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FRASER, James George (Frazer James George)

( English anthropologist, folklorist and historian of religion)

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Biography FRASER, James George (Frazer James George)
(1854 -1941) - English. anthropologist, folklorist and historian of religion, representative of classical. English. Social Anthropology. He was educated at the universities of those Glasgow (1869-74) and three threads College, Cambridge (1874-79). From 1879 until the end of his life working in Cambridge University are from 1907 - Professor. Social Anthropology. In 1907-08 Professor. social anthropology at Liverpool Zap.

Basic Fixes. work, which brought him international fame, 'The Golden Bough' (1-ed. in 2 vols., 1890; 12-volume edition., 1907-15; reduction. 1-volume edition ed., 1922). In this book, compiling and organizing a large withdrawals. material on the primitive magic, totemism, animism, taboos, religious. beliefs, folklore and customs of different peoples. F. a 'desk' scientists and almost never left England, most of which:. the material he received from the missionaries who lived in the colonies, using the special mailing questionnaires.

F. attempted to develop a universal theory of the evolution of a human. thinking. According to this theory, starting from the recognition of mental. unity of all peoples, humanity is in its evolution, three stories. stage, corresponding to the three qualitatively decomp. way of relating to nature, realizing the human desire to establish domination over the natural phenomena: магич., rel. and scientific. Магич. thinking suggests that the natural world is governed by impersonal and immutable laws, and sees the presence of causality between the ritual practices and natural events. Магич. beliefs are based on thinking by analogy and superficial associations, the belief that this may be caused by such underlies магич. procedures to-rye, with t. sp. магич. thought to cause certain desirable changes in the external world, displayed in these procedures. Магич. thinking, based on wrong reasons and therefore ineffective in controlling natures. forces behind the place of religion. thinking, personifying these natures. forces, the belief that the world managed sverhestestv. substance. To accomplish our goals, people must ask for help from the gods and make sacrifices. The third stage of development of a human. thinking - the science that studies the real causal relationships of phenomena and applies to this logical-experimental methods, knowledge of the real reason allows a person to establish real control over nature.

F. put forward other theories: the origin of the myth of the ritual, of the 'king-sorcerer', possessing магич. force for the welfare of the tribe: he must be subjected to ritual murder, when his forces will go on the wane, so магич. strength of the tribe moved to a more powerful successor to regard Christianity with the ancient cult of the dying and resurrected gods, etc..

Score Proceedings F. in modern. Anthropology ambiguous. Theories F., being a product of 'armchair anthropology', have been criticized and largely refuted by subsequent research field anthropologists (Y. Ridgeway, Evans-Pritchard, Malinowski, Boas, and others). However, these theories advanced for its time, had a great influence on the intellectual community; generally acknowledged the huge contribution F. in the institutionalization of social anthropology as an independent Academic. discipline and its popularization. Merit F. - And an introduction to anthropology, compares. method. His 'Golden Bough' retains its value as a rich source of which:. material def. taxonomic value has proposed a classification of types of magic.

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FRASER, James George (Frazer James George), photo, biography
FRASER, James George (Frazer James George), photo, biography FRASER, James George (Frazer James George)  English anthropologist, folklorist and historian of religion, photo, biography
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