Frobenius (Frobenius) Leo( German anthropologist, Africanist)
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Biography Frobenius (Frobenius) Leo
(1873-1938) - It. anthropologist, Africanist. Working scientifically-Eng. employee of Bremen, a museum, became interested in African cultures, Multi base. years studying them for museum collections and literary world; published book. 'Origin of ADF. cultures' (1898), immediately place it among the largest Africanists. In 1904, he managed to raise the funds to make his first expedition to Africa (in the basin. Kasai and Bas-Congo). It was followed by 11 expeditions a large scale in the course to-ryh was a wealth of materials on archeology, history and culture of the peoples of Africa. Since 1925 F. settled in Frankfurt, where researchers created. in-t on the morphology of culture (in 1946 renamed the Institute of Frobenius). F. - A talented organizer of science, which raised African Studies at the new, higher stage of development.
Already in the 'Origin of the AFR. cultures' F. the first time in etnogr. practices introduced on a large scale and strictly systematic method for mapping of cultural phenomena. A series of maps attached to the book so far is undoubted scientific value. F. in this paper has attempted to identify within the African cultural province-( 'circles'), each of the k-ryh characterized by a number of features, Chapter. arr. from the sphere of material culture. Along with Ratzel F. was the founder of the concept of cultural circles, a-paradise in the future was picked up by F. Graebner, B. Ankermanom and widespread. But unlike the last F. understood the cultural circle not as a simple set of cultural phenomena, but as a coherent set of. Highlight 'Zap.-AFR. cultural circle ', F. drew attention to the strike, the similarity of many of its features with the culture of New Guinea, etc.. regions of Melanesia. Ascribing the origin of this culture of South-Vost. Asia, he called it 'Malayo-nigritskoy'. By F. in Africa were two more "Asian." culture: the earlier 'Indian', exerted a great influence on North. and the North-East. Africa, and later 'Semitic', to some extent affected the North. Africa. Under all of these 'alien' cultures surviving only hid the wreckage of an ancient 'nigritskaya' culture, in common with the culture of Australia and the most ancient layers of Oceanic cultures. From the mixing of the culture with the 'Malayo-nigritskoy' and 'Asian' was born a fundamentally new, specific only to this continent 'AFR. Culture '.
T. Fr., F. created a new, as opposed to evolutionism, an approach to etnogr. material, to-ing was called diffusionism. According to this view, the whole history of mankind was reduced to the phenomena of contact, collision, borrowing, transfer of cultures. New crops occur in behavior has had contact, interaction and mixing of cultures, rather than their evolution.
Developing the idea of the integrity of cultures, F. came to the conclusion that each of them represents a particular organic. being. 'I say, - he wrote - that each culture develops as living organisms, it is, therefore, is experiencing the birth, childhood, adulthood and old age and finally die'. The notion of islands in the concept of F. no. Therefore, culture can not serve him as a product of the Society, it does not create any people or nations. No culture - the product of people, but rather, on the contrary, people are products of culture. 'The whole process of development of culture is manifested in its true independence from the man ... Culture grows by itself, without rights, without the people '. People - just media, more precisely, the bearers of cultures, not more. U V. there is no def. concept of world history, based on the notion of local culture. But surely the impact of the above views of the F. on historical. construction Spengler.
Developing the 'morphology of culture', F. highlights in her 'anatomy of culture' and 'physiology of culture', culture gives the floor, and then a special kind of soul, a Rui-he calls 'paydeuma'. Application of these new conceptual ideas to the analysis of Concrete. cultures, especially in Africa, leads to the fact that his schemes are increasingly at odds with reality. In Africa, he identifies' tellurich. " and 'htonich. " culture: first, as it strives upward, and the second is inherent desire to dig in and t. n.
Job F. apparent contradictions inherent. While it rules out the recognition of stages of development, common to all mankind, he was always trying to create a common periodization of world history. According to one of them, in the history of mankind there are four stages: childhood, for to-cerned characterized demonology and mythological. culture, youth - the era of the great religions (Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and t. n.); maturity - the time of the philosophy that ruined the harmony between man and the world, old age - the era of science and technology, while materialism of the industrial-in.
In the book. 'The power of fate' F. develops the ideas that resonate with the Nazi. The second edition of the book (1938), he welcomed 'him. revolution '(t. e. Hitler's coup), which launched 'upgrade' of Germany.