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GROTTO Nikolai Yakovlevich

( Russian idealist philosopher, psychologist)

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Biography GROTTO Nikolai Yakovlevich
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Born in Helsinki, 18 (30) April 1852. He graduated from the historical-philological faculty of St. Petersburg University (1875). For several months in a scientific mission in Germany, taught at Nezhin historical-philological institute. In 1879 he defended his master's thesis Psychology of feelings in its history and major foundations. In this study, Groth serves as an advocate of a physiological approach to mental activity and in general is on the positivist position. In 1882 he defended his doctoral thesis to the reform of logic. In 1884 became a professor of Novorossiysk University in Odessa. In 1886 Groth - Professor of Moscow University. He was also chairman of the Moscow Psychological Society, editor of 'questions of philosophy and psychology' (from 1889). Died Grotto in s.Kochetok Kharkiv Huber May 23 (30) 1899.
In their dissertations and other works of the first half of 1880 Groth spoke with a consistent critique of metaphysics, ethics in the field were close to him the principles of utilitarianism (the question of free will, 1884). Logic, he 'reformed' in the direction of psychology, linking it to cognitive function studied psychology characteristics of mental activity. Historical and philosophical interest in the philosophy of the Renaissance (primarily to pantheism Giordano Bruno) has provoked a kind of 'metaphysical turn' in the work of the Grotto. On a major departure from the positivist plants evidenced by his work: Giordano Bruno and pantheism (1885), and about the soul in connection with the modern theory of power (1886).

Groth actually passes from the sharp criticism of metaphysics to its justification, seeing it as the basis of philosophical knowledge and its most important scientific and speculative element (article What is metaphysics?, 1890). Own position, he defined as 'monodualizm', thus underlining the desire to avoid the 'extremes' monistic tradition in philosophy, both in the idealist and materialist variants. Groth was inclined to a pluralistic metaphysics, which recognizes the existence of several substances that are in complex hierarchical relationships. In the writings of the Grotto 'metaphysical' period, the important role played by the idea of force. This concept is also applicable as it is believed to both natural and spiritual processes. However, the active, creative principle of the world has its origin in the spiritual force. Matter is a passive Home. In his moral philosophy Grotto relied on the ethical and metaphysical ideas of Schopenhauer (The grounds of moral duty, 1892; The foundations of moral action, 1895). In the interpretation of the Grotto 'World Will' taking on the characteristics of an ideal and even the moral foundation of the world, and ultimately coincides with the 'love of the world'. In the last years of his life Grotto constantly drawn to the problems of psychology (the question of the significance of the idea of parallelism in psychology, 1894; Foundations of Experimental Psychology, 1895; The concept of the soul and moral life in Psychology, 1897).

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GROTTO Nikolai Yakovlevich, photo, biography
GROTTO Nikolai Yakovlevich, photo, biography GROTTO Nikolai Yakovlevich  Russian idealist philosopher, psychologist, photo, biography
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