Vavilov NI( Distinguished Biologist)
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Biography Vavilov NI
N. I. Vavilov was born in Moscow on 26 November 1887goda.
How many outstanding scientists H. I. Vavilov soon became engaged in independent work. After graduation he entered the Moscow Vavilov Institute of Agriculture, where he began his active scientific work (now Agricultural Academy named K. A. Timiryazeva), where he graduated in 1911. His thesis "Naked slugs (snails), damaging fields and gardens in Moscow Province," published in 1910, was immediately appreciated and even awarded a prize of the Moscow Polytechnical Museum. In 1909, while still a student at 2-year student, he spoke at the ceremonial meeting of the Student Circle - Circle of Naturalists, - dedicated to the 100-th anniversary of Darwin, on "Darwinism and experimental morphology". Thus, even at the student's desk identified a number of Vavilov's scientific interests - from applied issues of agriculture to the most extensive theoretical issues in evolutionary biology. Even then many of his entourage, it was clear that he as a scientist and a great future. Later, one of his teachers, the great agricultural chemist Dr.. N. Pryanishnikov say about Vavilov: "We are not saying that he's a genius just because he is our contemporary" .2
Employment D. N. Pryanishnikova, at the end of the Institute, Vavilov also became a student and employee of the founder of the domestic breeding of crops, Professor D. L. Rudzinsky, who founded the breeding station of the Moscow Agricultural Institute. Nikolai Ivanovich luck at giants! It's always been a manifestation of mutual attraction. In addition to the D. N. Pryanishnikova and D. L. Rudzinsky, Nikolai Ivanovich in its first years of scientific development became friendly with such highly talented actors breeding and mycology, as C. I. Zhegalov and A. A. Yachevsky. Nikolai was in a galaxy of leading researchers beginning of the century.
Already in 1911 Vavilov tends to the Bureau of Applied Botany in St. Petersburg, which at the time was headed by P. E. Regel. Here he began with a study of wheat and then barley and other crops. He was already beginning to interest the wider issues of origin of cultivated plants. Moreover, in 1911 and in 1912 it was probably under the influence of work and. I. Mechnikov begins his research on the immunity of plants and fungal diseases, which he carries in overtime, led by a professor in a. A. Yachevskim laboratory in the Bureau of Mycology and Phytopathology. Striking performance Vavilov. According to eyewitnesses, he could work 18 hours a day. He possessed an amazing ability to concentrate the will and energy to work with the gambling frenzy. His frantic pace involuntarily attracted all those who work with him. "Life is short - have to hurry," - he said, as if feeling that fate gave him no time.
Already in the same charge in 1911 Vavilov to teach the students from high Golitsin agricultural courses.
He first introduces the elements of genetics and makes the classes so interesting that carries away the youth, awakens in her curiosity and genuine interest in science. In 1912, director Golitsin rates, D. N. Pryanishnikov offers Vavilov make the assembly speech. Not without emotion Vavilov delivers a speech entitled "Genetics and its relation to agricultural chemistry," which was published in pamphlet. In this speech, he convincingly demonstrates the practical importance of genetics. Without genetic selection was still imperfect, hybridization and artificial selection has been used largely in the blind, no justification for the laws of heredity and variation. But he said not only about the selection. He is interested in the origin and evolution of cultivated plants - a topic which has become one of the most important in his further studies.
Great importance for the scientific biography of Vavilov had a business trip "to complete their education in England in 1913, to William Bateson himself - one of the founders of genetics.
In 1914, Vavilov moved from England to France, where he became interested in the largest seed firms Vilmorenov. As more commercial enterprise, it has also conducted extensive breeding and seed work and, in particular, investigated the baking quality of wheat. Vavilov sent from France to Germany to work at the famous biologist - evolutionist Ernst Haeckel. Here he finds the war began, and it is not easily reaches of Russia, deprived of baggage with valuable books.
Upon returning from overseas trips, Vavilov in 1914 was elected professor Golitsin courses and summer courses at the same time led to the private farming in the Petrograd Academy of Agriculture. But the teaching activities in Moscow did not give him full satisfaction and leave little time for research. Therefore, the v1917 Vavilov decides to move in Saratov - Center for the Study of agriculture south-east Russia, where he works at the Higher Agricultural courses Saratov Society of Agriculture. Here he reads a course of private farming and breeding. In July 1918, Vavilov appointed professor and head of the department of private farming, re-organized the Saratov Agricultural Institute.
In 1918, Vavilov comes initiated the Saratov branch of the Department of Applied Botany. Despite understandable for those years of exceptional difficulties, Vavilov not only continues the study started, but continuously expanding the scope of works of applied botany. First of all, he continues to experiment, begun in Peter's Academy of Agriculture. This, in his own words, "immunity, hybrids and some phyto-geographical work". Vavilov, of course, particularly interested in the issue of immunity, especially the immunity pshenitsy.Osenyu 1918 Vavilov finished its work on the plant immunity to infectious diseases, and in early 1919 on the initiative of Dr.. N. Pryanishnikova it is published in Izvestia Peter Academy of Agriculture ". Article go with the inscription: "Dedicated to the memory of the great explorer of immunity and. I. Metschnikow. The problem of immunity worries Vavilov lifelong.
A major event in the life of H. I. Vavilov and historical event in science was the III All-Russia Congress of selection in Saratov. Here are 4 th July 1920 Vavilov spoke on "The law of homologous series in hereditary variation". It was one of the stellar clock scholar.
In March 1921, Vavilov, together with a group of employees moved to Petrograd. Begins a new stage in the scientific, organizational and social activities Vavilov. Soon a letter came from the United States with an invitation to the two Soviet scientists at an international congress on diseases of cereals. It was clear that we should go to H. I. Vavilov A. A. Yachevsky. But the question of the trip was decided not by scientists, Vavilov had to go to Moscow, where he visited various institutions, wrote letters, to persuade and prove to bureaucrats and chief clerk of the need to travel. But thanks to the energy and perseverance Vavilov, he manages to "break" this is so necessary for the country trip.
In the United States interested in the Vavilov Research cultivated plants and advances in breeding. His first and foremost interested in the work of the Bureau of Plant Industry in Washington. Of no less interest aroused and the success of American geneticists, particularly the famous T. G. Morgan and his staff, genetic studies which have attracted worldwide attention.
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