Redfield (Redfield), Robert( American ethnographer, one of the founders sotsioantropologii)
Comments for Redfield (Redfield), Robert
Biography Redfield (Redfield), Robert
(1897-1958) - Amer. ethnographer, one of the founders sotsioantropologii, Prof.. Chicago. Zap. In the 20-ies. began many years of field research among the Indians of North. America. In trying theor. synthesis of the collected material applied to the methods of sociology, becoming one of the prominent representatives of Chicago. Sociology. Schools. Following Malinowski, together with Kroeber, Radcliffe-Brown and others. helped transform the ethnography of the auxiliary. hist. disciplines (history for 'neistor.', in DOS. unwritten, peoples) in the separateness, the type of Sociology. Research. Simultaneously methodology. level developed an understanding of ethnography as part of anthropology, the science of a human. on the islands, combining history, sociology, cultural studies.
In the center of theoretical and methodological. researches P. were issues of social and cultural evolution of a human. on-in, in the scientific and Practical. He paid for DOS. attention to the latest stage of this evolution. Processes of transition to sovr. lifestyles and forms of social organization P. considered in the spirit of methodological. tradition 'ideal polar types', indicating as their predecessors D. Maine ( 'family-individual'), F. Tennis ( 'common ob-vo'), M. Weber ( 'traditional-rational'), Durkheim ( 'mecha. solidarity - organic. solidarity '). The most well-known theory. formula developed by P. within this tradition, the dichotomy became 'popular' and 'urban' of the Society ( 'folk society - urban society'). The first type is different from the second social indivisibility and uniformity of 'folk' culture, isolation from the outside world and self-sufficiency. He represented the 'primitive world', the process of transformation to-cerned walked through the social and cultural differentiation, leads to a 'rural-urban continuum'. The city became DOS. driving force of social change and cultural change.
To assess how changes and nature of the evolution. process P. proposed the concept of cultural-historical. continuum of 'great' and 'low' traditions. The first - reflected, 'the tradition of philosophy, theology, lit-ry', it is analyzed and processed, cultivated in special institutions - schools and churches. The second is a direct way of life of ordinary people, cultivated in village communities. Traditions are interdependent and mutually nourish each other. 'Big' tradition crystallizes, consolidates and summarizes what has been accumulated 'low', and returns it to the fruits of their activities. So there is unity of culture at a higher, compared to 'primitive' folk, the level of civilization.
Building on the concepts of 'small' community ( 'little community') and 'low' traditions, P. came to the category of 'peasant on the islands' and 'peasant culture', to the rye-analytically occupied a middle position in the dichotomy of 'popular on-in - on the city of', incorporating the features of both types of polar. Having received the definition Kroeber ( 'part-of-in a part-culture'), P. developed the interpretation of the peasantry as a semi-autonomous islands in the communication of civilization, where the hegemony belongs to the city. R. was the predecessor krestyanovedeniya which emerged in the 60-ies. integrated civilized approach to the agrarian history of mankind and the agrarian system of the Society. Representing the peasantry as a universal social type, and the farmer as a special type of humane. individual P. identified as the most universal tipologich. traits that unites all these stories. and cultural geogr. types of farmers, farming as a 'means of livelihood and way of life'.
P. made a significant contribution to the urban-sotsiologigo, developing the idea of 'primary' and 'secondary' urbanization. His work reflects took place in the 40-ies. transition ethnographers, anthropologists from concentrating on the 'primitive' community with the simplest social organization to the study of decomp. components sovr. civilization. The writings of R. anthropological. science declared itself not so much the subject of study as a holistic human approach. Inheriting evolutionism characteristic of preceding ethnography and classical. sociology P. revised it means an element of cultural relativism. In the spirit of gumanistich. tradition of the New Age R. defended the value of all humane. cultures, regardless of the stages of evolution, the K-ryh they were. Characteristic of him was critical. relation to decomp. manifestations sovr. civilization, to the alienation and anomie, to-rye yielded concentrations of people in big cities, the destruction of local cultures and local traditions.