Avicenna (Ibn Sina)( Outstanding Central Asian scholar, philosopher, physician)
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Biography Avicenna (Ibn Sina)
Avicenna (980-1037) - a prominent Central Asian scholar, philosopher, physician. His real name of Abu Ali Husain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina. He was born in the village п░п╡я┬п╟п╫п╟, near Bukhara.
Bukhara was then the capital of a large state Samanid. It built magnificent temples - a mosque, it would come the educated people - philosophers, architects, doctors, poets, she was famous for its rich library of the palace.
Avicenna's father was quite wealthy official, and soon the whole family moved to the capital.
Hardly expected home, looking at the little boy that he is waiting for the glory of a brilliant doctor and a famous philosopher, wanderer on the fate of the caravan routes ... But in childhood Avicenna impressed everyone with his abilities in the sciences.
'... When I was ten years old, "he told himself, - I have already finished with the study of the Quran (Koran -' holy book 'of Muslims) and many philology, so I wondered'.
At this time, arrived in Bukhara elder scientist who became a tutor Avicenna. Under his leadership, the boy was supposed to study jurisprudence and mathematics, philosophy and astronomy. Very soon, 'for whatever issue he neither spoke to me - told Avicenna, - I imagine this issue better than he himself'. Old scientist had to find income elsewhere, but not for years educated the boy began to study science itself.
Fourteen he became interested in medicine, read all the medical treatises, which can be found in Bukhara, was to visit patients, and the most difficult. It is believed that drew him to his medical well-known at the time the physician Abu Sahl Masihi, author of 'Emiya, or a hundred book chapters', which for many physicians was then a textbook of medicine. Masihi - follower of the famous ancient physicians Hippocrates and Galen - had a great influence in shaping the views of Avicenna.
When the palace became seriously ill emir, the head of state, court doctors could not cure him and invited seventeen Avicenna. The treatment proposed by the boys was successful. Soon Emir recovered. Avicenna also was appointed personal physician to the emir and received the right to use the famous court library. 'Before I opened the gates to such a depth of knowledge about which I knew nothing of it' - he said.
The young disciples of Avicenna appear, this is often gray-bearded old men, they try to write every word of his teacher. At age 18 he began to correspond and to enter into discussions on physics, philosophy, astronomy, with top scientists of the East, including from the Central Asian encyclopedic scholar Biruni.
In 20 years of Avicenna - already the author of several books: a vast encyclopedia, which tells about the natural sciences, books interpretations of laws, consisting of 20 volumes, books on ethics, multi-volume medical dictionary.
Bukhara in those years living out the last peaceful days. State fall apart, and soon captured the capital of the Turkic nomadic tribes, Karakhanids. The city was looted, the library burned ...
At this time his father died of Avicenna. Avicenna with the trading caravan traveled to distant Khorezm.
The local governor - Khwarizmshah patronized scholars, in his palace, they often met for debates. Following Avicenna in Khorezm profit Biruni and Masihi. For several years, scientists have peace and an opportunity to do science. They questioned the physical and chemical experiments, watched the fall of meteorites. However Masihi Avicenna secretly continued to study the structure of the human body. This can be done only on cadavers and autopsies were here, as in many countries, is punishable by death, then.
In a few years of a cruel and perfidious ruler of the vast neighboring state, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni asked scientists to his capital, so that they 'have found the presence of honor' at a meeting of the Sultan. In fact, many independent-minded scholars and poets every day in the court of the Sultan threatened to death.
Avicenna and the old doctor Masihi refused to go to the Sultan and the same night ran across the sands of the Kara-Kum. On the third day they blew a hurricane. They lost, lost food and water. Old Masihi died in the wilderness. Avicenna buried him, and he was saved by a miracle.
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni sent to all the towns physical description of Avicenna. Anyone who would identify the location of a brilliant doctor, would have received the award. So Avicenna wandered for several years, moved from town to town, ate only a practice of medicine at the inns. He had to be called a false name. Wandering, Avicenna continued to work hard and wrote a dozen books.
Sometimes he stayed for a year or two, a small ruler, had treated his family from all kinds of diseases. But everywhere Avicenna overtook the ominous shadow of the Sultan, and he had to flee again.
Finally, in 1016, Mr.. He stopped in the city of Hamedan. This city was once known as Ecbatana was the capital of the ancient and prosperous State Media. At the time of Avicenna city fell into decay and became the capital of a rural small state ruled by emirs semiliterate. Avicenna soon became head physician of the ruler, and then the Chief Minister - vizier.
As before, all six years of living in Hamadan time it started early in the morning and ends when all had long slept. Here he finished the first volume of his main work - 'Canon of Medicine', 'Canon of Medicine' consists of five volumes. All medical knowledge that is accumulated by the time people that can carry these books.
The first volume, the theory of medical science, anatomy, diagnosis, physiology, surgery. This book describes the acute and chronic diseases and ways to treat. Second volume told of simple medicines. They almost eight. The roots and bark of many trees can help people fight the disease. The third and fourth volumes describe the disease of human organs, talk about how to treat. How to treat fractures of the skull, nose, jaw, collarbone, ribs - this, too, says Avicenna. In the fifth volume dealt with complex medication. The structure of some of them is up to 37 parts. Many drugs are given with reference to the ancient physicians, European and Asian. Others - the first time prepared and tested Avicenna.
The new information, previously unknown to medical science, met in the 'canon' on every page.
Only more than 800 years, the French scientist Pasteur confirmed the hypothesis of Avicenna on viruses as pathogens invisible 'fever' (infectious) diseases. Avicenna has created a doctrine of the pulse, which since it was difficult to add something. 'The pulse may be sinuous and spindly, dvuhudarny, a long, trembling, short, small, slow, ant. Pulse is also soft, intense nervous, low, ramp, full, empty ', - says the' canon '.
Avicenna described the first plague, cholera, jaundice, analyzed the causes, symptoms and treatments of serious diseases like meningitis, gastric ulcer, and many. He explained in detail the structure of the eye muscles. Before him, everyone thought that the eye, like a flashlight emits a special rays, these rays are reflected from objects, go back and give the image.
In the 'canon' Avicenna wrote about the need for a comprehensive education of the child so that it grew out of a kind, intelligent, skillful and physically healthy man.
Very soon, 'Canon' is medical encyclopedia in the world. After the invention of the printing press 'Canon' print immediately after the Bible. In Europe and in Asia for many centuries been taught by his doctors. Lechebnik and herbalists Ancient Russia also consistently cited the name of the scientist 'Avis', give him recipes.
Last Volume 'Canon' was written in another city - Isfahan. Between the first and the last volume - about ten years of hard work. And they were not to Avicenna years of rest. During his vezirstva rebel commanders, and Avicenna was almost killed, his friends hid. After the death of Avicenna was thrown into prison. In prison he continued to work hard. For four months he has written three books, one of which - a philosophical novel 'Alive, the son of a watcher' - has influenced many medieval writers.
Among the books written by Avicenna, not only basic medical treatises, and books on astronomy, mathematics, music theory, theory of geology, philosophical writings, books on linguistics and feature stories. Avicenna introduced many new areas of human activity. Some serious scientific books he wrote as a poem, sounding shaped poems. Is the beginning of the poem about medicine 'Urdzhuza':
'Poets - Princes of the Universe, the doctors led body. The eloquence of the above pleases the soul, devotion to the past to cure diseases.
This poem contains all the theoretical and practical medicine. And in it, I set out in verse, all my knowledge of this science '.
Many of the books of Avicenna disappeared without a trace, were killed in fires. About them we know only by hearsay. Some are buried in treasures, are unsolved, and, possibly, their humanity opens.
About him stories, sing songs. He became a hero tales.
Avicenna died in road. Poluznakomy man wrote his words testament. All his belongings Avicenna ordered to distribute to the poor, the servants set her free.
More than 900 years, people took care of his grave. Every morning, his mausoleum, the scientists gathered the elders and young men, came sick, who believed in the miraculous healing from just one touch of the ancient tomb of the great healer.
In 1954, according to the Muslim calendar, filled with a thousand years since the birth of Avicenna. At the urging of the World Peace Council, this date marked in many countries. In the Iranian city of Hamadan was inaugurated the new mausoleum of Avicenna. At the opening of the mausoleum among the scientists of the world attended and the Soviet delegation
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