Nikolai Konstantinovich Koltsov( The founder of the national Experimental Biology.)
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Biography Nikolai Konstantinovich Koltsov
(3/15.07.1872, Moscow - 2/12/1940, Leningrad)
The founder of the national Experimental Biology. The first developed a hypothesis of molecular structure and matrix reproduction of chromosomes, anticipating the fundamental provisions of modern molecular biology and genetics.
In 1890, Mr.. entered Moscow University, graduating in 1894. 1 degree with a diploma and a gold medal for his essay "Hindquarters vertebrates". The University Koltsov specialized Professor MA Menzbir. Strong influence on scientific development and the interests of Koltsov had died early in the assistant professor, later professor of embryology and histology VN Lvov. As he wrote himself Koltsov, namely Lviv gave him - then a second year student - read the work of A. Weismann, "On the rudimentary way". From Professor NA Ivancova who taught the theory of evolution, and cytology, Koltsov took an interest in cytology. While the interests of Koltsov at the University focused on issues of comparative anatomy he read books and worked as Lamarck and Darwin, Weismann and Gegenbaura, Schopenhauer and Kant, and Spinoza Buckle. While a student he performed the work "Development of the pelvis in the frog and in 1894. reported on her breakout session on the All-Russia Congress of Natural Scientists and Physicians. summary of the report was first published work Koltsov. In the third year Menzbir invited him to write an essay on the gold medal "Belt hind limbs and hind limbs of vertebrates". Ring is the task: I read about 50 literary sources in different languages (even during my school years, he studied English, . German, . french, . later Italian), . and a handwritten calligraphic handwriting large format book encyclopedia volume of about 700 pages, . with a large number of skillfully made pen drawings,
. Original unpublished work that is stored in the library of the Institute of Developmental Biology RAS. While studying at the university, he traveled to various places in Russia, from the environs of Moscow and ending with the Crimea and the Caucasus.
After graduation in 1894, Mr.. it was left to prepare for a professorship. After the surrender in 1896. Master exams Koltsov went abroad (1897-1898) to work in the laboratory of W. Flemming in Kiel and at the biological station in Naples, Roskova and Villafranca. Communicating with scientists from different countries have played a major role in the future formation Koltsov as a researcher, . his departure from a purely comparative anatomical interest, . prevailing in the college years, . and ultimately led him to identify and study the fundamental problems of general biology,
In 1900, Mr.. he became assistant professor at Moscow University and in October 1901, defended his master's thesis "The development of the lamprey head, approved the Master of Zoology. After returning from the new two-year mission (1902-1903) Koltsov assumed his duties as a privat-docent at the university department of comparative anatomy, conducting classes with students of histology and microscopic Zoology. During this period he began a series of investigations in a new area - Cytology. In 1936, Mr.. released a compilation of experimental studies "The Cell", to complete this work.
In the revolutionary days of 1905. Koltsov entered the circle, eleven hot-heads ", which was led by astronomer Sternberg. The suppression of revolutionary events is directly reflected in the official position Koltsov. Conflict began with MA Menzbir. Koltsov was unable to defend his doctoral thesis on the structure of sperm decapod crabs and the role of education, determine the shape of cells. "I refused to defend his dissertation on such days behind closed doors: the students were on strike, and I decided that I do not need a PhD. Later, his performances during the revolutionary months, I completely upset its relations with the official professors, and the idea of protecting the thesis has not crossed my mind ". At the beginning of 1906/07 uch. g. Mensbir Koltsov proposed release of the study, which he was, took it to The management of the library, and in spring 1907. selected and workroom. Koltsov remade the laboratory his personal apartment. In 1909/10 uch. g. Koltsov Mensbir removed from practical training at the Institute of Comparative Zoology. For Koltsov have only lectures on the rate of Invertebrate Zoology, which read in 1904. In 1903, Mr.. He began teaching at the post of professor of women's courses before 1918, when they were converted in the Second Moscow University and continued teaching professor at the Second Moscow University until 1924, Mr.. At the same time (1903-1919) Koltsov gave lessons in the City People's University. AL Shanyavsky.
Taught at the University for Women Koltsov continued interest in university affairs. He issued a pamphlet "On the issue of university" (in 1909 and 1910.), Which criticized that prevailed in the universities orders. In early 1911. new Minister of Education Kasso deprived the university of the last vestiges of autonomy. In protest, a large group of professors and teachers (Timiryazev, Chaplygin, Lebedev, Vernadsky and others) had resigned, among them was Koltsov.
Beginning its work in the heyday of descriptive biology and the first steps of Experimental Biology Koltsov finely felt trends in biology and early realized the importance of the experimental method. He preached the need for experimental approach in all areas of biology and predicted its use even in the theory of evolution (not contradicting the experimental methods of descriptive). It was not a simple biological experiments, but the use of methods of physics and chemistry. Koltsov has repeatedly stressed the paramount importance of biology for the discovery of new forms of radiant energy, in particular X-ray and cosmic rays, wrote about the use of radioactive substances. To study the organism as a whole, should use all the latest knowledge in the field of physical and colloid chemistry, it is necessary to study single molecule within the cell layers and their role in a variety of transformations of substances. "Biologists are waiting for these methods (X-ray analysis) will be improved so that it will be possible with their help to examine the crystal structure of the intracellular skeleton, solid structures of protein and other measures". This idea was prophetic, and feasible in the opening by X-ray analysis of the structure of DNA molecule. Prophethood was another idea Koltsov, in which he also went from biology to chemistry. Proceeding from the developing to their submission, . that each complex biological molecules like it comes from existing molecules, . he predicted, . that chemists will go towards the creation of new molecules in solution, . containing the necessary components of complex molecules, . by making them ready-made primers molecules of the same structure,
. He wrote: "I think that the only way can synthesize proteins in vitro, and in fact is not any, but definite, t. e. synthesis are pre-planned ". Koltsov did not leave the idea of organizing a new research institution - the Institute of Experimental Biology.
In 1916, Mr.. He was elected a corresponding member of RAS. In the same year was the Society of the Moscow Scientific Institute, outlining the organization of several scientific institutions in t. h. for Experimental Biology. In 1917, Mr.. Institute was created and Koltsov was its first director (in 1967. undergone various renaming Institute was divided into the Institute of Developmental Biology and Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of. Severtsov). During the period from 1917 to 1940. The Institute became a true center for the creation of several new areas of biology and approaches for the synthesis between them.
In the field of view Koltsov constantly on the issues of genetics. In 1921. he published experimental work "Genetic analysis of color in guinea pigs". Undertake genetic studies on Drosophila. In these papers, the scientist saw the establishment of an essential link between genetics and evolutionary theory. Subsequently, work began on chemical mutagenesis.
Koltsov deeply understood the importance of genetics to animal husbandry practices. In 1918, Mr.. he organized Anikovskaya genetic station specializing in the genetics of farm animals. Somewhat later, was organized in the Tula region another station on the poultry. In early 1920,. Both stations were merged into one. In 1925, Mr.. station was named the Central Station on the genetics of farm animals, whose director in different years was the ring and its students. The immense merit Koltsov that he attracted to work at the station a lot of talented people later known as the creators of entire areas in genetics and breeding of individual species of farm animals.
After the revolution in 1918. Koltsov returned to Moscow University (now called the first) and taught at the professorship until 1930, zaveduya Department of Experimental Biology. Back in 1930. from his business trip abroad, he learned that during this time abolished courses, which he read. But based on his chair 5 chairs emerged, led by his disciples: physiology, histology, genetics, dynamics of development of Hydrobiology.
In 1927, Mr.. a meeting of the Commission for the Study of Natural Productive Forces of Russia (kepse) AN where it was decided by the need for the All-Union Institute of Livestock. The Institute was opened in 1930. and its composition, as a sector of Genetics, Breeding joined Central genetic station became the first Head of sector Koltsov. In 1935. He was elected academician of Academy of Agricultural Sciences and was awarded a doctorate in zoology.
In recent years, life scientists have been overshadowed by attacks on some of the fundamental tenets of modern biology and a number of areas such as genetics, cytology, etc.. They began to deny the role of chromosomes in heredity, those chromosomes whose study Koltsov devoted much of his scientific activities. Being the largest figure in the field of genetics and cytology Koltsov, along with Vavilov took over the brunt of the pounding waves and antigenetic antidarvinovskogo dogmatism. In 1938. Koltsov resigned as head of the Institute of Experimental Biology, to whom he gave 22 years of life.
Since 1972, Mr.. Academy of Sciences began to hold regular Koltsovskaya reading. Institute of Developmental Biology RAS named Koltsov.