Darwin Charles( English naturalist)
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Biography Darwin Charles
The first truly scientific theory of evolution was a theory of Charles Darwin (1809-1882). He explained the fitness of living organisms to the conditions of their existence and increase the species diversity of the action of "natural selection". Decisive influence on the scientific views of the young Darwin had a trip around the world on the ship "Beagle". What we saw during the voyage led scientists to doubt the immutability of species of plants and animals. However, returning to England, he did not hurry with the publication, looking for all the new validation of the theory of natural selection. The most convincing evidence found numerous examples of artificial selection, by which man has created all variety of breeds of domestic animals. Thus, crossing different breeds of pigeons, Darwin sometimes got birds, reminiscent of the wild rock-pigeon. He came to the conclusion that so different from each other's domestic pigeons are descended from a common ancestor, but their specific properties of different species are required selection had produced man.
Teaching V. Darwin has caused a wide resonance in the scientific world. Branches of biology gained the evolutionary nature of. For example, the work of VO Kovalevsky on the history of fossil ungulates initiated evolutionary paleontology. Of course, not all scientists graciously embraced the doctrine H. Darwin. Scientific criticism of Darwin's theory helped to understand the problems of evolutionary biology, the main one of which was the need to study the laws of heredity.
... A little English town of Shrewsbury. At the top of a steep cliff, which is terraced down to the river Severn, stood a tall, built of red brick house. He was surrounded by a large garden with ornamental and fruit trees. Rooms on the ground floor, twined with ivy green, went straight to the greenhouse. In this house on Feb. 12, 1809 Charles Darwin was born.
His father, Robert Darwin was a physician and was widely used. He was extremely interested in people, treated them with genuine affection and inspire patients to such self-respect that they even shared with him their everyday problems.
Darwin's mother died when Charles was a little over 8 years, and he remembered only her bed, black velvet dress and a working table. A year after his mother's death, Charles was sent to school, Dr. Butler, where he studied mainly the ancient languages. Little Darwin keen on collecting collections of shells, stamps, coins. Especially he loved to collect birds' eggs, but never took more than one out of the nest egg. Many hours he spent on the river, to drop the rod and looking at the float. Once he learned that worms can umertvlyat sea water, and since then has never skewer on the hook for a living worm, though it may be, and reduced its catch. He tried to find for the collection of dead butterflies and beetles, so as not to pierce the living insect pins.
. In the evenings, when the lights went out in Shrewsbury, Charles and his brother Erasmus to climb to the arbor, and here in makeshift chemical laboratory, attempted to obtain the substance, which did not get to them more than one chemist.
. Learning about a new fascination with Charles, comrades nicknamed him 'The gas', and Dr. Butler made him a reprimand at all, expressing hope that instead of training it would be worthless with due diligence to learn languages.
. Since the stay in school Dr. Butler was no good, his father took Charles home from school with his older brother, and sent the children in the Edinburgh University medical school.
. Charles Keen on the study of wildlife
. Among the students were a lot of nature lovers. Together with them he was collecting in pools and on the shore after the tide of worms, crustaceans and molluscs, often traveled with the fishermen at sea, where to fish oysters, and for a short time assembled a large collection of shells. He became acquainted with a Negro, who made a living taxidermy. Darwin began to take lessons from him and sat in his house the whole evening.
But medicine is not fascinated by Charles and his father suggested he become a priest. Young Darwin prchel several theological books and found nothing in them, contrary to his convictions. He believed the Bible tales of creation and God of the Deluge. Who would have thought that the years pass, and Darwin will cause the biggest shock of religion, that it ever happened to receive.
In 1828 Darwin went to Cambridge University on the theological faculty. Studying theology, Charles still keen on sports, painting, music, idle hours in the gallery before pictures of Cambridge. Peering into the picturesque landscape, the faces of the people, he thought, as well serious art, expressing great thoughts. He loved the enchanting music of Beethoven: when in the room heard the quiet, . gentle sounds of Moonlight Sonata, . Charles harboring breath, . shiver ran down his body, and before his eyes rose the lake in the soft glow of the moonlit night, or bright sunlight glare among shady litsvy, . washed by rain.,
. But nothing gave him such pleasure as collecting beetles
. This was already serving science, and pretty soon all kinds of Cambridge beetles were in his box. He looked for them everywhere, even in the moss taken from old trees, and in the Soret swept away from the bottom of the barges. Especially remembered for his one case. Once, tearing a piece of tree bark, he saw two rare beetles. Taking one of them in his hands, he was about to leave when I saw the third, with a pattern on the abdomen in the form of large cross. This beetle he did not know. He could not be mistaken: the memory of beetles had been a wonderful. Without thinking twice, Darwin put a beetle in his mouth and pressed his teeth, but the beetle suddenly released to Charles in his mouth a caustic liquid, which hurts burned tongue. Darwin spat in disgust beetle, while losing its discovery. Once Charles had read in a magazine a rare beetle, the same was said: 'Sighting H. Darwin '. His vanity was extremely flattered, and he even thought: do not be whether he zhukolovomN
At Cambridge, Darwin became acquainted with Professor Henslow. For the first time in the dark medieval audiences Henslow invited students to study the living flowers. His knowledge of botany, chemistry and mineralogy were so extensive that Darwin thought: Henslow knows everything.
Darwin absorbed this knowledge, as a dry land absorbs every fallen on her raindrop. Often Henslow led away in the vicinity of Cambridge students and figuratively talked about plants. Darwin always participated in these outings, so it became known as 'The one who walks with Henslow'.
I became acquainted with Darwin and the geologist Sedgwick. More than once he had climbed with him on the uninhabited mountains of North Wales, and made geological surveys have not yet investigated sites. Despite its promise will never be engaged in geology, he worked 'like a tiger' and on vacation made geological map of the area of Shrewsbury.
Once Darwin found in a sand pit tropical shell. The layers were ice-age - how they got into this rakovinaN Astonished, Darwin showed his discovery Sedgwick.
- Most likely - calmly said geologist - someone threw this thing in the pit. If really sink hit the ice formations in a natural way, then it would turn upside down all our ideas about them.
Darwin was surprised indifferent scholar who is not interested in such a rare find. Is a man who clearly overturn naukuN
Priest Darwin did not become. One day he received a letter from Professor Henslow. The professor wrote that the ship 'Beagle' ( 'sniffer') is sent to circumnavigate the world, and advised Darwin to take part in this journey as a naturalist.
Began vigorously charges in the road. Arriving in Plymouth Bay, Darwin saw anchored desyatipushechny brig, one of those small vessels that sailors called 'coffins', since such vessels easily overturned during a storm.
'Beagle' was to explore the sea routes to South America (which were then British colonies) and to bring accurate nautical charts for safe navigation along its shores understudiedness. Captain 'Beagle' Fitz-Roy has Darwin in the cabin: the middle of her cluttered with a large table over it hung a hammock, in which Darwin could otlezhivatsya during rolling, along the walls were lined with bookcases. Proposing to Darwin his books, tools and weapons, Fitz-Roy said:
- Sit comfortably. After all, we have to shake the boat a long time. For me, it would be a real misfortune to know that my companion something displeased.
. When the 'Beagle' Plihmutskuyu left the bay and went to the open sea, Darwin has long heard the sad bells of Eldistonskogo lighthouse and all looked to the shore until it completely disappeared from sight behind the distant blue water.
. Kazhoe morning, flung overboard network, it is to fish small marine animals
. The sailors called it 'Muholovom', and Lieutenant Uihgem, whose responsibility it was to keep order and cleanliness of the deck, was in despair at the sight of uymy mud, which Darwin shook from the network.
. Darwin brought a lot of trouble pitching
. During the storm, when the wind was blowing fiercely, the sea roar, a roar rose from the foamy waves - nothing could be seen around, except the innumerable sprays. And only albatross, spreading its wings, raced evenly in the wind. A small ship tossed like a chip, he then flew to the crest of a wave, then dived into the abyss, and then the stormy waves of afflicted him plaintively skripevshie gear. At such moments, Darwin thought that fate itself against. He had suffered terribly from seasickness, and regretted very much that he went. But to abandon further travel, he could not. The idea to explore the tropical nature of the increasingly captivated his imagination
. For all the voyage nobody heard from him angry words and had not seen him in a bad mood.
. When the 'Beagle' cast anchor off the coast of Brazil, Darwin was in a place full of temptations for a curious naturalist, he felt rewarded for all their suffering
. He felt that he was in a magical region fulfilled dreams.
The beauty of the rainforest was struck by. Many vines, like serpents, twined trees, creeping along the ground and turn everything, creating a wild mess, which struck the eyes of the primitive beauty. Darwin admired messy, gorgeous conservatory, created by nature. What species richness! What a luxuriant growth of green under the beneficent influence of heat and humidity!
Darwin followed the flight of large bright butterflies. Slowly and majestically they flew over the flowers, and dropped to the ground, spread their wings and running, producing a crackling noise and. An army of leaf-cutting ants slowly walked the the tropics, under cover of pieces of leaves, like umbrellas. Wasp spider hunting for, preparing food for their larvae. Abruptly teal, floated among the thorn trees, the tiny hummingbird. Occasionally, they fly up to the flowers, deeply immersed in them thin curved beak, and hung in the air on their invisible wings.
. When it grew dark, tree frogs, cicadas and crickets raised incessant concert and listening to their discordant chorus, Darwin watched the luminous insects ...
. In the summer of 1832 'Beagle' approached the coast of Uruguay.
. ... Faded sunset, the horizon drowning faint pink glitter posledengo ray
. A bright fire blazed, the divorced natives, and bizarre shadows of dancing flames darting through the grass. Darwin was lying on the ground, putting his head under the saddle for a pillow, and watched as the locals - gauchosy roasted meat of wild cows, wrapped it in skins, that no drop of meat juice does not leak. Some gauchos caught this cow with a lasso (lasso, woven leather strap). Darwin saw the huntsman made a big loop, twisted it over his head and, taking aim, deftly darted forward, throwing the animal's neck evader. And Darwin understood why these places the animals feared man on horseback and did not pay attention to the shots: they did not know guns. Taking the lasso, he wanted to hunt, but caught his own horse, and gauchosy laugh till you drop for the first time he saw how caught a rider himself.
In Uruguay, sandy rolling plains in some places were covered with faded, sun-scorched grass. Tree was not only on the river banks grew stunted leafless bushes, they silently narrate scorching heat, the burning of the winds and sophisticated heat the earth.
. Remembering the luxurious vegetation of the tropics, Darwin thought: what a big role in the development of the living conditions of plants and animals.
. In Brazil and Uruguay, Darwin collected in a collection of 80 species of birds and many reptiles
. Here he found a large jaw and a tooth megatherium - extinct sloth. Standing on a steep river bank, Darwin saw with surprise found jaw. Judging by its size, the ancient sloths were huge animals, the size of an elephant. But how do they pitalisN climb trees, as do modern sloths, they could not (which is a branch stood to slonaN). Clearly, relying on massive hind limbs and tail, they wrapped wood front legs, pushes him and eating the leaves. But why they vymerliN man could not destroy them - then there were no people.
Perhaps the cause of death of these giants were katastrofyN But if this were so, sloths in general would disappear from the face of the earth, and not to be reduced in size to the size of modern sloths. Darwin could not find an answer: why they vymerliN How can we explain their similarity to modern zhivotnymiN
Even more surprised Darwin, finding a fossil horse tooth. American wild horse! But the horses in America was not until they have brought the Europeans. At the sight of horses brought by the Spaniards, the Indians shunned in the direction. Whence this zubN bones of extinct animals forced zadumatsya Darwin about the distant past of the Earth. Cuvier believed that only the person changing the face of the catastrophe of the planet and its living world.
Darwin knew that volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods - a formidable force. Once he had witnessed the earthquake. It happened in South America. On this day he was lying on the seashore and rested. Suddenly a strong push lifted him to his feet. Land muffled humming, moaning, Gorby, subterranean rumble and roar of the stones have merged into a deafening roar of destruction death. The trees swayed, as if a strong wind, the sea rose in huge waves, they fell on the shore, throwing heavy stones. Two cities were razed, the earth cracked, the banks have risen markedly, and sinks, for which the residents had recently dived to the bottom, now covered with rocks healthy lifestyle.
. Darwin was shocked by the spectacle of the coup, which takes place over centuries, and here occurred in one minute
. He knew that the terrible devastation produced and collapses when huge masses of thick mud slide on the grassy slopes of the valley and turn the place into a gray bloom, slightly rolling, lifeless surface. Sometimes it falls peregrozhdayut mountain valleys, creating a dam height of several hundred meters, and new lakes extending for hundreds of kilometers. Betray the surface of the earth and sand storms and spring floods and heavy rains, which are rapidly flowing down the slope, carries with it debris of rocks and minerals, postponing them somewhere else. But these blind forces of destruction are not everywhere and always, on a case by case basis.
. And Darwin's different idea arose than Cuvier: In addition to these disasters, there are other forces.
. Darwin took with him on a trip recently published book by the famous geologist Laylelya 'Basic Principles of Geology'
. Laylel claimed at the time a new idea - the whole face of the Earth is changing gradually, with no accidents, under the action of wind, water, temperature fluctuations. Ground in the sand and pebbles, rocks washed into the sea, which gradually accumulate and form deposits in the form of layers. In some places the crust is lowered and instead of dry treeless plains there is the vast expanse of blue water. In others - rising sea floor, and new mountain folds arise where once raged and penilsya surf ...
Laylel overestimated the importance of 'small power' of nature. But for the time the book talking about the gradual changes of evolution, was remarkable.
If you change the conditions of life, and living organisms must change. For the first time Darwin had doubts in the world created by God.
Particularly interested in Darwin's fauna and flora of the Galapagos Islands. These islands, located 700 kilometers west of the American coast, covered with black volcanic lava, solidified waves and wrinkled, dark brown cracked. Low, lean dry rustling bushes in some places its leafless branches, and only on the mountain slopes after heavy rains raised the bright sunny greens. On the coastal cliffs basking in the sun big lizards, they ran away from under their feet, seeking refuge in the rugged masses of lava. On their feet they were flipper, they can swim well and ate seaweed. Huge elephant turtle slowly wandered among the rocks, his head bowed, and he saw the enemy, hiding in his armor and loudly hissed.
Here, Darwin collected plants, mineral specimens, catching insects and birds. Birds were surprisingly gullible. They approached the man at such a distance that they could cover up the hat.
. The settlers were told that even before the birds landed on the outstretched hand, taking it, obviously, a branch of the tree.
. Darwin explained the credulity of the birds that they did not know people have not learned from bitter experience to be afraid
Flora and fauna of the islands Darwin interested in their originality. He gathered here 20 species of Compositae plants and found 25 species of birds that are found only in the archipelago, such as finches, owls, pikas.
Especially remarkable were finches. Darwin counted from 13 species. In painting feathers of these small passerine birds was nothing remarkable, but their beaks ... In some species the beaks were broad, like a Hawfinch, others - medium, like a finch, a third - as thin as a robin. Some hunted for insects, other grains collected. Comparison of their beak, tail, body shape and tail led to the idea that all these 13 species of birds are descended from a common ancestor. At various islands of the archipelago and turtles were different, and lizards, and plants ...
Darwin thought. The distance between the islands is small, only a few tens of kilometers, but the ocean between them is very deep, for quick, so to swim from one island to the other animals could not. But, maybe, the wind bore the seeds and help the birds to overcome prolivyN However, strong winds blowing from one island to another, there is no. Besides those bare rocky islands have never been one piece of sushi, they have emerged individual islands thousands of years ago when the seabed was to climb the volcanoes, and left the water. Consequently, the movement of animals between the islands there could be no question: their life is limited by water surrounding the island.
So why are they so razlichnyN Because natural conditions on the islands are similar: the same climate, same height of the cliff ... If you believe the biblical legends, animals and plants were created by God for the environment in which they live. But God did not create the same for each island its own views! And what is particularly strange: island species resemble the U.S., although the islands were never connected to the mainland of South America. It remains to prevent, . that once the plants and animals in various ways Arrived, . pryplyli or were introduced by man to the Galapagos Islands, . and on each island varied independently, . not yet formed a new species, . differences between them the more, . the farther apart the island and the deeper the straits that divide them.,
. Study of fauna Galapagsskih islands led Darwin to reflect on the mystery of the emergence of new species on Earth, the diversity of life on the complex relationships between species.
. Darwin lived on the 'glorious ship' 5 years
. He swam across the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans again. He saw the rich vegetation of the tropics, cheerless plains of Patagonia, forested cliffs of Tierra del Fuego.
On the day when the 'Beagle' cast anchor off the coast native, raging storm. Thick darkness covered the sky, gusts hit raw, piercing wind, pouring fine slanting rain. Since the mail coach, Darwin went to Shrusberri. Father, glancing his manly figure, with satisfaction said:
- Here's what you are! Well, what seemed to trip went good for you.
Darwin began to go through boxes of collections. What's there just was not! Herbarium plants, bones of extinct animals, cans of snails, insect boxes and a whole bunch of scribbled notebooks - his diary. All this required processing
. Some time Darwin was living in London, then married and moved with his family in County Down - a small secluded town near London.
. Now his interest is not individual species, and the mutual respect between them, their adaptability to the environment
. Previously described species as they were now needed to find out how and why they become so. Here fossils. The farther back centuries, the smaller the extinct animals like the modern. How obyasnitN Apparently, the animals changed. But there was a process izmeneniyaN It is important to know - this was a clue to the emergence of new species. Darwin no longer believed in the divine 'Let there be', he admitted that 'the natural course of things'.
The answer to the question of how new species arise, Darwin was searching for a practical human. He studied the work of livestock breeders, he was engaged in breeding chickens and pigeons, watching the diet of insects and pollination of plants, carried on an extensive correspondence with men of science and practice, read many books.
. Studying the history of breeding different breeds of horses, chickens, sheep, Darwin found that many species originated from one or a few wild species
. Changes related to changes in their conditions of life: food, climate and t. d. Man selects animals and plants from the useful to the revised. The man himself, as Darwin thought, can not create these changes, their nature is, but man only combines these gifts of nature, selects their. With the selection of accumulated and amplified helpful person changes, and this leads to the improvement of the old breeds and varieties and to produce new.
. But there are new species prirodeN selection can speak not only for prearranged plan, but without him, without a clearly recognized goal
. This person not only selects the best, but destroys those who do not meet his needs or tastes. Consequently, not every creature was born, could survive and give the world the offspring.
And what about the natural usloviyahN Every whether the test of the land will develop in the germ rastenieN Everyone I appeared in the nest the chick becomes an adult ptitseyN No. But who vyzhevetN Obviously, someone who would be more suited to the conditions of life. But in nature there are no inspectors. Who otbiraetN
Selection takes place by itself, naturally. Yes, the word is found: natural selection.
The farm selected by the human hand - this is artificial selection, in nature - the hand of time - natural selection. In nature, animals and plants are changing under the pressure of changed conditions of life. But not all the individuals of the same type of change, . and those, . who have some sort, . though slight, . advantage over the rest, . survive as a result of natural selection, . leave offspring and eventually supplant the less fit,
. Natural selection leads to the gradual accumulation and increased useful for the changes to improve the organisms and their adaptation to changing environmental conditions, as a result - to the emergence of new species
. Finally the fitness of organisms and the origin of species - what had seemed a mystery, a miracle that seemed to many a manifestation of 'wisdom of the creator' - found an explanation.
. According to legend, once seen as a dropped to the ground ripe apples, Newton discovered the law of universal gravitation.
. The economic rights has been the practice for Darwin to 'Newton apple', which led him to the right decision of the great issues of concern to the restless human mind - the emergence of new species in nature.
. In the minds of great scientists thought there was a bold leap: from Newton's - from an apple falls to the planet, rushing into the endless expanses of the universe, Darwin - from the methods of pastoralists - the laws that govern the living world
. He found a new and simple explanation of the mysterious phenomenon. For him personally, the question of the origin of species was resolved, but how little it meant! He represented the difficulties he will have to meet, proving his theory, but it explained too much to be false.
. It is not easy to explain why all living things adapted to life
. In 1858 Darwin received from the English naturalist Wallace, who was then in the Malay Archipelago, an essay 'On the varieties of desire infinitely removed from the original type'. In an essay outlining a theory similar to Darwin's theory of the. Darwin was struck by an amazing coincidence of his thoughts and Wallace. More than 20 years, with extraordinary depth of Darwin developed the question of the origin of species, and here ... ahead of him.
On the advice of friends, Darwin briefly outlined his ideas in the article, which, along with Wallace's essay was published in the Proceedings Lineevskogo Society. But these works did not attract the attention of scientists, and only one professor wrote the opinion, which said that everything new in the notes wrong, but all right - is not new.
. In the same year Darwin wrote a succinct statement of his theory, and the following year, when he was 50 years old, left a small green volume entitled 'The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Races in the Struggle for Life'
. The book was sold out in one day. The success was enormous.
Some scientists have compared the impression of the book with the flash of lightning, have lost their way a dark night, a man suddenly lights up the road. Others - with a bomb, which Darwin threw out his peaceful Agrobusiness homes in the camp of the enemy.
In France, scientists have reacted with disdain to the theory. German anti-Darwinists have released lead medal, on which Darwin was portrayed in an insulting caricature, with braying ears.
. English geologist Sedgwick indignantly said that this theory is nothing more than a chain of bubbles, and his letter to Darwin concluded: 'Now - one of the sons of monkeys in the past - your old friend'
. Since Darwin's theory undermined the foundations of religion, reactionary scientists set against the clergy had. A criticism of Darwin wrote to friends that the critic himself, perhaps, would not have to burn at the stake, but he would bring twigs and pointed to the black beast, as it is to catch. Catholic priests organized a special academy to combat the theory of evolution, calling it a 'bestial philosophy'.
Abuse and contempt of ignorant people upset Darwin, but he answered them. He valued only the opinion of people who respected.
Leading scientists greeted Darwin's theory with great enthusiasm. German biologist E. Haeckel wrote that after reading this brilliant book, he felt like 'veil fell from his eyes'. Young professor Huxley was ready to 'climb the fire' for a new idea. The path by which Darwin proposed to follow him, seemed to him not through the air from a web of threads, and a wide bridge, which can pass through many of the abyss.
F. Engels pointed out that Darwin dealt a severe blow to the idealistic notions of nature, proving that the organic world of today is the product of historical development, which lasted millions of years. He compared the merits of Darwin's discovery of the laws of nature with the merits of Marx, who discovered the laws of society.
Russian translation of 'The Origin of Species "appeared in 1864. Distribution of Darwinism in Russia coincided with the rise of the revolutionary movement, with the awakening of public consciousness Krymsokoy after the war, the spread of ideas of the great Russian democrats H. G. Chernyshevskogo A. I. Herzen, D. I. Pisarev. And although there has not been without attempts to turn the theory of 'incoherent heap of rubbish', but with the help of many popularizers of Darwin's theory became the property of the broad reading circles and was greeted thus showing compassion. D. I. Pisarev called Darwin's brilliant thinker and wrote, . Darwin says that the laws of nature so simple and so conclusively proves, . that every, . who read his book, . surprised, . as he thought of himself not long ago to such clear conclusions,
. But the main fighter in this battle of ideas was the book itself Darwin.
Years passed, and uchenie Darwin spilled torrents, sweeping away all obstacles in the way. Darwin had the good fortune in life to see the triumph of their children: to be held and the year that he had not received any awards.
In the last years of his life, Darwin felt particularly bad: he could not walk, all his tired. On the night of April 18, 1882 Darwin suffered a heart attack, he lost consciousness and came to himself, woke his wife and said quietly:
- I'm not afraid to die.
April 19, 1882 Darwin did not become. He was buried in London at Westminster Abbey - Tomb of the great people of the country. Half a century in fear
My name is Charles Darwin. I was born in 1809, studied and done a world cruise - and again studied ".
This is the memoir reflects life feat of the greatest scientist of the XIX century, the founder of evolutionary theory. His legacy all the more amazing when you learn that for nearly half a century he suffered, according to the latest findings of modern scholars, brutal chronic illness - anxiety disorder.
"attack", leading to stress
At school, little Charles is not very advanced in teaching, but with all his heart he loved poetry, music and nature. For the son of the English doctor, it was natural to enter the Medical Faculty of the University of Edinburgh. But medicine does not appeal to him, he is fond of zoology and botany, a lot rides on England, collects various collections. The father takes him to the Theological School at Cambridge University, but the theology is interested in the young Darwin's even less.
And after graduating from university he refuses career of a village priest and sent to the five-year voyage around the world on HMS Beagle ". May not be this journey, where Darwin formed as a biologist wide profile, he would not have the creator of the theory of the origin of life on Earth.
As a teenager, Charles Darwin, renowned for their power, endurance and agility, walking incessantly, jump over a pole, raised the level of his chin, easily endured hunger and thirst. During the "Around the World" was raised in the mountains, a lot of riding and has experienced natural disasters, including earthquake. But it turns out the secret malady, like a wound-up clock mechanism, was already committed in his body its dirty.
With 16 years of Darwin began to think about health problems and appealed to them throughout life. Available to him the symptoms, according to modern scholars - Thomas Barluna and Russell Noyes, - affect many organ systems, but most clearly expressed anxiety.
At the youthful age of Darwin in stressful situations experienced episodes of abdominal pain (abdominal pain). Later, in anticipation of trips to the "Beagle," he had experienced disruptions in cardiac activity and retrosternal pain. And after returning from a trip and starting to compile their observations and writing papers, he began to experience bouts of fear.
In the descriptions of his illness, Darwin is often referred to the periodic "attacks" that suddenly appeared and exhausted body. His personal physician, Dr. Lane, analyzing them, pointed out that the slightest stress or retreat to follow established practices in the patient resulted in dizziness, palpitation, general weakness and frustration often for many days.
Especially dangerous becomes a phobic situation, related to fears of new meetings, trips, speeches before an audience. They cause severe stress and substantial impact on work and social life of the scientist.
And what Darwin himself, as he resisted these atakamN
In 1839 Charles married his cousin, Miss Emma Vedzhvud, and found her happy family life and, subsequently, six children. But the noisy urban life became unbearable for him, and in 1842 the family moved to purchased an estate near London, Dawn, where Darwin lived 40 years' life of a hermit ". He barely left his house without being accompanied by Emma.
"The idea that I probably forever deprived of the best of pleasures - opportunities to explore a new area, - he wrote to his friend Lyell in 1849 - makes me moan". Fortunately, this apprehension was not fulfilled, and all subsequent years - until his death - have been in intensive scientific research and combating disease.
Courage, patience and perseverance with which Darwin led the research work, striking (in fact, according to eyewitnesses, all time spent in Downey, was not a day when he felt completely healthy). Question of the origin of species, he developed 21 years before they decided to publish his work. Hypothesis Pangenesis "- the result of 25 years of reflection on the causes of heredity. Work on the expression of feelings, he wrote 33 пЁп╬п╢п╟. One of the experiments on the earthworm lasted 29 years, and so on ...
It happened that, carried away by some experience and undermining their own strength, Darwin was forced to abandon all work and go to the doctor's gidropaticheskoe Lane, where the cold bath at least for a short period of time to improve his condition. Sometime during the many months he could work no more than 1 - 2 hours per day. But in order not to lose the "best of pleasures, he taught himself to the unchanging order in the classroom.
closer to the end
Over the years, the scientist had noticed a gradual withering away of the aesthetic inclinations, only one passion he retained until the end of life - love of nature. But the strength of Darwin all weaker. Sometimes he felt quite shattered by the fact that a long look at some flower in your garden. Increasingly, he became for a few days spent in bed, but did not leave experiments on plants.
Big fame scientist during his lifetime. Which was published in 1859 work "The Origin of Species" was sold out in one day. In the scientific world the name of Darwin sometimes put next to the name of his famous compatriot - Newton. Many foreign academies, including St. Petersburg, assign an honorary titles. Scientists visitors flocked to the Dawn, to meet with the great naturalist. However, towards the end of the life of Darwin, feeling the fear of loss of control and symptoms of depersonalization are close, almost entirely limited its contacts with people other than relatives.
Charles Darwin was very fond of his children and was proud of them. And yet - he was always tormented by the thought of a hereditary, as he thought, a disease that can be transmitted to children, these fears, fortunately, were not justified.
Doctors at the time, visiting Darwin put different diagnoses: from "latent gout and dyspepsia to possible arsenic poisoning and neurasthenia. Foreign scientists who studied the synthesis of the clinical picture of his disease, defined diagnosis: panic disorder - panic disorder. It is regrettable that during the life of Darwin did not have the effectiveness of antidepressants, which today affects the disease.
... In the spring of 1882, Charles Darwin fell ill just. Because heart aches every now and then lost consciousness. 17 April, he was still on his feet and he did another experiment on plants. 19 April scientist died. The last words of a man who spent nearly half a century in fear, were: "I'm not afraid to die."
He was buried in Westminster Abbey, really close to Isaac Newton. On the tombstone inscription: "Charles Darwin. Author of the book "The Origin of Species.