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Levy-Bruhl (Levy-Bruhl) Lucien

( The French philosopher, sociologist and social psychologist)

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Biography Levy-Bruhl (Levy-Bruhl) Lucien
(1857-1939) French. philosopher, sociologist and social psychologist. member Franz. Academy of Sciences, made famous by the discovery of qualitative changes in thinking in the process of socio-historical. Development. In 1879 he graduated from the Ecole Normale Supц?rieure, he taught philosophy. In 1904 the chair of the history sovr. philosophy at the Sorbonne, and later here - Institute of Ethnology. In the first period of his creative. activities involved in the history of philosophy, wrote a series of works ( 'Germany from the time of Leibniz, the experience of the formation of th. consciousness ', 1890:' The philosophy of Jacobi ', 1894;' Unpublished letters DS. Mill to O. Comte ', 1899;' philosophy of Auguste Comte ', 1900,' Morality and the science of morals', 1903). Already in these works can be traced his interest in history. change and social conditioning of consciousness and human behavior and the planned convergence of Sociology. school of Durkheim, to-ing, sharing the fundamental idea of the author, praised the book by L.-B. 'Morality and the science of morals'.
The second period of creativity, which brought AL-B. worldwide fame and did not die on this day the scientific controversy surrounding his studies of primitive thought, was marked by the emergence of classical. works: 'Thinking about the function of the lower-wah' (1910), 'primitive mentality' (1922), 'primitive soul' (1927), 'Primitive Mythology' (1935). The reason for the sharp turn in the research was the introduction to 'History. notes' kit. historian Sima Qian and the 'Golden Bough' Frazer. Under their impression of LA-B. immersed in the study etnogr. materials and for the next years of his life thoroughly justified his ch. idea - Qual. differences primitive thinking of logical. thinking sovr. civilized man.

AL-B. contrasted his views' postulate 'Tylor, according to a-rum' thinking about the lower-wah is subject to the same logical. laws that our '. In fact, believed L.-B., primitive thinking distinguish four features: it is mystical. and pralogich. nature and obeys partitsipatsii (communion), to-ing controls the collective representations. The contents of primitive thought is mystical, because it reflects the objective properties of things and phenomena, and expresses sacral-fetish and mythological. meanings and values to the rye-are credited with a human. team. Calling primitive thinking pralogichnym, L.-B. not consider it dologichnsh, illogical or antilogichnym, but only indicates that it 'does not seek, like our thinking, to avoid contradictions', ie. should not dictate the laws of formal logic. Obeying the law instead of ownership, primitive thinking 'is everywhere sees the most raznoobr. forms of transmission properties through the transfer of contact, transmission distance, through contamination, defilement, master '. His semantic units are not concepts, and collective representations (a key term in the school of Durkheim, to-ing at the LA-B. is largely different meaning). Essentially it is about mythology and ideologeme - specificity. stereotypes of consciousness (historian William K. Nicholas believed that 'primitive mentality' in LA-B. - Characteristic of the ideology. forms of consciousness). These structures are extremely stable and, as noted L.-B., 'impervious to experience', and the man in the power of collective representations of this kind, deaf to the arguments of common sense and a stranger to the objective criteria. AL-B. emphasized that all these features are characteristic of primitive thinking only of collective representations, and not thinking at all backward peoples.

His concept of Kutch. change in thinking in the process of its history. development of LA-B. opens with the three fundamental propositions: 1) thinking and mentality are variable in accordance with the cultural-historical. changes humane. ob-va, 2) primitive thinking is qualitatively different from the scientific to the four above-mentioned parameters (the original LA-B. primitive thinking contrasted the civilized way of thinking about the islands, . but later clarified, . that open their difference does not characterize the whole thinking of the two phases compared Societies, . Development, . as - 3) thought is fragmented, . heterogeneously in any culture, . any human being: 'There are two forms of thinking humanity, . a pre-logical, . other logical, . separated by a blank wall, . but is decomp,
. thinking, the structure, the rye-exist in one and the same for-ve and often, perhaps always, in the same mind '. He believed that the nature of 'primitive mentality' persists in the moral and religious. consciousness sovr. Rights.

AL-B. failed to satisfactorily explain to them the realities of the open (as evidenced by his constant search for a new understanding). In essence, he investigated two different structures (and functions) of consciousness - Epistemological and axiological targeting comprehension of the objective and subjective values of the human reality. These structures of consciousness involve the use of different semiotich. and on operational means mastering the existing reality: poznavat. and utility (value-relevant). Last act in 'primitive thought' in the mystified and mythologized form of bizarre symbolic. and metaphorical frame, emotionally saturated, and soon followed by associative logic than formal. Nevertheless, the founder of structural anthropology of Levi-Strauss has shown that AL-B. was wrong, denying the existence of logic in the mythological. consciousness: the latter having the potential to generalize, classify, analyze and continuously operates a so-called. binary oppositions.

In articles written in the last years of his life and published posthumously, L.-B. refused hypothesis pralogich. thinking, but retained the belief in the existence of open Qual. differences in the thinking of people decomp. cultural-historical. times and tried to find a new, more accurate and appropriate ways to describe them.

The concept of AL-B. had a mean effect on genetic. epistemology M. Piaget, my analysis. Jungian psychology, sociology, Scheler. In Russia, theor. of LA-B. attracted interest from AA. Bogdanov and Bukharin, on the other hand they used to justify Marr developed his' yafetich. theory of language '. Works LA-B. attracted the attention of scientists decomp. schools and trends and served as a fruitful stimulus to the development of cultural and historical. approach to the analysis of a human. psyche.

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