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Niebuhr (Niebuhr) Reinhold

( The American Protestant philosopher and theologian)

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Biography Niebuhr (Niebuhr) Reinhold
(1892-1971) - Amer. Protestant philosopher and theologian. After graduating in 1915 theological. Seminary in Eden studied at Yale University are. In 1928-60 Professor. KHrist. theological ethics in the United. Seminary in New York. Author of more than 1500 articles and 16 books. Until 1966 edited the magazine 'Christianity and Crisis', propagate ideas of the Protestant neoortodoksii.
In the center of the teachings of N. problems sovr. Industrial ob-va, the crisis of religion, human problems, the revival of its culture. Its activities can distinguish several stages. The first period (1915-27) is associated with enthusiasm the ideas of social evangelism, including 'cultural Protestantism', are to-cerned in bringing religion to the culture. Analyzing the history of Christianity in the context of the general history of culture, viewed Protestantism as a higher level of spare. Culture.

In 'acculturation' of religion and, respectively, in the Christianization of the culture of the early N. saw the source of social optimism. He insisted that God is immanent in culture and acts as a partner in the process of human cultural and historical. Creativity. He took part in the 'Brotherhood of Christ. social order ', to-Roe in 1928 became part of the' Fellowship of Reconciliation ', where H. also played a prominent role. At this time he published the book 'Do religiyaN civilization' (1927) and 'Pages from a diary humble cynic' (1929), a rye-brought him fame in America. Book 'Moral Man and Immoral about-in' (1932) marked a break with previous ideas, criticized the industrial civilization. Short-term infatuation 'KHrist. Marxism 'is replaced by an active development program neoortodoksii and theology of crisis, as reflected in his publications.

Great influence on the formation kulturologich. views of the mature N. has neoortodoksiya, which appeared in Germany in the early. 20-ies.: One of its theorists, Tillich, was invited to the U.S. in 1933, the brothers Niebuhr. Disagreeing with U. Raushenbushem and other representatives of social evangelism, rejecting the positive assessment of secular culture, to-heaven was typical of the 'cultural Protestantism', H. focused on the contradictory nature of culture and human nature. 'Pious and secular America' - under that name in the 50-ies. was published Sat. Article. and essays H. It was a time when many West. thinkers have speculated about the processes of secularization of culture, the crisis KHrist. religion, the instability of its position in an age of soulless civilization. 'The irony of history', according to H., was the contradiction between the optimistic. rights and aspirations of the bitter experience of his life. The cause of 'irony' in accordance with Christ. H tradition. saw in humane. Freedom. In his book 'The Nature of Man and its communica-va' H. criticized the two trends interpretation problems of human freedom: 'realism' and 'idealism', respectively, associated with Protestantism and Catholicism. During this period he has adapted a model of culture presented in the works of the founder neoortodoksii Karl Barth. From the recognition of the fundamental irreligious culture, the impossibility of correlation of philosophy and theology H. under the influence of Tillich turns to the modeling of culture and human sovr. culture, to-rye received greater recognition in amer. theological. modernizme.Dlya sovr. culture is characterized by external opposition secular and secular. To explain the causes of the crisis of culture N. drawn to Christ. the concept of original sin, complementing its recognition of universal, ontologich. the nature of sin, to-ing is generated by the 'creaturely', the natural essence of man and leaves its imprint on all the activities of people.

H. regarded man as a dual contradictory creature, both associated with the natural world, changing, finite and the world divine, eternal, transcendent. In a human. identity are inextricably linked and interpenetrate the desire for self-affirmation and self-giving that reflects the essence of the paradox of Christ: 'Anyone who cares about his life will lose it, but whoever loses it for my sake shall find it'. Man is difficult to make the situation between mortality and eternity, and hence the anxiety, to-Roe permeates all of creation of man, his culture, pushing the secular and religious. N. believed that in the Amer. culture of peaceful coexistence between religions. and secular elements not only possible but necessary. From the standpoint of dialectical. theology developed the idea of 'KHrist. realism ', according to a-rum overcome the negative effects of a human. freedom, creative. acts by means of atoning sacrifice of Christ.

N., building on the ideas neoortodoksii, gave an original interpretation of KHrist. ethics as 'impossible possibility', based on a swarm-developed the concept of love. Have been critical of the unilateral views of love as 'the phenomenon of redundancy' in the work of Fromm and distinguished three kinds of love: unselfish love ( 'agape'), mutual affection and love for the calculation. Only the 'agape' expresses the deities, the path of love and is not just an ideal, but in its highest expression acts as a loving God. It is 'agape' gives true meaning and purpose of a human. life and culture. One should strive not to create some kind of an ideal socio-cultural spheres in the ground, and go to the kingdom of God, the transcendent-Roe history as a providential its purpose, but to-Roe is the essence of true KHrist. Culture

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