedetti and gave him a rather brazen request of his minister Gramont - France to assure that, . that he (the king) will never give its consent, . If Prince Leopold run again on the Spanish throne,
Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte) (1808-73), French emperor in 1852-1870 years
The king, angered a truly audacious for diplomatic etiquette of the time gimmick, answered a sharp rejection and interrupted an audience Benedetti. A few minutes, . he received a letter from its ambassador in Paris, . stating, . insists that Gramont, . to William handwritten letter assured Napoleon III in his lack of any intention to harm the interests and dignity of France,
. This news finally enraged William I. When Benedetti asked for a new audience for a conversation on this subject, he refused to accept and passed through his aide had said its last word.
These events Bismarck
learned from dispatches sent from Ems advisor afternoon Abekenom. Dispatch Bismarck
was taken during lunch. Along with dinner Roon and Moltke. Bismarck
read them dispatch. The two old soldiers dispatch made the worst impression. Bismarck
recalled that Roon and Moltke were so upset that "neglected foods and beverages". After reading, Bismarck
after a while asked Moltke on the state of the Army and its readiness for war. Moltke said, in the spirit that "the immediate commencement of the war more profitable than the guy". Then Bismarck
once at the dinner table edited the telegram and read it to the generals. Here is the text: "After the news of the abdication of the Crown Prince of Hohenzollern had been officially communicated to the French imperial government of the Spanish royal government, . French Ambassador in Ems presented to His Majesty incremental demand: to authorize him to telegraph to Paris, . that His Majesty the King is committed to all future time never to give its consent, . if Hohenzollerns back to his candidacy,
. His Majesty the King has refused again to take the French ambassador, and ordered the adjutant on duty to tell him that his Majesty has nothing more to report after the.
's contemporaries suspected him of falsifying the "Ems Dispatch". First began talking about the German Social Democrats Liebknecht and Bebel. Liebknecht in 1891 even published a brochure "Ems Dispatch, or How are war. Bismarck
also wrote in his memoirs that he was only "something" had crossed from the telegrams, but not added to her "word". What struck from the "Ems Dispatch" BismarkN First of all, that could indicate the true mastermind of the appearance in the press telegrams King. Bismarck
crossed the wish of William I pass "at the discretion of your Excellency, ie. Bismarck
, the question is not whether or not to report as our representatives, and in the press about the new requirement Benedetti and the refusal of the King ". To reinforce the impression of disrespect to the French envoy William I, Bismarck
did not put in the new text to mention the fact that the king replied after "quite sharply". The remaining reductions will not have significance. New edition Ems Dispatch put out of depression had dinner with Bismarck
Roon and Moltke. Latter exclaimed: "So it sounds different; before it sounded the signal for retreat, now - fanfares". Bismarck
began to develop in front of them with their future plans: "To fight we must, if you do not want to assume the role of the vanquished without fight. But success depends largely on the impressions, which will cause us and other origins of the war, it is important that we were by the people who attacked and Gallic arrogance and resentment will help us in this ... "
. Subsequent events unfolded in the desired direction for the Bismarck
. Publication of "Ems Dispatch" in many German newspapers caused an uproar in France. Minister of Foreign Affairs Gramont angrily shouted in Parliament that gave a slap in the face of France, Prussia. 15 July 1870 the head of the French cabinet Emile Olivier demanded from Parliament a loan of 50 million francs and said the government's decision to call in the army reservists in response to a call to war ". The future French President Adolphe Thiers, who in 1871 will make peace with Prussia and drown in the blood of the Paris Commune, in July 1870 while still a member of parliament, was perhaps the only sane politician in France in those days. He tried to persuade MPs to reject Olivier credit and reserve call-ups, . arguing, . what, . as Prince Leopold refused the Spanish crown, . its goal the French diplomacy has achieved and should not quarrel with Prussia because of the words and bring the matter to closure on a purely formal grounds,
. Olivier replied to this, that he was "lightly" ready to take responsibility, is now falling on him. In the end, the deputies approved all proposals of the Government, and 19 July France declared war on the North-Germanic Union. Bismarck
, meanwhile, talked with members of the Reichstag. It was important to carefully conceal from the public their painstaking work behind the scenes to provoke the French to declare war. With his usual hypocrisy and resourcefulness Bismarck
convinced the deputies that throughout the history of Prince Leopold government and he personally did not participate. He shamelessly lied, . when he told the deputies that, . that the desire of the Prince Leopold to occupy the Spanish throne, he learned not from the King, . but from some kind of "private person", . that the North-Germanic ambassador from Paris, he left "for personal reasons", . not been revoked by the government (in fact, Bismarck
ordered the ambassador to leave France, . Being irritated his "softness" to the French),
. This lie Bismarck
diluted dose of truth. He lied, saying that the decision to publish a dispatch about the negotiations between the Ems Wilhelm I, and Benedetti was accepted by the Government at the request of the King.
Sam William I did not expect that the publication of "Ems Dispatch" will lead to a quick war with France. After reading the edited text of Bismarck
in the newspapers, he exclaimed: "This is war!" The king was afraid of this war. Bismarck
, later wrote in his memoirs, . that William I should not have to negotiate with Benedetti, . but he "gave his person the monarch's unconscionable treatment by the foreign agent" largely due to, . that had yielded to pressure his wife Queen Augusta with her feminine justified by timidity and failed her national feeling ",
. Thus, Bismarck
used the Wilhelm I as a cover for their backroom intrigues against France.
When the Prussian generals began to win over the French victory after victory, no major European power not entered for France. This was the result of pre-diplomatic activities of Bismarck
, who was able to achieve the neutrality of Russia and England.
. Frederick III - Germanic Emperor and King of Prussia, after William I, rules 99 days
. Russia, he promised neutrality in the event of withdrawal from the humiliating Treaty of Paris that forbade her to have his fleet in the Black Sea, the British were outraged at the direction of Bismarck
published the draft treaty of annexation by France of Belgium
. But the most important thing was, . what France had attacked the North Deutsch union, . despite repeated peaceful intentions and small assignments, . which went to her Bismarck
(Prussian troops withdrawal from Luxembourg in 1867, . statement of willingness to abandon Bavaria and shape it into a neutral country, etc.),
. By editing the "Ems Dispatch, Bismarck
impulsively improvised and guided by the real achievements of its diplomacy, and therefore was the victor. And the winners are known, do not judge. The credibility of Bismarck
, even being in retirement, was in Germany so high that no one (except the Social Democrats) did not occur to him to pour the mud tubs, when in 1892 the original text of the "Ems Dispatch" was made public from the rostrum of the Reichstag.
- Chancellor of the Reich.
. Exactly one month after the outbreak of hostilities a large part of the French army was surrounded by German troops surrendered at Sedan and
. Sam Napoleon III surrendered to William I.
In November 1870 the South-Germanic states came to the converted from the Northern Alliance Unified Deutsch. In December 1870 the Bavarian king offered to restore the German Empire and the German imperial dignity, destroyed at the time of Napoleon. This proposal was accepted, and the Reichstag turned to Wilhelm I to take the imperial crown. In 1871, in Versailles, William I wrote on the envelope addressed to - Chancellor Germanskoy empire, "thereby endorsing the right to rule an empire of Bismarck
, which he created and which was proclaimed on 18 January in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. March 2, 1871 was signed the Treaty of Paris - a heavy and humiliating for France. The border region of Alsace and Lorraine were ceded to Germany. France had to pay a war indemnity of 5 billion. William I returned to Berlin, as the victor, even though all the credit belonged to the Chancellor.
. "Iron Chancellor", who represented the interests of minorities and the absolute power of governing this empire in the years 1871-1890, with the consent of the Reichstag, where from 1866 to 1878 he supported the National Party - Liberals
conducted a reform of Germanic law, governance and finance. Spent in education reform in 1873 led to conflict with the Roman Catholic Church, . but the main cause of the conflict was increasing, distrust Germanic Catholics (around one-third of the population) to the Protestant Prussia,
. When these apparent contradictions in the Catholic party, the Center "in the Reichstag in early 1870, Bismarck
was forced to take action. The struggle against the domination of the Catholic Church was named "kulturkampfa" (Kulturkampf, the struggle for culture). During her many bishops and priests were arrested, hundreds of dioceses were left without leaders. Now the church appointments were to be consistent with the state, church officials could not be at the service in the state apparatus. Schools were separated from the church, introduced civil marriage, the Jesuits were expelled from Germany.
. His foreign policy, Bismarck
built, based on the situation in 1871 after the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian war and occupation by Germany of Alsace and Lorraine, which became a source of constant voltage
. With a complex system of alliances, . ensured the isolation of France, . rapprochement between Germany and Austria-Hungary and the maintenance of good relations with Russia (alliance of three emperors - Germany, . Austria-Hungary and Russia in 1873 and 1881, the Austro-Germanic alliance in 1879, "Triple Alliance" between Germany, . Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1882, "Mediterranean agreement" in 1887 between Austria-Hungary, . Italy and England and "reinsurance agreement" with Russia in 1887), Bismarck
managed to maintain peace in Europe,
. Empire of Germany under Chancellor Bismarck
was one of the leaders of international politics.
. In foreign policy, Bismarck
made every effort, . to consolidate the gains of the Peace of Frankfurt in 1871, . contributed to the diplomatic isolation of the French Republic, and sought to prevent the formation of any coalition, . threatening the hegemony of Germany,
. He chose not to participate in the discussion of the claims on the weakened Ottoman
Empire. When the Berlin Congress in 1878 under the chairmanship of Bismarck
, was completed the next phase of discussions "Eastern Question", he played the role of "honest broker" in the dispute of rival parties. Although the "Triple Alliance" was directed against Russia and France, Otto
believed that war with Russia would be extremely dangerous for Germany. The secret treaty with Russia in 1887 - a contract of reinsurance "- has shown the ability to Bismarck
to act behind the backs of their allies, Austria and Italy, to preserve the status quo in the Balkans and the Middle East.
Up until 1884 Bismarck
did not give clear definitions of the rate of colonial policy, mainly because of the friendly relations with Britain. Another factor was the desire to preserve the capital of Germany and to minimize government expenditures. The first expansionist plans of Bismarck
provoked vigorous protests from all parties - the Catholics, statists, socialists, and even members of his own class - Junkers. Despite this, under Bismarck
, Germany began to turn into a colonial empire.
In 1879, Bismarck
broke with the Liberals continue to rely on a coalition of large landowners, industrialists, top military and government officials.
August Bebel (1840-1913), one of the founders (1869) and the head of Germany Social Democratic Party and the 2 nd International. Criticism of Bismarck
In 1879, Chancellor Bismarck
had made the adoption of the Reichstag protectionist customs tariffs. The Liberals were ousted from the big policy. New course of economic and financial policies consistent with the interests of Germany's major industrialists and large landowners. Their union has taken a dominant position in politics and public administration. Otto
gradually moved from a policy of "kulturkampfa" to the persecution of the socialists. In 1878, after the assassination attempt on the life of the Emperor Bismarck
had the Reichstag through the "emergency law" against the Socialists, banning the activities of the Social-Democratic organizations. The Act closed many newspapers and societies, often far from socialism. Constructive prohibitive negative side of his position was the introduction of public health insurance in 1883, in the event of injury in 1884 and old-age pension in 1889. However, these measures have not been able to isolate the Germanic workers from the Social Democratic Party, although distracted them from their revolutionary methods of solving social problems. At the same time Bismarck
was opposed to any legislation governing working conditions.
. Conflict with Wilhelm II and Bismarck
. With the accession to the throne of Wilhelm II in 1888, Bismarck
had lost control of the government
William II of Hohenzollern (1859-1941), the Germanic Emperor and King of Prussia in 1888-1918, the grandson of William I. Deposed November 1918 revolution
When Wilhelm I and Frederick III, who reigned less than six months, the position of Bismarck
could not shake none of the opposition groups. Self-confident and ambitious, the Kaiser refused to play a secondary role, . stating at a banquet in 1891: "The country has one only one master - that I, . and the other I will not tolerate ", and his strained relationship with the Chancellor became more strained,
. The most serious discrepancies appeared in the issue of amending the "Anti-Socialist" (enacted in 1878-1890 respectively), and the question of law ministers subordinate to the Chancellor, on a personal audience with the Emperor. Wilhelm II, Bismarck
hinted at the desirability of his resignation and received from Bismarck
's resignation March 18, 1890. The resignation was accepted two days later, Bismarck
, received the title of Duke of Lauenburg, he was promoted to the rank of colonel-general of cavalry.
Removal of Bismarck
in Fridrihsrue was not the end of his interest in political.
"Iron Chancellor" in retirement
Especially, he was eloquent in his criticism of the newly appointed Chancellor and Minister-President of Count Leo von Caprivi. In 1891, Bismarck
was elected to the Reichstag from Hanover, but never took his seat there, and two years later declined to run for re-election. In 1894, the emperor and already aging Bismarck
met again in Berlin - at the suggestion of Clovis Hohenlohe, Prince Shillingfyursta, the successor to the Caprivi. In 1895 the whole of Germany celebrated 80 years of "Iron Chancellor". In June 1896, Prince Otto
took part in the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. Died in Bismarck
Fridrihsrue July 30, 1898. "Iron Chancellor" was buried at his own request on his estate Fridrihsrue on the headstone of his tomb was struck inscription: "A devoted servant of the German Kaiser Wilhelm I". In April 1945 a house in Shenhauzene, which in 1815 was born Otto
, was burned down by Soviet troops.
. Literary monument to Bismarck
are his "thoughts and memories" (Gedanken und Erinnerungen), . a big-time politics of European offices "(Die grosse Politik der europaischen Kabinette, . 1871-1914, . 1924-1928) in 47 volumes as a monument to his diplomatic skills.,
. Literary sources
. Otto von Bismarck