Ratzel (Ratzel) Frederick( German scholar, one of the founders antropogeografii)
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Biography Ratzel (Ratzel) Frederick
(1844-1904) - It. scientist, one of the founders antropogeografii, representative school of geography in sociology and anthropology. Studied in decomp. un-max Germany, in 1868 received a Doctor of Philosophy in Heidelberg. un-te. From 1875 his life - a typical career Academic. location: until 1886 he taught at Tech. un-te in Munich (from 1876 prof.), in 1886 he was invited to Leipzig University Press, where he was professor of geography before his death. The scientific legacy of R. extremely large: his pen belong to 25 major works and over 500 articles. The most important works: 'ethnology' (1885-88), 'Antropogeografiya' (in 2 volumes, 1882-91), 'Paulette, geography' (1877) and "Earth and Life '(in 2 volumes, 1901-02).
Influenced by the ideas it. geographer to. Ritter and naturalist M. Wagner, P. considered of the Society and Culture decomp. People in close connection with the natural conditions. Inextricable link between culture and natural environment, between man and 'land' - the fundamental principle developed by him antropogeografii. In the history of science P. came primarily as one of the most prominent representatives of geogr. determinism. But it's not quite true: in the later works (beginning with T. 2 'Antropogeografii') Department of Geography. determinism was it significantly reduced, and his approach was very similar to the theory of 'possibilism' P. Vidal de la Blasha. Cultural factor in history. development discussed in the later works along with geographic, to-rye is often relegated to the background. Biologisms early works gave way to the Philosophy. comprehension humane. culture and its development to-Roe can make P. among the founders of cultural-historical. Schools. Antropogeografiya conceived R. as part of the biogeography and he believed that getting 'full picture of the earth' requires the inclusion of humane and. spirit. In addition, antropogeografiya understood as a dynamic. science and was designed to highlight the Natural Science. and cultural history of mankind through the study of different peoples of the land and their culture in connection with the Department of Geography. conditions of their habitats.
The theme of unity and integrity of humanity runs through all the scientific work of P. He sharply criticized theories of race, thought it necessary to include in the history of mankind TN. neistor. (written language) peoples; only Tourist Office. becomes possible reconstruction of 'universal history of culture'. All peoples are the bearers of a single 'primary and prehistory. culture ', have a common cultural heritage that includes language, reason, religion, fire, weapons, tools, etc.. Numerous. similarities in different cultures is explained as the remnants of this 'primary culture'. Each Dep. culture of its elements associated with 'deep history. roots', and thanks to all cultures' are arbitrarily 'influenced' the differing conditions of development '(historical. circumstances and the local Department of Geography. conditions), from which emanate the differences in customs, as well as his political and economical. institutions of different peoples.
P. distinguish 4 types of influence geogr. conditions for culture and his political organization of people: immediate. effect on the body and the spirit of individuals, created through the duration of exposure Financials. and spiritual characteristics of the people, the impact of the spread of peoples in the space, the impact of the spread of peoples in the space for preservation or disappearance of certain of their identity, the impact on the 'inside. structure of the national organism ', ie. in particular his political and economical. system. The most important environmental factors that impact on the culture, P. considered geogr. location, climate, soil, topography, proximity to the sea, etc.. Even in a developed culture, to become inde-paradise, a factor of history, every nation is closely linked with their environment. However, the ratio of the natural and cultural factors, historical changes.
In the early stages of human history geogr. factor plays a decisive role, and the struggle with nature is the most important stimulus of. Terms of crops are constancy of work, . increase in population density (multiplier contacts between people), . link between generations (allowing consolidation of inventions and discoveries, . transmission and enrichment of cultural heritage), . and the accumulation of excessive wealth (due to the rum-occurs leisure for cultural creativity and the special 'class of intellectuals', . OCH,
. occupation to-cerned is cultural work). Most favorable to the cultural development of peoples were moderate climatic conditions. belt (first of the Mediterranean region, and then the whole of Europe), which developed the highest culture and traditional cultural (istor.) peoples. Development of culture frees man from 'the pressure of nature': if 'wild' peoples' relationship with the soil and the dependence on the random nature of very large, . that civilized peoples are relatively independent of the pressure of natural conditions and greater freedom in the manifestation of their creative,
. forces. In the cultural-temperate zone centered cultural history of the last three millennia, and the influence of the civilized peoples of the West is the determining factor sovr. human development.
P. the first time in the history of science in his writings raised the issue of migration of peoples and the diffusion of culture. He believed that the relentless movement is a property rights, and that results from the spread of peoples and cultures on the earth's surface - a fundamental fact of. With t.zr. R., in many cases, the similarities in the cultures of different nations can be explained by diffusion. To study the diffusion of P. used 'shape criterion': if two elements of different cultures were similar in shape, . this is due to their common origin and subsequent movement from one place to another through migration or contact between nations (whether direct or indirect),
Criticizing the notion of 'race' and realizing all the difficulties associated with the classification of peoples, P. considered more appropriate for the study of cultural history review of large groups of people and introduced to this concept of 'community of peoples' (or' cultural zones'), under to-understand eq 'large areas of the same climatic. conditions, cultural area, located around the globe in a belt '. Later, this idea was developed in the theories of 'cultural circles' (Frobenius, Graebner, in. Schmidt, in. Koppers) and 'cultural area' (E. Sapir, Kroeber, K. Uissler).
In this paper, 'Paulette, geography' and otd. sketch P. introduced the concept of 'living space' (Lebensraum). The idea was that each of the of (state of) was seen as a quasi-body, attached to ODA. 'living space' and struggling to expand its space with other state-by you during periods of growth and life-lifting, . when the state of not able to be retained in its existing borders and the problem of its survival can only be accomplished through expansion,
. This concept is used P. to explain his political development of peoples and was part of its Environmental. history patterns. dynamics. R. was infinitely far from its practical. watered, applications.
The value of ideas P. in the history of science is ambiguous. His writings, distinguished by thoroughness and entsiklopedich. coverage, long regarded as a rich and valuable source of geogr. and etnogr. data to date, many of these data are recognized as obsolete. Theor. Heritage P. often simplified:
the idea of the impact of geogr. factor in cultural development, one-sided Torn from t. 1. 'Antropogeografii' and popularized in such form it amer. posledovatelnetsey E. Semple, marked the beginning of Amer. invayronmentalizmu and yielded R. not a well-deserved fame 'geogr. determinist '. The concept of 'living space', in the coarse-grained treatment of the Swede. scientist P. Chelana became DOS. notion of geopolitics K. Haushofer, and was used to justify territorial. expansion of the ideologists of the Third Reich. However, a number of ideas P. (cultural circles, the diffusion of culture) have been fruitfully used in such fields of anthropology, as diffusionism, the theory of 'cultural circles' and 'cultural area'. Views R. largely determined the development of human. Geography in the 20. It can be seen as one of the forerunners of sovr. Ecology. Worthy of deep respect and then, with a passion for R. defended humanist. ideals in his sermon on the unity and integrity of mankind.