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Tylor (Tyior) Edward Barnett

( English ethnologist, explorer of primitive culture)

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Biography Tylor (Tyior) Edward Barnett
(1832-1917) - English. ethnographer, explorer of primitive culture, one of the founders and the leading representative of the evolutionary trends in ethnology. During the trip to Cuba (1855-57) under the influence of a passionate lover of antiquities and art patron, the banker Mr.. Christie T. imbued with an interest in archeology and ethnography. He taught himself etnogr. lit-py and mastered the ancient languages (Latin, Greek, et al., Hebrew). Already in 1861 published his first scientific work, but four years later the book 'Studies in the ancient history of mankind', in a swarm-found sufficiently clear expression of DOS. idea of evolutionism. In 1871 was published Chapter. work of his life - 'Primitive Culture'. In the same year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Ob-va. In 1881 he published his latest book, 'Anthropology (Introduction to the study of man and civilization'). Two years later he won his first of their official. post - has become the custodian etnogr. Museum at Oxford. un-te. In 1884 he was appointed lecturer in anthropology, Oxford University Press, 1886 - Associate Professor, Aberdeen, Unt. Long-term work T. preparation ethnographers culminated in the establishment of Oxford University are the Department of Anthropology, the first professor to-swarm, he became in 1896. Acknowledged head of English. School of evolutionism in ethnology, he remained until 1907, when mental illness forced him to move away from science. In books T. written over 250 articles.
The desire to comprehend and organize large amounts of data about the life of nations, to-rye at the time were generally called savage, barbaric, or simply retarded, has resulted in decomp. kind of evolutionary concepts. With the emergence of evolutionism ethnography first became a science. She began to include not only empirical, but also the theory. For some ethnographers OCH. the subject of evolution was a culture, for others - for in -. T. belonged to the first. Hd. its task T. seen to reveal the patterns of development of culture in general. This evolution, he understood as a natural-history. process occurring on the objective laws. Not being an atheist, he proceeded from the fact that in the studied area they are natures. only natures. causes. It is obvious that by studying the data of archeology and the study of life sovr. Retarded people can reconstruct the DOS. stages of development of a human. Culture. The evolution of mankind went from barbarism to civilization over barbarism. It was a postulate, development that does not preclude temporary setbacks. As an essential tool for the reconstruction of the past at T. spoke openly of a recurring cultural phenomena in space and time. This method later became known as tipologich. comparison and has become an important aspect of comparative-historical. method. Dr.. means of penetration into the past - a widely used T. method remnants. And although the remnants of a culture of writing and to the TV, the very notion became a science only with the appearance of his works.

Culture, according to T., is developing a force acting in her estestv. reasons, it is divided into several regions, each to develop self-ryh. There are several independent evolution. series. T. not deny the existence of material culture, but regarded it as a derivative of the spiritual culture. His definition of culture is the definition of spiritual culture. Of all the cultural phenomena Chapter. He paid attention to religion. All his 'Primitive Culture' essentially devoted to the emergence and evolution of religion. Initial form of religion, 'a minimum of religion', he thought faith in spiritual beings, to-ц¦цЁц+ he called "primitive animism '. It emerged in sharp those savages attempt to explain the phenomena of sleep and death. They believed in the existence in each man a special substance - the soul to paradise-can temporarily or permanently leave their corporeal shell. Subsequently the notion of the soul developed the idea of spirits, who embody the forces of nature, animals and plants. Further evolution of animism produced the appearance of polytheism, to-ing subsequently evolved into monotheism. For his time, the concept of T. a huge step forward. In essence, this was the first truly scientific theory of the origin and development of religion, based at the huge etnogr. material. Although it is now generally obsolete, much of it left everlasting.

Incorrect to assume that after the stirrup, take-off 'primitive culture' T. mainly engaged in the development and popularization of parts. After the appearance of L.G. Morgan 'ancient Reports of' (1877) T. drawn to the study of societies, institutions, ie. in fact, following Morgan, shifts the focus from culture to in -. Interested in the open-Morgan classification systems of kinship and launched using a follower of Morgan English. ethnographer L. Faysonom the idea of dual organization, T. doing things, a step forward in the development problems of race and exogamy. In the article 'On the method of studying the development of institutions: applied to laws of marriage and descent' (1889) and 'matriarchal family system' (1896), he concluded, . Originally that., . original form of exogamy is a division of people into two half vzaimnobrachuschiesya,
. In dual-clan organization, he saw the source of the classification system of kinship Turano-ganovanskogo type and found an explanation bilaterally (bilateral) cross-cousin marriage. Unlike L. Faysona he believed that the dual-tribal organization did not emerge in those sharp division Originally. humane. team into two halves, but rather from a combination of two previously completely inde, man. groups. And as shown by further studies, in particular Britain. ethnographer U.H. Rivers, he was closer to the truth than A. Fayson.

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  • Igor Novikoff for Tylor (Tyior) Edward Barnett
  • Nobody knows where you can download his books in Russian? This is especially true of his work "Primitive Culture." It is very necessary.
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    Tylor (Tyior) Edward Barnett, photo, biography
    Tylor (Tyior) Edward Barnett, photo, biography Tylor (Tyior) Edward Barnett  English ethnologist, explorer of primitive culture, photo, biography
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