Murdock (Murdock), George Peter( American anthropologist)
Comments for Murdock (Murdock), George Peter
Biography Murdock (Murdock), George Peter
(1897-1985)-American. anthropologist, researcher and cultural problems of the Society. He was educated at Yale University, those in charge there from 1938 Department of Anthropology. Worked independently, avoiding the influence of school Boas. Focused on creating a methodology to-heaven would be applicable in sociology and anthropology, and with the help of a swarm, could explore the culturally determined human behavior. I also felt ODA. influence of evolution-Lutz. theory, translated into English. language work it. evolutionist Lippert 'Evolution of Culture'. In an earlier article 'The Science of Culture' saw anthropology as empirical. science, defended the legality kulturologich. approach. As a theoretical M. studied the problem of managing social and cultural phenomena, the problem of kinship and social organization. Gathering materials for research, became interested in cross-cultural approach. In order to make possible the reasonable cross-cultural comparison, initiated the creation of cross-cultural surveys at Yale, then drew the participation of many other in-you. Since 1960, cooperated with the University of Pittsburgh that. In 1962. founded the publication (later Intern. Journal 'Ethnology'), dedicated to the publication cut-ing field research anthropologists.
Preparation of materials for comparative studies took most of Professor. of M. He worked on a system of indexation etnogr. materials over bibliografirovaniem etnogr. Information. Classification of the huge amount of information on decomp. cultures stimulated the development of cross-cultural studies, contributed to the emergence of a trend in Amer. (not only) Anthropology. All investigated elements of culture were recorded using a formalized record to-heaven was developed M. and bring them to the foundation HRAF (areal kartoteka humane. Relations - Human Relations Area File). For the first time these data have been widely published in the form of 'etnogr. Atlas', published in 1967 and represents a set of tabulogramm for more than 600 cultures. M. formulated a number of creatures. concepts, including: the concept of universal cultural model, the evolution of kinship systems. Explaining the concept of universal model of culture, M. noted that in anthropological. theory focused on the study of cultural differences that are attributable to t.zr. stages of development, diversity geogr., economical. and social conditions, racial features, unpredictable connections cultural elements, the characteristics of the individual, enshrined in childhood, etc.. Similarities obtained theor. support only when they are treated as exceptions to the universal cultural diversity. The cases of similarity due to the transfer of cultural elements by migration, spread through communication and borrowing, as the cut-t effects identical geogr. factors etc.. Universal similarity of cultures did not attract much attention of researchers. As a common denominator of cultures, M. considers human psihofizich. nature-cerned to a single plan lays the foundation humane. Culture. The concept of the evolution of kinship systems described in the book 'Social Structure'. M. believed that all forms of kinship are determined environmental conditions that determine, in turn, farms, type and sexual division of labor. Different types of relationship. organizations evolve in different directions depending on changes in environmental conditions. The terminology of kinship, according to M., completely deterministic relationship. relationships. He conducted field research in Africa, introduced beings contribute to the development of ADF. ethnography.